Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27.899
Filtrar
1.
JAMA ; 328(5): 460-471, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916842

RESUMO

Importance: Malaria is caused by protozoa parasites of the genus Plasmodium and is diagnosed in approximately 2000 people in the US each year who have returned from visiting regions with endemic malaria. The mortality rate from malaria is approximately 0.3% in the US and 0.26% worldwide. Observations: In the US, most malaria is diagnosed in people who traveled to an endemic region. More than 80% of people diagnosed with malaria in the US acquired the infection in Africa. Of the approximately 2000 people diagnosed with malaria in the US in 2017, an estimated 82.4% were adults and about 78.6% were Black or African American. Among US residents diagnosed with malaria, 71.7% had not taken malaria chemoprophylaxis during travel. In 2017 in the US, P falciparum was the species diagnosed in approximately 79% of patients, whereas P vivax was diagnosed in an estimated 11.2% of patients. In 2017 in the US, severe malaria, defined as vital organ involvement including shock, pulmonary edema, significant bleeding, seizures, impaired consciousness, and laboratory abnormalities such as kidney impairment, acidosis, anemia, or high parasitemia, occurred in approximately 14% of patients, and an estimated 0.3% of those receiving a diagnosis of malaria in the US died. P falciparum has developed resistance to chloroquine in most regions of the world, including Africa. First-line therapy for P falciparum malaria in the US is combination therapy that includes artemisinin. If P falciparum was acquired in a known chloroquine-sensitive region such as Haiti, chloroquine remains an alternative option. When artemisinin-based combination therapies are not available, atovaquone-proguanil or quinine plus clindamycin is used for chloroquine-resistant malaria. P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi are typically chloroquine sensitive, and treatment with either artemisinin-based combination therapy or chloroquine for regions with chloroquine-susceptible infections for uncomplicated malaria is recommended. For severe malaria, intravenous artesunate is first-line therapy. Treatment of mild malaria due to a chloroquine-resistant parasite consists of a combination therapy that includes artemisinin or chloroquine for chloroquine-sensitive malaria. P vivax and P ovale require additional therapy with an 8-aminoquinoline to eradicate the liver stage. Several options exist for chemoprophylaxis and selection should be based on patient characteristics and preferences. Conclusions and Relevance: Approximately 2000 cases of malaria are diagnosed each year in the US, most commonly in travelers returning from visiting endemic areas. Prevention and treatment of malaria depend on the species and the drug sensitivity of parasites from the region of acquisition. Intravenous artesunate is first-line therapy for severe malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Malária , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Artesunato/efeitos adversos , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954866

RESUMO

Mountain sports are continuously gaining popularity, currently fueled by the post-pandemic period expanding travel opportunities and the desire to escape the increasingly hot environmental conditions of urban areas-ambient temperature decreases by about 6 [...].


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Viagem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1466, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding non-epidemiological factors is essential for the surveillance and prevention of infectious diseases, and the factors are likely to vary spatially and temporally as the disease progresses. However, the impacts of these influencing factors were primarily assumed to be stationary over time and space in the existing literature. The spatiotemporal impacts of mobility-related and social-demographic factors on disease dynamics remain to be explored. METHODS: Taking daily cases data during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the US as a case study, we develop a mobility-augmented geographically and temporally weighted regression (M-GTWR) model to quantify the spatiotemporal impacts of social-demographic factors and human activities on the COVID-19 dynamics. Different from the base GTWR model, the proposed M-GTWR model incorporates a mobility-adjusted distance weight matrix where travel mobility is used in addition to the spatial adjacency to capture the correlations among local observations. RESULTS: The results reveal that the impacts of social-demographic and human activity variables present significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity. In particular, a 1% increase in population density may lead to 0.63% more daily cases, and a 1% increase in the mean commuting time may result in 0.22% increases in daily cases. Although increased human activities will, in general, intensify the disease outbreak, we report that the effects of grocery and pharmacy-related activities are insignificant in areas with high population density. And activities at the workplace and public transit are found to either increase or decrease the number of cases, depending on particular locations. CONCLUSIONS: Through a mobility-augmented spatiotemporal modeling approach, we could quantify the time and space varying impacts of non-epidemiological factors on COVID-19 cases. The results suggest that the effects of population density, socio-demographic attributes, and travel-related attributes will differ significantly depending on the time of the pandemic and the underlying location. Moreover, policy restrictions on human contact are not universally effective in preventing the spread of diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Demografia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(8): 1150-1153, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922246

