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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(7): e1012321, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990823

RESUMO

Vibriosis is one of the most serious diseases that commonly occurs in aquatic animals, thus, shaping a steady inherited resistance trait in organisms has received the highest priority in aquaculture. Whereas, the mechanisms underlying the development of such a resistance trait are mostly elusive. In this study, we constructed vibriosis-resistant and susceptible families of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after four generations of artificial selection. Microbiome sequencing indicated that shrimp can successfully develop a colonization resistance trait against Vibrio infections. This trait was characterized by a microbial community structure with specific enrichment of a single probiotic species (namely Shewanella algae), and notably, its formation was inheritable and might be memorized by host epigenetic remodeling. Regardless of the infection status, a group of genes was specifically activated in the resistant family through disruption of complete methylation. Specifically, hypo-methylation and hyper-expression of genes related to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and iron homeostasis might provide rich sources of specific carbon (lactate) and ions for the colonization of S. algae, which directly results in the reduction of Vibrio load in shrimp. Lactate feeding increased the survival of shrimp, while knockdown of LDH gene decreased the survival when shrimp was infected by Vibrio pathogens. In addition, treatment of shrimp with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine resulted in upregulations of LDH and some protein processing genes, significant enrichment of S. algae, and simultaneous reduction of Vibrio in shrimp. Our results suggest that the colonization resistance can be memorized as epigenetic information by the host, which has played a pivotal role in vibriosis resistance. The findings of this study will aid in disease control and the selection of superior lines of shrimp with high disease resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Penaeidae , Vibrioses , Vibrio , Animais , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Aquicultura
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(6): 900-908, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen that can cause seafood-borne gastroenteritis in humans. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from clinical specimens and oysters in Thailand. METHODOLOGY: Isolates of V. parahaemolyticus from clinical specimens (n = 77) and oysters (n = 224) were identified by biochemical testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and serotyping. The toxin genes, antimicrobial resistance, and ß-lactamase production were determined. RESULTS: A total of 301 isolates were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by PCR using specific primers for the toxR gene. The majority of clinical isolates carried the tdh+/trh- genotype (82.1%), and one of each isolate was tdh-/trh+ and tdh+/trh+ genotypes. One isolate from oyster contained the tdh gene and another had the trh gene. Twenty-six serotypes were characterized among these isolates, and O3:K6 was the most common (37.7%), followed by OUT:KUT, and O4:K9. In 2010, most clinical and oyster isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, with the exception of ampicillin. In 2012, clinical isolates were not susceptible to cephalothin (52.4%), streptomycin (95.2%), amikacin (66.6%), kanamycin (61.9%), and erythromycin (95.2%), significantly more frequently than in 2010. More than 95% of isolates that were not susceptible to ampicillin produced ß-lactamase enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: We found toxin genes in two oyster isolates, and the clinical isolates that were initially determined to be resistant to several antibiotics. Toxin genes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus from seafood and environment should be continually monitored to determine the spread of toxin and antimicrobial resistance genes.


Assuntos
Ostreidae , Vibrioses , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Ostreidae/microbiologia , Humanos , Animais , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sorotipagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Genótipo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(7): e515-e520, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969478

RESUMO

Globally, the diverse bacterial genus Vibrio is the most important group of bacterial pathogens found in marine and coastal waters. These bacteria can cause an array of human infections via direct exposure to seawater or through the consumption of seafoods grown and cultivated in coastal and estuarine settings. Crucially, we appear to be on the cusp of an alarming global increase in Vibrio disease. A worldwide increase in seafood consumption, the globalisation of the seafood trade, the more frequent use of coastal waters for recreational activities, and climate change all contribute to greatly increased human health risks associated with Vibrio bacteria. Coupled with a population that is increasingly susceptible to more serious infections, we are likely to see a marked increase in both reported cases and fatalities in the near future. In this Personal View, we discuss and frame this important and emerging public health issue, and provide various contemporary case studies to illustrate how the risk profiles of pathogenic Vibrio bacteria have transformed in the past two decades-particularly in response to changing climatological and meteorological drivers such as marine coastal warming and extreme weather events such as heatwaves and storms. We share various approaches to help better understand and manage risks associated with these bacteria, ranging from risk mitigation strategies to enhanced epidemiological monitoring and surveillance approaches.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Vibrioses , Vibrio , Humanos , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Saúde Global
4.
New Microbiol ; 47(2): 190-193, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023531

RESUMO

Non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae (NOVC) are serogroups that do not produce cholera toxin and are not responsible for epidemics. Even though rarely encountered in clinical practice, they can cause a spectrum of different conditions ranging from mild gastrointestinal syndrome to extraintestinal diseases, of which bacteremia and wound infections are the most severe. Risk factors for severe disease are cirrhosis, neoplasms, and diabetes mellitus. The mortality rate of NOVC bacteremia in hospitalized patients ranges from 24 to 61.5%. Incidence of NOVC infections is still rare, and consensus recommendations on treatment are not available. We report a case of NOVC bacteremia associated with severe cellulitis in an immunocompetent 75-year-old man who had eaten raw seafood in a location by the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). Twenty-four hours after intake, he developed a high fever and vomiting. Afterwards, he started noticing the appearance of cellulitis in his right leg, which worsened in a matter of hours. The patient had a history of compensated type 2 diabetes mellitus. NOVC was isolated from both blood cultures and the leg ulcer. The non-O1, non-O139 serogroup was confirmed, and the detection of the cholera toxin gene was negative. Both tests were performed by the Reference National Laboratory of Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS). Multiple antimicrobial regimens were administered, with complete recovery. In conclusion, considering the severity of NOVC-associated manifestations, it is of pivotal importance to reach etiological diagnosis for a target antimicrobial therapy and to consider V. cholerae infection in the differential diagnosis in the presence of risk factors and potential exposure.


