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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3790-3796, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893572

RESUMO

Forskolin is a complex labdane plant diterpenoid, which has been used in the treatment of a variety of diseases based on its activity as an activator of adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) cyclase. Natural forskolin exists only in the cork layer of the root of Coleus forskohlii. Due to the complexity of the extraction and chemical synthesis processes, the yield and purity of forskolin cannot meet commercial requirements. In recent years, with the rapid development of synthetic biology and the analysis and interpretation of many diterpene biosynthetic pathways, a new approach has been provided for the green production of forskolin. In this paper, the structure, activity, biosynthetic pathway and the heterologous biosynthesis of forskolin were reviewed. The problems and solutions in the heterologous biosynthesis of forskolin were also discussed and summarized, which will provide references for the construction of high-yielding forskolin engineering strains.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Colforsina
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4202, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826900

RESUMO

Antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) produce bioactive metabolites that impart a fitness advantage to their producer, providing a mechanism for natural selection. This selection drives antibiotic evolution and adapts BGCs for expression in different organisms, potentially providing clues to improve heterologous expression of antibiotics. Here, we use phage-assisted continuous evolution (PACE) to achieve bioactivity-dependent adaptation of the BGC for the antibiotic bicyclomycin (BCM), facilitating improved production in a heterologous host. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that features of natural bioactivity-dependent evolution can be engineered to access unforeseen routes of improving metabolic pathways and product yields.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Família Multigênica , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Metabólica , Pseudomonas fluorescens/genética , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolismo
3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 283-296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740897

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Differences in FAE1 enzyme affinity for the acyl-CoA substrates, as well as the balance between the different pathways involved in their incorporation to triacylglycerol might be determinant of the different composition of the seed oil in Brassicaceae. Brassicaceae present a great heterogeneity of seed oil and fatty acid composition, accumulating Very Long Chain Fatty Acids with industrial applications. However, the molecular determinants of these differences remain elusive. We have studied the ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase from the high erucic feedstock Thlaspi arvense (Pennycress). Functional characterization of the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme was performed in two Arabidopsis backgrounds; Col-0, with less than 2.5% of erucic acid in its seed oil and the fae1-1 mutant, deficient in FAE1 activity, that did not accumulate erucic acid. Seed-specific expression of the Pennycress FAE1 gene in Col-0 resulted in a 3 to fourfold increase of erucic acid content in the seed oil. This increase was concomitant with a decrease of eicosenoic acid levels without changes in oleic ones. Interestingly, only small changes in eicosenoic and erucic acid levels occurred when the Pennycress FAE1 gene was expressed in the fae1-1 mutant, with high levels of oleic acid available for elongation, suggesting that the Pennycress FAE1 enzyme showed higher affinity for eicosenoic acid substrates, than for oleic ones in Arabidopsis. Erucic acid was incorporated to triacylglycerol in the transgenic lines without significant changes in their levels in the diacylglycerol fraction, suggesting that erucic acid was preferentially incorporated to triacylglycerol via DGAT1. Expression analysis of FAE1, AtDGAT1, AtLPCAT1 and AtPDAT1 genes in the transgenic lines further supported this conclusion. Differences in FAE1 affinity for the oleic and eicosenoic substrates among Brassicaceae, as well as their incorporation to triacylglycerol might explain the differences in composition of their seed oil.


Assuntos
3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Vias Biossintéticas , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Thlaspi/enzimologia , Thlaspi/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , 3-Oxoacil-(Proteína de Transporte de Acila) Sintase/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Erúcicos/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/genética , Análise de Sequência , Thlaspi/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Science ; 369(6507): 1094-1098, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855335