RESUMO

Economy class syndrome (ECS) refers to a series of symptoms, such as lower limb swelling, chest pain, dyspnea, and sudden death, that occur during or after a long-distance flight. Its essence is venous thromboembolism. ECS, as a preventable syndrome, is one of the causes of sudden death in long-distance travelers. Medical assistance to the African region is a very important diplomatic matter of China. It often takes medical workers more than 10 hours of long-distance flight to reach the recipient country. Therefore, it is essential to improve the understanding of ECS and corresponding prevention strategies among the long-distance traveling people including medical workers assisting Africa, which could guarantee their health and ensure the smooth implementation of the work of assisting Africa.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita , Viagem , África , China , Humanos , Síndrome
5.
Am J Bioeth ; 22(8): 42-44, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917416
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 6120511, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909820

RESUMO

In our study, through consulting, summarizing, and analyzing a large number of related literature studies on tourism consumer behavior, tourism big data, text data analysis, and so on, a framework of research ideas on tourism consumption was constructed. The train browser, NLPIR, and other software packages are used to crawl, preprocess, and mine the travel sample data, and the word frequency analysis, co-occurrence analysis, content analysis, sentiment analysis, network analysis, and other methods are used to analyze the characteristics and decision-making behavior of tourists. Based on the results of behavioral analysis, we proposed tourism development strategies from three aspects: reforming and promoting tourism marketing strategies, improving tourism product and service quality, and improving tourism destination management methods. The results show that (1) for the tourist characteristics, taking into account the factors of climate and geographical location, the domestic market is divided into four grades of markets, and different marketing strategies are adopted according to different market characteristics; (2) for the tourism decision-making behavior, a "push-pull resistance" tourism decision-making model was established through word frequency analysis, co-occurrence analysis, and content analysis; (3) for the tourism consumption preferences, through network analysis of scenic spots, it is found that there are three tourist routes preferred by tourists; and (4) for the tourism perception evaluation behavior, based on the "cognitive-emotional" model, this study describes the tourism image from the two dimensions of the cognitive image and emotional image. Generally speaking, tourists show a positive perception state. The research on tourism consumer behavior based on UGC (user-generated content) data can help scenic spots and other tourism companies to understand the characteristics and rules of tourists' behavior, understand the consumption preferences of different tourism groups, develop diversified tourism products, improve the quality of tourism services, and further cater to market segments. This research provides a new idea for tourist attractions and tourism management departments to monitor tourist behavior through big data analysis.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Turismo , Big Data , Emoções , Viagem/psicologia
7.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(9): 9412-9436, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942766

RESUMO

Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the protection motivation theory (PMT), this study examines the factors that influence parental choice of school travel mode during COVID-19. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and a hybrid choice model (HCM) are used to analyze this decision-making process. The results show that trust, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived built environment, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control are significant factors. Perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, and the evaluation of pandemic risk, significantly impact the choice of public transit and private car, but not walking. Perceived built environment is the most critical factor influencing the choice of walking. The results provide a theoretical basis and reference for relevant government departments to formulate policies and measures during COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meios de Transporte , Viagem
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4784, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970983

RESUMO

Regional connectivity and land travel have been identified as important drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, the generalizability of this finding is understudied outside of well-sampled, highly connected regions. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of regional and intercontinental connectivity to the source-sink dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 for Jordan and the Middle East. By integrating genomic, epidemiological and travel data we show that the source of introductions into Jordan was dynamic across 2020, shifting from intercontinental seeding in the early pandemic to more regional seeding for the travel restrictions period. We show that land travel, particularly freight transport, drove introduction risk during the travel restrictions period. High regional connectivity and land travel also drove Jordan's export risk. Our findings emphasize regional connectedness and land travel as drivers of transmission in the Middle East.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Viagem
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 931401, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968464

