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1.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208744, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586375

RESUMO

Christianity emerged as a small and marginal movement in the first century Palestine and throughout the following three centuries it became highly visible in the whole Mediterranean. Little is known about the mechanisms of spreading innovative ideas in past societies. Here we investigate how well the spread of Christianity can be explained as a diffusive process constrained by physical travel in the Roman Empire. First, we combine a previously established model of the transportation network with city population estimates and evaluate to which extent the spatio-temporal pattern of the spread of Christianity can be explained by static factors. Second, we apply a network-theoretical approach to analyze the spreading process utilizing effective distance. We show that the spread of Christianity in the first two centuries closely follows a gravity-guided diffusion, and is substantially accelerated in the third century. Using the effective distance measure, we are able to suggest the probable path of the spread. Our work demonstrates how the spatio-temporal patterns we observe in the data can be explained using only spatial constraints and urbanization structure of the empire. Our findings also provide a methodological framework to be reused for studying other cultural spreading phenomena.


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Disseminação de Informação/história , Mundo Romano/história , Viagem/história , Cidades , História Antiga , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Densidade Demográfica , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Viagem/economia
2.
Am J Public Health ; 108(11): 1462-1464, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252513

RESUMO

Despite not originating in Spain, the 1918 influenza pandemic is commonly known as the "Spanish flu"-a name that reflects a tendency in public health history to associate new infectious diseases with foreign nationals and foreign countries. Intentional or not, an effect of this naming convention is to communicate a causal relationship between foreign populations and the spread of infectious disease, potentially promoting irrational fear and stigma. I address two relevant issues to help contextualize these naming practices. First is whether, in an age of global hyperinterconnectedness, fear of the other is truly irrational or has a rational basis. The empirical literature assessing whether restricting global airline travel can mitigate the global spread of modern epidemics suggests that the role of travel may be overemphasized. Second is the persistence of xenophobic responses to infectious disease in the face of contrary evidence. To help explain this, I turn to the health communication literature. Scholars argue that promoting an association between foreigners and a particular epidemic can be a rhetorical strategy for either promoting fear or, alternatively, imparting a sense of safety to the public.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Saúde Global/história , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Viagem/história , Organização Mundial da Saúde/história , Xenofobia/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
J Travel Med ; 25(1)2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860445

RESUMO

Background: This study investigates tourist mortality at Lake Powell over a 46-year period. To date no comprehensive long-term investigation examining the relationship between the lake environment and tourist mortality exists. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of all tourist fatalities between 1959 and 2005. Results: There were 351 fatal incidents resulting in 386 deaths between 1959 and 2005. Over the 46-year period, the average number of fatalities was 8.4 (±5.26) per year. Out of all fatalities, 282 were classified as accidental, 80 were classified as natural deaths, 13 were suicides and 5 were classified as homicides. Males accounted for 80% of fatalities and tourists aged 20-29 years and 10-19 years accounted for 36% of all fatalities. The highest number of fatalities was recorded in July (74), May (64), August (63) and June (59). Out of all accidental deaths, boating (29%) and swimming (22%) were the most common pre-death activities. High winds capsizing boats and carbon monoxide poisoning from boat engines were common factors contributing to 31 boating fatalities. Fatigue and exhaustion contributed to 22 swimming deaths. Conclusions: Recreational boating and swimming account for over half of all accidental deaths. Tourists visiting Lake Powell for recreational purposes should be informed of the risks associated with the lake environment.


Assuntos
Acidentes/mortalidade , Lagos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Recreação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem/história , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Esportes Aquáticos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Lancet ; 389(10076): 1297-1298, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379151
6.
Nature ; 543(7644): 193-198, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277506

RESUMO

There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient 'Silk Roads' across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use 'flow accumulation' modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia.