RESUMO

Bacterial production of gaseous hydrocarbons such as ethylene and methane affects soil environments and atmospheric climate. We demonstrate that biogenic methane and ethylene from terrestrial and freshwater bacteria are directly produced by a previously unknown methionine biosynthesis pathway. This pathway, present in numerous species, uses a nitrogenase-like reductase that is distinct from known nitrogenases and nitrogenase-like reductases and specifically functions in C-S bond breakage to reduce ubiquitous and appreciable volatile organic sulfur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide and (2-methylthio)ethanol. Liberated methanethiol serves as the immediate precursor to methionine, while ethylene or methane is released into the environment. Anaerobic ethylene production by this pathway apparently explains the long-standing observation of ethylene accumulation in oxygen-depleted soils. Methane production reveals an additional bacterial pathway distinct from archaeal methanogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Etilenos/biossíntese , Metano/biossíntese , Metionina/biossíntese , Oxirredutases/química , Rhodospirillum rubrum/enzimologia , Anaerobiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biocatálise , Vias Biossintéticas , Oxirredutases/classificação , Oxirredutases/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1334-1345, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748591

RESUMO

Lycopene, as a high value-added terpene compound, has been widely concerned by researchers at home and abroad. Firstly, the ability of lycopene synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model strains S288c and YPH499 was analyzed and compared. The results showed that YPH499 was more suitable for lycopene synthesis as yeast chassis. Subsequently, the effects of constitutive promoters GPDpr, TEF1pr and inducible promoters GAL1pr, GAL10pr on Lycopene synthesis were compared. The results showed that when GPDpr and TEF1pr were used as promoters of crtE, crtB and crtI in lycopene synthesis pathway, the production of lycopene was 15.31 mg/L after 60 h fermentation in shaking flask. When GAL1pr and GAL10pr were used as promoters, the production was 123.89 mg/L, which was 8.09 times higher. In addition, the methylvaleric acid (MVA) pathway was further modified to overexpress the key enzyme gene of N-terminal truncation, tHMG1 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). The lycopene production was 265.68 mg/L, and the yield per cell was 72.79 mg/g. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain designed and constructed in this study can express lycopene in high yield per cell, thus could be used in the industrial production of lycopene after further construction and optimization.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Industrial , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Fermentação , Licopeno/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3719, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709943

RESUMO

Wild teas are valuable genetic resources for studying domestication and breeding. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality chromosome-scale reference genome for an ancient tea tree. The further RNA sequencing of 217 diverse tea accessions clarifies the pedigree of tea cultivars and reveals key contributors in the breeding of Chinese tea. Candidate genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis are identified by genome-wide association study. Specifically, diverse allelic function of CsANR, CsF3'5'H and CsMYB5 is verified by transient overexpression and enzymatic assays, providing comprehensive insights into the biosynthesis of catechins, the most important bioactive compounds in tea plants. The inconspicuous differentiation between ancient trees and cultivars at both genetic and metabolic levels implies that tea may not have undergone long-term artificial directional selection in terms of flavor-related metabolites. These genomic resources provide evolutionary insight into tea plants and lay the foundation for better understanding the biosynthesis of beneficial natural compounds.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Melaleuca/genética , Linhagem , Árvores/genética , Alelos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Camellia sinensis/genética , Catequina/metabolismo , China , Domesticação , Evolução Molecular , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Óleo de Melaleuca
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19159-19167, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719126

RESUMO

Amino acids are naturally occurring and structurally diverse metabolites in biological system, whose potentials for chemical expansion, however, have not been fully explored. Here, we devise a metabolic platform capable of producing industrially important C3-C5 diols from amino acids. The presented platform combines the natural catabolism of charged amino acids with a catalytically efficient and thermodynamically favorable diol formation pathway, created by expanding the substrate scope of the carboxylic acid reductase toward noncognate ω-hydroxylic acids. Using the established platform as gateways, seven different diol-convertible amino acids are converted to diols including 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, and 1,5-pentanediol. Particularly, we afford to optimize the production of 1,4-butanediol and demonstrate the de novo production of 1,5-pentanediol from glucose, with titers reaching 1.41 and 0.97 g l-1, respectively. Our work presents a metabolic platform that enriches the pathway repertoire for nonnatural diols with feedstock flexibility to both sugar and protein hydrolysates.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butileno Glicóis/metabolismo , Glicóis/metabolismo , Pentanos/metabolismo , Propilenoglicóis/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Vias Biossintéticas
8.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108471, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622788