RESUMO

Maternal and perinatal mortality remain huge challenges globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where >98% of these deaths occur. Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provided by skilled health personnel is an evidence-based package of interventions effective in reducing these deaths associated with pregnancy and childbirth. Until recently, pregnant women residing in urban areas have been considered to have good access to care, including EmOC. However, emerging evidence shows that due to rapid urbanization, this so called "urban advantage" is shrinking and in some LMIC settings, it is almost non-existent. This poses a complex challenge for structuring an effective health service delivery system, which tend to have poor spatial planning especially in LMIC settings. To optimize access to EmOC and ultimately reduce preventable maternal deaths within the context of urbanization, it is imperative to accurately locate areas and population groups that are geographically marginalized. Underpinning such assessments is accurately estimating travel time to health facilities that provide EmOC. In this perspective, we discuss strengths and weaknesses of approaches commonly used to estimate travel times to EmOC in LMICs, broadly grouped as reported and modeled approaches, while contextualizing our discussion in urban areas. We then introduce the novel OnTIME project, which seeks to address some of the key limitations in these commonly used approaches by leveraging big data. The perspective concludes with a discussion on anticipated outcomes and potential policy applications of the OnTIME project.


Assuntos
Big Data , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Viagem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960986

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although disparities exist in patient access to and outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are limited data regarding the relationship between travel distance and patient demographics or postoperative complications. METHODS: We identified patients who underwent TKA in Florida and New York between 2006 and 2014 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases. The American Hospital Association and UnitedStatesZipCodes.org Enterprise databases were further used to calculate distance traveled from patient population-weighted zip code centroid points to the hospitals at which they underwent TKA. Patients were grouped by travel distance: 25 to 50, 50 to 100, 100 to 500 miles, and greater than 500 miles. Patient demographic characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared between the travel distance groups. RESULTS: Older age, increased medical comorbidities, White race, Medicare insurance coverage, and living in zip codes with greater mean income levels were associated with greater travel distance (P < 0.001). There were no clinically significant relationships between various postoperative complications and distance traveled. DISCUSSION: Certain demographic variables are associated with increased travel distance to undergo TKA. These relationships were most pronounced at the extremes of distance traveled (>500 miles). These differences may indicate that specific patient groups are either electing to or being forced to travel notable distances for orthopaedic care. Additional research is needed to determine the causative mechanisms underlying these findings.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Idoso , Demografia , Humanos , Medicare , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Viagem , Estados Unidos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13600, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948595

RESUMO

The brachistochrone (shortest-time) curve is the path connecting two points that enables the shortest travel time. This work explores the "brachistochrone path" of fire spread connecting two points at the same altitude and with a fixed path length. The starting and ending points are connected by both thermally thin fuels (thin wires) and thermally thick fuels (PMMA bars). Flame-spread paths of triangular, rectangular, and circular shapes with different heights and inclinations are explored. Results show that having a local maximum flame-spread rate does not result in the shortest overall travel time. For thin-wire paths, the fastest overall-path fire spread occurs, when the upward spread path is vertical, and the path height reaches a maximum, as demonstrated by the theoretical analysis. Differently, for thick PMMA-bar paths, the brachistochrone condition occurs when the path length of the vertical upward spread reaches the maximum, because the upward spread is about ten times faster than the downward spread. This study extends the conventional problem of the fastest fire spread to the shortest-time problem of the whole fire path, and it may help optimize the fuel distribution inside the built environment and estimate available safe egress time in building and wildland fires.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Polimetil Metacrilato , Viagem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1512, 2022 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of adolescents worldwide are not doing enough physical activity for health benefits. Replacing short motorised trips with walking or cycling has the potential to increase physical activity at the population level. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of short distance motorised trips that could be replaced with walking or cycling, and the potential physical activity gains by sociodemographic and trip characteristics. METHODS: Data were from a subsample of the NEighbourhood Activity in Youth (NEArbY) study conducted among adolescents in Melbourne. A total of 217 adolescents with at least one motorised trip completed a survey and wore a Global Positioning Systems (GPS) device for eight consecutive days. Classification of travel modes were based on speed. GPS data points were geocoded in ArcGIS. Motorised trips within walkable (1.3 km) and cyclable (4.2 km) distances were identified (threshold based on 80th percentile of walking and cycling trip distances among Victorian adolescents), and the additional physical activity minutes that could be accrued by replacing walkable or cyclable motorised trip to active trips were quantified. Multilevel linear regression was used to assess differences in physical activity minutes gain by sociodemographic and trip characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 4,116 motorised trips were made. Of these, 17% were walkable and 61% were cyclable. Replacing motorised trips by walking and cycling resulted in estimated gains of six minutes and 15 min of physical activity per day, respectively. CONCLUSION: The sizable proportion of replaceable trips and potential physical activity gains from this shift calls for attention to improve safe and connected infrastructure to support active travel.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Meios de Transporte , Adolescente , Ciclismo , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Viagem , Caminhada
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954727