Assuntos
Altitude , Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Geografia , Migração Humana/história , Gado , Seda/história , Animais , Arqueologia , Ásia , Geografia/economia , Pradaria , História Antiga , Estações do Ano , Seda/economia , Viagem/economia , Viagem/história
7.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43467, 2017 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28262733

RESUMO

Epidemics can spread across large regions becoming pandemics by flowing along transportation and social networks. Two network attributes, transitivity (when a node is connected to two other nodes that are also directly connected between them) and centrality (the number and intensity of connections with the other nodes in the network), are widely associated with the dynamics of transmission of pathogens. Here we investigate how network centrality and transitivity influence vulnerability to diseases of human populations by examining one of the most devastating pandemic in human history, the fourteenth century plague pandemic called Black Death. We found that, after controlling for the city spatial location and the disease arrival time, cities with higher values of both centrality and transitivity were more severely affected by the plague. A simulation study indicates that this association was due to central cities with high transitivity undergo more exogenous re-infections. Our study provides an easy method to identify hotspots in epidemic networks. Focusing our effort in those vulnerable nodes may save time and resources by improving our ability of controlling deadly epidemics.


Assuntos
Cidades/epidemiologia , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/transmissão , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidade , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Cidades/história , Comércio/história , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Redes Comunitárias/história , Simulação por Computador , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , História Medieval , Humanos , Peste/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Viagem/história , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Rev. clín. med. fam ; 10(1): 39-40, feb. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162532

RESUMO

Estas historias de la LIBRETA DE VIAJE DEL MÉDICO DE FAMILIA, que forman una biblioteca del médico caminante o viajero emocional, son hojas sueltas en las que se escribe sobre paisajes y emociones; son un atlas de geografía emocional. La evocación de un paisaje ante la asistencia a un paciente –montañas, ríos, valles, playas, mares, desiertos, mesetas, islas, pantanos, cascadas, dunas, bosques, salinas, lagos, etc.-, con las sensaciones sentidas por el médico, de calor, frescor, humedad, dificultad, agobio, serenidad, inmensidad, soledad, etc. No es un diario, sólo una libreta de apuntes con las vivencias del médico sobre los patrones y procesos de la consulta en un cierto caso clínico, que a su vez, puede ilustrar un prototipo de esa clase de casos (AU)


These stories of the THE FAMILY PHYSICIAN’S TRAVEL NOTEBOOK, which form a library of the walking doctor or emotional traveler, are loose-leaf pages with writings about landscapes and emotions; they are an atlas of emotional geography. The evocation of a landscape before attending a patient –mountains, rivers, valleys, beaches, seas, deserts, plateaus, islands, swamps, waterfalls, dunes, forests, salt marshes, lakes, etc.-, with the sensations felt by the doctor -heat, coolness, humidity, hardship, stress, serenity, vastness, loneliness, etc. It is not a diary, only a notebook with the doctor's experiences about the patterns and processes of consultation in a clinical case, which in turn may illustrate a prototype for this type of cases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Narrativas Pessoais como Assunto , Viagem/tendências , Viagem/história , Doença da Altitude/epidemiologia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/história , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/normas , Clima de Montanha
9.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 23(4): 1023-1040, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992051

RESUMO

This article examines the importance of travel and professional networks in the origins of Spanish psychiatry. After reviewing the early alienists' Enlightenment predecessors and their therapeutic and professional trajectories, it describes the trips to foreign psychiatric institutions made during the second third of the nineteenth century by a group of exiled Spanish doctors, commissioners and pioneers. Later, as they became more socially, institutionally and professionally established, some figures of Spanish psychological medicine cultivated their connections and international profile by organizing or attending conferences and other scientific events. This case illustrates the important role of international relations and scientific and professional networks in the spread of psychiatric discourses and practices.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional/história , Relações Interprofissionais , Psiquiatria/história , Viagem/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/história , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Médicos/história , Psiquiatria/educação , Espanha
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 23(4): 1023-1040, oct.-dic. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-828877