RESUMO

Stilbenes, an active substances closely related to resistance and quality of grapes, are rarely found in natural resources. However its cumulative amount is affected by ultraviolet radiation (UV). The purpose of this study is to screen key genes in biosynthesis of stilbenes Trans-scripusin A and explore its synthetic pathway. We tested content of stilbenes with UHPLC-QQQ-MS2, results revealed that stilbenes accumulation is positively correlated with UV-B exposure time. Then, we performed transcriptome high-throughput sequencing of grapes under treatments. Results shown that 13,906 differentially expressed genes were obtained, which were mainly enriched in three major regions (ribosome, plant-pathogen interaction and biosynthesis of flavonoid). Three genes of trans-scripusin A synthesis pathway key got by combining KEGG annotation and reference gene HsCYP1B1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SAH genes had high homology with other hydroxylase genes, and distributed in two subgroups. Gene structure analysis showed that SAH genes contained four exons, indicating that gene has low genetic diversity. Chromosome localization revealed that SAH genes were distributed on different chromosomes, in addition, the number of gene pairs between Vitis vinifera and other species was not related to genome size of other species. The expression profiles of SAH genes in different parts of Vitis vinifera L. were analyzed using qRT-PCR analysis, results indicated that expression of SAH genes be specific to fruit part. These paper provide theoretical basis for further study of polyphenols biosynthesis pathway in grape fruits. The study provides novel insights for further understanding quality of grapes response to UV radiation.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos da radiação , Vitis/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/efeitos da radiação
9.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 835-843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657210

RESUMO

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites. The biosynthesis of this mycotoxins is a complex process and involves at least 30 genes clustered within an approximately 82 kB gene cluster. In the present study, the effect of Capsicum chinense and Piper nigrum fruits on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production were studied in relation to the expression of aflD, aflM, aflR, and aflS four; key genes of aflatoxins biosynthesis pathway. GC-EIMS analysis identified capsaicin (66,107 µg g-1) and piperine (1,138 µg g-1) as the most abundant compounds in C. chinense and P. nigrum fruits, respectively. The antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic assays showed that C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine inhibited A. parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production in a dose-dependent manner. The piperine at 300 µg mL-1 produced higher radial growth inhibition (89%) and aflatoxin production inhibition (69%). The expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and revealed that aflatoxin inhibition occurring via downregulating the aflS and aflR, and subsequently aflD and aflM genes. These results will improve our understanding of the mechanism of aflatoxin regulation by C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine, and provides a reference for further study.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper nigrum/química , Aflatoxinas/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Capsaicina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Frutas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2847-2857, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627459

RESUMO

Steroidal saponins, which are the characteristic and main active constituents of Polygonatum, exhibit a broad range of pharmacological functions, such as regulating blood sugar, preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and anti-tumor. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing(RNA-Seq) analysis for the flowers, leaves, roots, and rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema using the BGISEQ-500 platform to understand the biosynthesis pathway of steroidal saponins and study their key enzyme genes. The assembly of transcripts for four tissues generated 129 989 unigenes, of which 88 958 were mapped to several public databases for functional annotation, 22 813 unigenes were assigned to 53 subcategories and 64 877 unigenes were annotated to 136 pathways in KEGG database. Furthermore, 502 unigenes involved in the biosynthesis pathway of steroidal saponins were identified, of which 97 unigenes encoding 12 key enzymes. Cycloartenol synthase, the first key enzyme in the pathway of phytosterol biosynthesis, showed conserved catalytic domain and substrate binding domain based on sequence analysis and homology modeling. Differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were identified in rhizomes as compared to other tissues(flowers, leaves or roots).The 2 437 unigenes annotated by KEGG showed rhizome-specific expression, of which 35 unigenes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins. Our results greatly extend the public transcriptome dataset of Polygonatum and provide valuable information for the identification of candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins and other important secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Polygonatum , Saponinas , Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3098-3103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726017