RESUMO

Mitigating climate change is a global challenge demanding effort from all sectors, and sports are no exception. While transportation is one of the key issues regarding sustainable sports, the methods by which children and adolescents get to practice have not received much attention. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to present how adolescents in Southern Norway travel to soccer practice and assess how the mode of transportation is related to sex, socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, and distance from home to practice. Cross-sectional data were collected from 558 adolescent soccer players (398 boys and 190 girls) representing 30 different clubs from settlements of varying rurality. While most of the participants lived within cycling distance from the field of practice, the majority opted for passive modes of transportation (55% passive vs. 45% active). A logistic regression analysis found that traveling distance and age were associated with active transportation habits, while sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were not. Further research is needed to examine the main barriers to active travel for this already active population, as active transport represents an opportunity for sports to become more sustainable.


Assuntos
Futebol , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Transporte/métodos , Viagem , Caminhada
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954743

RESUMO

According to recent research, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted road traffic quality. This study aims to analyze the impacts of COVID-19 travel restriction policies on the traffic quality of the national and provincial trunk highway network (NPTHN) in Shaanxi Province. We collected the traffic data of the NPTHN for three consecutive years (from 2019 to 2021), before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, including weekly average daily traffic, weekly traffic interruption times, weekly traffic control time, weekly traffic accidents, weekly traffic injuries, and weekly traffic deaths. Using descriptive statistics and dynamic analysis methods, we studied the safety and service levels of the NPTHN. We set up an assessment model of the NPTHN operational orderliness through dissipative structure theory and entropy theory to study the operational orderliness of the NPTHN. Results show that in 2020, the service level, safety level, and operational orderliness of the NPTHN dropped to the lowest levels. The pandemic was gradually brought under control, and the travel restriction policies were gradually reduced and lifted. The adverse impacts on the operational orderliness of the NPTHN decreased, but the operational orderliness did not yet recover to the pre-pandemic level. Meanwhile, the service and safety levels of the NPTHN did not recover. Taken together, the COVID-19 travel restriction policies had adverse impacts on the traffic quality of the NPTHN in Shaanxi Province.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acidentes de Trânsito , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , Viagem
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 1458408, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832253

RESUMO

This study designs a travel recognition and scheduling system using artificial intelligence and image segmentation techniques. To address the problem of low division quality of current point division algorithms, this study proposes a streaming graph division model based on a sliding window (GraphWin), which dynamically adjusts the amount of information (vertex degree information and adjacency information) referenced at each division according to the current division quality and division time by introducing a sliding window mechanism, to achieve the highest possible division while allowing loss of certain division efficiency. The goal is to improve the division quality as much as possible while allowing a certain loss of division efficiency. To meet the user's need to travel through multiple destinations with the shortest route, this thesis proposes a deep reinforcement learning actor-critic (AC)-based multiobjective point path planning algorithm. The algorithm builds a strategy network and an evaluation network based on actor-critic's multiobjective point path planning, updates the strategy network and evaluation network parameters using AC optimization training, reduces the reliance of the algorithm model on a large amount of high-quality label data, and speeds up the convergence speed of the deep reinforcement learning algorithm by pretraining, finally completing the multiobjective point access sequential path planning task. Finally, the personalized travel recommendation system is designed and implemented, and the system performance analysis is conducted to clarify the system requirements in terms of functional and nonfunctional aspects: the system architecture, system functional modules, and database tables are designed to conduct use case testing of the main functional modules of the system, and the usability of the attraction recommendation algorithm is verified through the concrete implementation of the functional modules such as attraction recommendation in the system.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Reforço Psicológico , Viagem
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(14)2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35890782