RESUMO

Resumen Este artículo examina la importancia de los viajes y las redes profesionales en los orígenes de la psiquiatría en España. Tras una revisión de los antecedentes ilustrados y los periplos terapéuticos y profesionales en el primer alienismo, se describen los desplazamientos a instituciones psiquiátricas extranjeras, durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX, de un grupo de médicos exiliados, comisionados y pioneros españoles. Posteriormente, con su afianzamiento social, institucional y profesional, algunas figuras de la medicina mental española estrecharon sus vínculos y su proyección internacional organizando o asistiendo a congresos y otros eventos científicos. Su caso ilustra así el importante papel desempeñado por las relaciones internacionales y las redes científicas y profesionales en la difusión de los discursos y prácticas psiquiátricas.


Abstract This article examines the importance of travel and professional networks in the origins of Spanish psychiatry. After reviewing the early alienists’ Enlightenment predecessors and their therapeutic and professional trajectories, it describes the trips to foreign psychiatric institutions made during the second third of the nineteenth century by a group of exiled Spanish doctors, commissioners and pioneers. Later, as they became more socially, institutionally and professionally established, some figures of Spanish psychological medicine cultivated their connections and international profile by organizing or attending conferences and other scientific events. This case illustrates the important role of international relations and scientific and professional networks in the spread of psychiatric discourses and practices.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , Cooperação Internacional/história , Relações Interprofissionais , Psiquiatria/história , Viagem/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Médicos/história , Psiquiatria/educação , Espanha
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 23(3): 669-681, jul.-set. 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-792572

RESUMO

Abstract An old topographic compass displayed in a showroom of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, took our curiosity namely because of its resemblance to a theodolite, described by J.H. de Magellan. Not many things were known about its previous history. From the different documents studied, and the characteristics of this singular theodolite, it must have belonged to the collections of instruments acquired for the Brazilian border demarcations undertaken after the Santo Ildefonso Treaty, agreed to by the Portuguese and Spanish courts in 1777. Several instruments were bought in London, and supervised and chosen by Magellan, the Portuguese instruments expert. We present arguments in favour of this conclusion.


Resumo Um antigo compasso topográfico em exibição no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (Mast), no Rio de Janeiro, chamou-nos a atenção por sua semelhança com um teodolito descrito por João Jacinto de Magalhães. Pouco era conhecido sobre sua história prévia. De acordo com os diversos documentos estudados e as caracteríticas desse único teodolito, ele deve ter pertencido às coleções de instrumentos adquiridos para a demarcação das fronteiras brasileiras realizadas após o Tratato de Santo Ildefonso, acordado entre as cortes portuguesa e espanhola em 1777. Vários instrumentos foram comprados em Londres, supervisionados e escolhidos por Magalhães, o perito português em instrumentos. Apresentamos argumentos que corroboram essa conclusão.


Assuntos
História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Geografia/história , Telescópios/história , Viagem/história , Brasil , Geografia/instrumentação
13.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 23(3): 669-81, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27557355

RESUMO

An old topographic compass displayed in a showroom of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, took our curiosity namely because of its resemblance to a theodolite, described by J.H. de Magellan. Not many things were known about its previous history. From the different documents studied, and the characteristics of this singular theodolite, it must have belonged to the collections of instruments acquired for the Brazilian border demarcations undertaken after the Santo Ildefonso Treaty, agreed to by the Portuguese and Spanish courts in 1777. Several instruments were bought in London, and supervised and chosen by Magellan, the Portuguese instruments expert. We present arguments in favour of this conclusion.