RESUMO

Based on the theory of Q-marker, the hairy root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza in many provinces were studied. The relative expressions of SmCPS, SmKSL and CYP76AH1 genes in hairy roots were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and the contents of tanshinoneⅡ_A, cryptotanshinone, tanshinoneⅠ, 1,2-dihydrotanshinone, ferruginol and miltiradiene were detected by UPLC and GC-MS, respectively. Statistical analysis shows as fllows: in the hairy root of S. miltiorrhiza, the content of miltiradiene and ferruginol is positively correlated with the content of tanshinone compounds in the downstream, and the relative expression of important genes in the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinone can reflect the content of tanshinone compounds to a certain extent; in many provinces of S. miltiorrhiza, the content of ferruginol and tanshinone compounds can also be found that there is a positive correlation between the contents. Based on the biosynthetic pathway of tanshinone compounds, which is a special index component in S. miltiorrhiza, this study focused on the important relationship between the upstream gene, the middle intermediate compound and the downstream tanshinone compound content of the biosynthetic pathway, and explored the possible research ideas of improving the quality marker system of S. miltiorrhiza, and then provided the possible research ideas for understanding and studying the quality marker of traditional Chinese medicine from the biosynthetic pathway.


Assuntos
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Abietanos , Vias Biossintéticas , Raízes de Plantas
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3337, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620756

RESUMO

The tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) moiety is a privileged substructure of many bioactive natural products and semi-synthetic analogs. Plants manufacture more than 3,000 THIQ alkaloids, including the opioids morphine and codeine. While microbial species have been engineered to synthesize a few compounds from the benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) family of THIQs, low product titers impede industrial viability and limit access to the full chemical space. Here we report a yeast THIQ platform by increasing production of the central BIA intermediate (S)-reticuline to 4.6 g L-1, a 57,000-fold improvement over our first-generation strain. We show that gains in BIA output coincide with the formation of several substituted THIQs derived from amino acid catabolism. We use these insights to repurpose the Ehrlich pathway and synthesize an array of THIQ structures. This work provides a blueprint for building diverse alkaloid scaffolds and enables the targeted overproduction of thousands of THIQ products, including natural and semi-synthetic opioids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/biossíntese , Benzilisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , Benzilisoquinolinas/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Engenharia Genética , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/química
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3313, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620759

RESUMO

Ectoine, a compatible solute synthesized by many halophiles for hypersalinity resistance, has been successfully produced by metabolically engineered Halomonas bluephagenesis, which is a bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) producer allowing open unsterile and continuous conditions. Here we report a de novo synthesis pathway for ectoine constructed into the chromosome of H. bluephagenesis utilizing two inducible systems, which serve to fine-tune the transcription levels of three clusters related to ectoine synthesis, including ectABC, lysC and asd based on a GFP-mediated transcriptional tuning approach. Combined with bypasses deletion, the resulting recombinant H. bluephagenesis TD-ADEL-58 is able to produce 28 g L-1 ectoine during a 28 h fed-batch growth process. Co-production of ectoine and PHB is achieved to 8 g L-1 ectoine and 32 g L-1 dry cell mass containing 75% PHB after a 44 h growth. H. bluephagenesis demonstrates to be a suitable co-production chassis for polyhydroxyalkanoates and non-polymer chemicals such as ectoine.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Halomonas/metabolismo , Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Poliésteres/metabolismo , Biomassa , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Halomonas/genética , Halomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/química , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Life Sci ; 258: 118160, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730837

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major prevalent chronic microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the present diagnostic indicators have limitations in the early diagnosis of DKD. This study concentrated on the sensitive and specific biomarkers in early diagnosis of DKD by metabolomics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we performed a UPLC-MS based nontargeted metabolomics assay to profile the urinary metabolites in patients with DKD. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used for screening out the metabolomic variables. KEY FINDINGS: A total of 147 urinary metabolites were identified and 5 metabolic pathways were correlated with DKD pathophysiology. Pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis pathway alteration was found the most prominent in DKD subjects. 4 metabolites, including dihydrouracil, ureidopropionic acid, pantothenic acid (PA), and adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate involved in pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis were significantly down-regulated. SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding indicates that PA would be served as a novel predictive biomarker associated with DKD development and progression. Furthermore, our results provide a promising prospect that PA and CoA biosynthesis pathway can be potential therapeutic targets for DKD treatment.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Coenzima A/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Ácido Pantotênico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Nature ; 584(7819): 148-153, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699417