RESUMO

Almost two million Muslim pilgrims from all around the globe visit Mecca each year to conduct Hajj. Each year, the number of pilgrims grows, creating worries about how to handle such large crowds and avoid unpleasant accidents or crowd congestion catastrophes. In this paper, we introduced deep Hajj crowd dilated convolutional neural network (DHCDCNNet) for crowd density analysis. This research also presents augmentation technique to create additional dataset based on the hajj pilgrimage scenario. We utilized a single framework to extract both high-level and low-level features. For creating additional dataset we divide the process of images augmentation into two routes. In the first route, we utilized magnitude extraction followed by the polar magnitude. In the second route, we performed morphological operation followed by transforming the image into skeleton. This paper presented a solution to the challenge of measuring crowd density using a surveillance camera pointed at a distance. An FCNN-based technique for crowd analysis is included in the proposed methodology, particularly for classifying crowd density. There are several obstacles in video analysis when there are a large number of pilgrims moving around the tawaf area, with densities of between 7 and 8 per square meter. The proposed DHCDCNNet method has achieved accuracy of 97%, 89% and 100% for the JHU-CROWD dataset, the UCSD dataset and the proposed Hajj-Crowd dataset, respectively. The proposed Hajj-Crowd dataset, the UCSD dataset, and the JHU-CROW dataset all had accuracy of 98%, 97% and 97%, respectively, using the VGGNet approach. Using the ResNet50 approach, the proposed Hajj-Crowd dataset, the UCSD dataset, and the JHU-CROW dataset all had an accuracy of 99%, 91% and 97%, respectively.


Assuntos
Aglomeração , Viagem , Coleta de Dados , Islamismo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(14)2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891128

RESUMO

The ability to travel (independently) is very important for participation in education, work, leisure activities, and all other aspects of modern life. Blind and partially sighted people experience a number of barriers to travel, including inaccessible information and environments, and consequently require support from technology or other people to overcome them. Despite the potential of advanced technologies and the development of electronic travel aids, the long cane and guide dog remains the most commonly used solutions. Wearable technologies are becoming increasingly popular. They have the particular advantage of keeping the hands free, thereby facilitating the use of a long cane, guide dog or another device at the same time. They also have the potential to change the ways in which users interact with the environment. The main contributions of this paper are surveying the current state-of-the-art of travel aids from a design perspective and investigating the following issues: (1) The important design issues in wearable travel aids and the extent to which they are taken into account in different devices; (2) The relationship, if any, between where and how travel aids are worn and their design, features and functions; (3) Limitations of existing devices, gaps in provision and future research directions, particularly with regard to meeting potential users' needs.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Animais , Bengala , Cães , Humanos , Tecnologia , Viagem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897417

RESUMO

Once unplanned urban rail disruptions occur, it is essential to evaluate the impacts on public transport passengers since impact estimation results enable transit agencies to verify whether alternative transit services have adequate capacity to evacuate the affected rail passengers and to adopt effective emergency measures in response to the disruptions. This paper focuses on estimating the impacts of unplanned rail line segment disruptions on rail passengers as well as original bus passengers, as the latter are overlooked in existing studies. A method of identifying affected rail passengers based on passenger tap-in time is proposed, which is helpful for evaluating the scale and origin-destination distribution of the affected passengers. Passengers' response behaviors are analyzed and modeled in a multi-agent simulation system. The system realizes the simulation of the multimodal evacuation process, in which a rule-based logit model is employed to describe passengers' travel selection behavior and the Monte Carlo method is utilized to address the issue of uncertainty in passengers' travel selection. In particular, the original bus passengers are integrated into the simulation and interact with rail passengers. Finally, some indicators assessing the impacts on rail passengers and bus passengers are presented, and a case study based on the Ningbo urban rail transit network is conducted.


Assuntos
Meios de Transporte , Viagem , Comportamento de Escolha , Simulação por Computador , Método de Monte Carlo , Meios de Transporte/métodos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897467

RESUMO

As physical inactivity statistics for the U.S. population show an alarming trend, many health problems have been increasing among Americans in recent decades. Thus, identification of the factors that influence people's physical activity levels and health outcomes has become ever more essential to promote public health. The built envSFironment is among the main factors that impact individuals' health outcomes. However, little is known about the health impacts of built environment factors at large geographical scales such as those of the metropolitan area of residence. Further, the health impacts of travel behavior such as telecommuting and teleshopping remain unclear. This study uses an ecological model framework to probe the roles of travel behavior and built as well as social environments at different spatial levels in health. Instrumental variable binary probit models have been developed to examine the complex interlinks between measures of travel behavior, physical activity levels, built and social environment characteristics, and individuals' health outcomes. Findings indicate that built and social environment factors at different spatial levels, including the metropolitan area, are correlated with individuals' health outcomes. Additionally, the findings suggest that increased levels of telecommuting and teleshopping within communities may lead to unfavorable health outcomes. The findings shed light on the most promising policy interventions that can promote public health through modifications targeting people's travel choices as well as the built and social environments within urban areas.


Assuntos
Viagem , Caminhada , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Características de Residência , Meio Social
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...