Assuntos
Geografia/história , Telescópios/história , Viagem/história , Brasil , Geografia/instrumentação , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
14.
Hist Psychiatry ; 27(3): 268-77, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091828

RESUMO

The Ottoman Empire, which encompassed a vast territory, had several facilities for the protection and treatment of the mentally ill. By the late nineteenth century, some wealthy families had begun to send their patients to mental hospitals in Europe for better treatment. During the same period, the process of repatriation of mental patients who were Ottoman subjects also began. These processes, which resulted in complex bureaucratic measures, later found a place in regulations and laws. The Ottoman Empire had an additional incentive to protect mentally-ill patients during the Second Constitutional Era, when discussions about 'citizenship' reappeared. This article examines the practices of sending mentally-ill people to Europe and the repatriation of mentally-ill Ottoman subjects from European countries.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Cooperação Internacional/história , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Império Otomano , Viagem/história
15.
Ir J Med Sci ; 185(2): 303-7, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27083454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. AIMS: To provide an overall assessment of his career. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Census and of the west of Ireland, William Wilde Victorian medical man and Wilde the Irish medical man-the historian of Irish medical traditions and the biographer of Irish medical men, and William Wilde as an Irish Victorian. CONCLUSIONS: A variety of close British Isles parallels can be drawn between Wilde and his cohort in the medical elite of Dublin and their clinical peers in Edinburgh and London both in terms of clinical practice and self-presentation and in terms of the social and political challenges facing their respective ancient regime hegemonies in an age of democratic radicalisation. The shared ideological interests of Wilde and his cohort, however, were also challenged by the socio-political particularities and complexities of Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century culminating in the catastrophe of the Great Famine. William Wilde saw the practice of scientific medicine as offering a means of deliverance from historical catastrophe for Irish society and invoked a specifically Irish scientific and medical tradition going back to the engagement with the condition of Ireland by enlightened medical men in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.


Assuntos
Padrões de Prática Médica/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Irlanda , Política , Navios/história , Viagem/história
19.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 36(2): 363-390, 2016. mapas, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-157171

RESUMO

Se estudia la aportación de Alexander von Humboldt a la representación natural que se sitúa entre la visión científica y el sentimiento artístico. Humboldt es considerado como el creador de un ‘arte científico’: la representación artística al servicio de la ciencia. Esta representación iconográfica de la botánica, la zoología y, ante todo, de los restos materiales de las culturas prehispánicas así como su expresión artística, proporcionó una nueva imagen de América que hasta entonces estaba ampliamente dominada por la fantasía europea. En el trabajo se exponen sus criterios para elaborar lo que se ha llamado un arte científico y se profundiza sobre su teoría de la impresión total de la naturaleza. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre las referencias artísticas que Humboldt pudo incorporar a su sistema de representación y las influencias de éstas en su programa teórico (AU)


This study addresses the contribution of Alexander von Humboldt to the natural representation that is situated between scientific vision and artistic sentiment. Humboldt is considered as the creator of a ‘scientific art’, i.e., artistic representation in the service of science. This iconographic representation of botanic and zoological specimens, and above all of the material remains of Pre-Hispanic cultures and their artistic expression provided a new image of America that had previously been heavily dominated by European fantasy. This paper describes his criteria for developing what he called scientific art and explores his theory of the total representation of nature. Finally, it reflects on the artistic references that Humboldt was able to incorporate into his representation system and their influence on his theoretical program (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Expedições/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , Natureza , Características Humanas , Arte/história , Viagem/história , Pinturas/história , Américas
20.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 22(4): 1467-90, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26625926

RESUMO

The early twentieth century saw the rise of vacation camps for frail children as educational and health-giving experiences provided by medical and philanthropic organizations. This article analyzes some of these early experiences, seen here as the predecessors of social tourism, in the Province of Buenos Aires. A combination of written sources are examined, mainly institutional reports, periodicals such as the Monitor de la Educación Común - published by the Consejo Nacional de Educación (National Board of Education) - or laws, with photographs and plans for different examples. I argue that these buildings were both physical and cultural "brands" in the places where they were located, and that their architectural structure encapsulated ideas about leisure space and cures in unique natural environments.


Assuntos
Acampamento/história , Argentina , Criança , História do Século XX , Humanos , Turismo Médico/história , Viagem/história
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