RESUMO

Few complete pathways have been established for the biosynthesis of medicinal compounds from plants. Accordingly, many plant-derived therapeutics are isolated directly from medicinal plants or plant cell culture1. A lead example is colchicine, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for inflammatory disorders that is sourced from Colchicum and Gloriosa species2-5. Here we use a combination of transcriptomics, metabolic logic and pathway reconstitution to elucidate a near-complete biosynthetic pathway to colchicine without prior knowledge of biosynthetic genes, a sequenced genome or genetic tools in the native host. We uncovered eight genes from Gloriosa superba for the biosynthesis of N-formyldemecolcine, a colchicine precursor that contains the characteristic tropolone ring and pharmacophore of colchicine6. Notably, we identified a non-canonical cytochrome P450 that catalyses the remarkable ring expansion reaction that is required to produce the distinct carbon scaffold of colchicine. We further used the newly identified genes to engineer a biosynthetic pathway (comprising 16 enzymes in total) to N-formyldemecolcine in Nicotiana benthamiana starting from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. This study establishes a metabolic route to tropolone-containing colchicine alkaloids and provides insights into the unique chemistry that plants use to generate complex, bioactive metabolites from simple amino acids.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Colchicina/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Colchicaceae/enzimologia , Colchicaceae/genética , Colchicaceae/metabolismo , Colchicina/química , Colchicina/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Tirosina/metabolismo
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 168: 104632, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711766

RESUMO

Phytochemicals are toxic to insects, but their insecticidal efficiencies are usually low compared to synthetic insecticides. Understanding the mechanism of insect adaptation to phytochemicals will provide guidance for increasing their efficacy. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by phytochemicals. However, in insects, the pathway of GSH biosynthesis in response to phytochemicals is unclear. We found that exposure to 0.5% indole-3-methanol (I3C), xanthotoxin, and rotenone (ROT) significantly retarded the growth of Spodoptera litura larvae. The oxidative stress in S. litura larvae exposed to phytochemicals was increased. The up-regulation of glutamate cysteine ligase but not glutathione reductase revealed that the de novo synthesis pathway is responsible for GSH synthesis in phytochemical-treated larvae. Treatment with the inhibitor (BSO) of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gclc), a subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, resulted in decreases of GSH levels and GST activities, increases of ROS levels in I3C-treated larvae, which finally caused midgut necrosis and larval death. Treatment with BSO or I3C alone did not cause larval death. The addition of GSH could partly reduce the influence of I3C and BSO on S. litura growth. Nilaparvata lugens gclc RNAi confirmed the result of BSO treatment in S. litura. N. lugens gclc RNAi significantly increased the mortality of ROT-sprayed N. lugens, in which ROS levels were significantly increased. All data indicate that gclc is involved in insect response to phytochemical treatment. Treatment with dsgclc will increase the insecticidal efficacy of plant-derived compounds.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Glutationa , Animais , Larva , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Spodoptera
17.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000728, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516311

RESUMO

The development of multicellularity is a key evolutionary transition allowing for differentiation of physiological functions across a cell population that confers survival benefits; among unicellular bacteria, this can lead to complex developmental behaviors and the formation of higher-order community structures. Herein, we demonstrate that in the social δ-proteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, the secretion of a novel biosurfactant polysaccharide (BPS) is spatially modulated within communities, mediating swarm migration as well as the formation of multicellular swarm biofilms and fruiting bodies. BPS is a type IV pilus (T4P)-inhibited acidic polymer built of randomly acetylated ß-linked tetrasaccharide repeats. Both BPS and exopolysaccharide (EPS) are produced by dedicated Wzx/Wzy-dependent polysaccharide-assembly pathways distinct from that responsible for spore-coat assembly. While EPS is preferentially produced at the lower-density swarm periphery, BPS production is favored in the higher-density swarm interior; this is consistent with the former being known to stimulate T4P retraction needed for community expansion and a function for the latter in promoting initial cell dispersal. Together, these data reveal the central role of secreted polysaccharides in the intricate behaviors coordinating bacterial multicellularity.


Assuntos
Myxococcus xanthus/citologia , Myxococcus xanthus/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Acetilação , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Myxococcus xanthus/genética , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Tensoativos/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008848, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530919

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, causing infections that can last for decades. During the course of these infections, P. aeruginosa undergoes a number of genetic adaptations. One such adaptation is the loss of swimming motility functions. Another involves the formation of the rugose small colony variant (RSCV) phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl. Here, we provide evidence that the two adaptations are linked. Using random transposon mutagenesis, we discovered that flagellar mutations are linked to the RSCV phenotype. We found that flagellar mutants overexpressed Pel and Psl in a surface-contact dependent manner. Genetic analyses revealed that flagellar mutants were selected for at high frequencies in biofilms, and that Pel and Psl expression provided the primary fitness benefit in this environment. Suppressor mutagenesis of flagellar RSCVs indicated that Psl overexpression required the mot genes, suggesting that the flagellum stator proteins function in a surface-dependent regulatory pathway for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Finally, we identified flagellar mutant RSCVs among CF isolates. The CF environment has long been known to select for flagellar mutants, with the classic interpretation being that the fitness benefit gained relates to an impairment of the host immune system to target a bacterium lacking a flagellum. Our new findings lead us to propose that exopolysaccharide production is a key gain-of-function phenotype that offers a new way to interpret the fitness benefits of these mutations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Flagelos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Seleção Genética
19.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108429, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479762

RESUMO

Lysine is a precursor for desferrioxamine siderophore biosynthesis. The pathway is often initiated by lysine decarboxylases. However, little is known about those enzymes from Actinobacteria which represents a diverse class of desferrioxamine producers. In this study we focused on the genes grdesA form Gordonia rubripertincta CWB2 and psdesA from Pimelobacter simplex VkMAC-2033D that encode decarboxylases presumed to be involved in the synthesis of desferrioxamine siderophores. The corresponding proteins GrDesA and PsDesA, were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli and purified. PsDesA was isolated bound to the cofactor pyridoxal 5-phosphate and GrDesA was purified in its apo form. PsDesA showed a moderate substrate preference for lysine (Km = 0.17 mM, kcat = 0.26 s-1) compared to ornithine (Km = 0.13 mM, kcat = 0.14 s-1), while GrDesA exhibited specificity for lysine (Km = 0.13 mM, kcat = 1.2 s-1) compared to ornithine (Km = 2.9 mM, kcat = 0.18 s-1). The maximum decarboxylase activity of PsDesA was achieved at pH 7.5 at 35 °C, although PsDesA was stable up to 40°, its relative activity decreased significantly at 50 °C. The temperature optimum (40 °C) and thermostability of GrDesA were likewise, but it exhibited maximum activity at pH range 8.0-8.5, and sharply decreased outside of this range. The expression and characterization of these two decarboxylases provides insight into the biosynthetic pathway of desferrioxamines from G.rubripertincta and P. simplex and supports the functional annotation of related pathways.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/enzimologia , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Desferroxamina/metabolismo , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589682

RESUMO

The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing more rapidly in adolescents than in any other age group. We identified and compared metabolite signatures in obese children with type 2 diabetes (T2D), obese children without diabetes (OB), and healthy, age- and gender-matched normal weight controls (NW) by measuring 273 analytes in fasting plasma and 24-hour urine samples from 90 subjects by targeted LC-MS/MS. Diabetic subjects were within 2 years of diagnosis in an attempt to capture early-stage disease prior to declining renal function. We found 22 urine metabolites that were uniquely associated with T2D when compared to OB and NW groups. The metabolites most significantly elevated in T2D youth included members of the betaine pathway, nucleic acid metabolism, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their catabolites. Notably, the metabolite pattern in OB and T2D groups differed between urine and plasma, suggesting that urinary BCAAs and their intermediates behaved as a more specific biomarker for T2D, while plasma BCAAs associated with the obese, insulin resistant state independent of diabetes status. Correlative analysis of metabolites in the T2D signature indicated that betaine metabolites, BCAAs, and aromatic amino acids were associated with hyperglycemia, but BCAA acylglycine derivatives and nucleic acid metabolites were linked to insulin resistance. Of major interest, we found that urine levels of succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICA-riboside) were increased in diabetic youth, identifying urine SAICA-riboside as a potential biomarker for T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/metabolismo , Purinas/biossíntese , Adolescente , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Betaína/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/urina , Vias Biossintéticas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Biologia Computacional , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
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