Assuntos
Celulite (Flegmão) , Vibrio cholerae não O1 , Humanos , Masculino , Celulite (Flegmão)/microbiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Vibrio cholerae não O1/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae não O1/genética , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Cólera/microbiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/genética
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2316143121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861595

RESUMO

Vibrio vulnificus causes life-threatening wound and gastrointestinal infections, mediated primarily by the production of a Multifunctional-Autoprocessing Repeats-In-Toxin (MARTX) toxin. The most commonly present MARTX effector domain, the Makes Caterpillars Floppy-like (MCF) toxin, is a cysteine protease stimulated by host adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation factors (ARFs) to autoprocess. Here, we show processed MCF then binds and cleaves host Ras-related proteins in brain (Rab) guanosine triphosphatases within their C-terminal tails resulting in Rab degradation. We demonstrate MCF binds Rabs at the same interface occupied by ARFs. Moreover, we show MCF preferentially binds to ARF1 prior to autoprocessing and is active to cleave Rabs only subsequent to autoprocessing. We then use structure prediction algorithms to demonstrate that structural composition, rather than sequence, determines Rab target specificity. We further determine a crystal structure of aMCF as a swapped dimer, revealing an alternative conformation we suggest represents the open, activated state of MCF with reorganized active site residues. The cleavage of Rabs results in Rab1B dispersal within cells and loss of Rab1B density in the intestinal tissue of infected mice. Collectively, our work describes an extracellular bacterial mechanism whereby MCF is activated by ARFs and subsequently induces the degradation of another small host guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), Rabs, to drive organelle damage, cell death, and promote pathogenesis of these rapidly fatal infections.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Vibrio vulnificus , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Células HEK293 , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proteólise , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/metabolismo , Vibrio vulnificus/metabolismo , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0017524, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832768

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a threat to human health and one of the leading bacterial causes of seafood-borne infection worldwide. This pathogen is autochtonous in the marine environment and is able to acquire antimicrobial resistance (AMR) mechanisms, which is a global concern. However, the emergence of AMR V. parahaemolyticus strains in seafood is still understudied, as interpretation criteria for this species for antimicrobial susceptibility tests are limited in the literature. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility profiles to clinically important antibiotics and the associated genetic determinants of V. parahaemolyticus isolates cultured from imported shrimps. Based on the analysis of the resistance phenotypes of 304 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, we have defined experimental epidemiological cutoff values (COWT) for 14/15 antibiotics tested. We observed that 19.1% of the bacterial isolates had acquired resistance to at least one antibiotic class. The highest number of resistance was associated with tetracycline (14.5% of the strains) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (3.6%). Moreover, seven strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant to at least three antibiotic classes). The most frequently identified genes in these strains were aph(3″)-Ib/aph(6)-Id (aminoglycoside resistance), sul2 (sulfonamide), tet(59) (tetracycline), and floR (chloramphenicol). The SXT/R391 family ICE and class 1 integron-integrase genes were detected by PCR in three and one MDR V. parahaemolyticus strains, respectively. Consequently, V. parahaemolyticus in seafood can act as a reservoir of AMR, constituting a health risk for the consumer.IMPORTANCEOur study on "Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Genetic Determinants of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates from Imported Shrimps" addresses a critical gap in understanding the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in this seafood-associated pathogen. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major cause of global seafood-borne infections, and our research reveals that 19.1% of isolates from imported shrimps display resistance to at least one antibiotic class, with multidrug resistance observed in seven strains. Importantly, we establish experimental epidemiological cutoff values for antibiotic susceptibility, providing valuable criteria specific to V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings underscore the potential risk to consumers, emphasizing the need for vigilant monitoring and intervention strategies. This study significantly contributes to the comprehension of AMR dynamics in V. parahaemolyticus, offering crucial insights for global public health. The dissemination of our research through Microbiology Spectrum ensures broad accessibility and impact within the scientific community and beyond.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Alimentos Marinhos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Humanos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(7): e0007924, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860819

RESUMO

The incidence of Vibrio vulnificus infections, with high mortality rates in humans and aquatic animals, has escalated, highlighting a significant public health challenge. Currently, reliable markers to identify strains with high virulence potential are lacking, and the understanding of evolutionary drivers behind the emergence of pathogenic strains is limited. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of virulent genotypes and phenotypes to discern the infectious potential of V. vulnificus strains isolated from three distinct sources. Most isolates, traditionally classified as biotype 1, possessed the virulence-correlated gene-C type. Environmental isolates predominantly exhibited YJ-like alleles, while clinical and diseased fish isolates were significantly associated with the nanA gene and pathogenicity region XII. Hemolytic activity was primarily observed in the culture supernatants of clinical and diseased fish isolates. Genetic relationships, as determined by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis, suggested that strains originating from the same source tended to cluster together. However, multilocus sequence typing revealed considerable genetic diversity across clusters and sources. A phylogenetic analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms of diseased fish strains alongside publicly available genomes demonstrated a high degree of evolutionary relatedness within and across different isolation sources. Notably, our findings reveal no direct correlation between phylogenetic patterns, isolation sources, and virulence capabilities. This underscores the necessity for proactive risk management strategies to address pathogenic V. vulnificus strains emerging from environmental reservoirs.IMPORTANCEAs the global incidence of Vibrio vulnificus infections rises, impacting human health and marine aquacultures, understanding the pathogenicity of environmental strains remains critical yet underexplored. This study addresses this gap by evaluating the virulence potential and genetic relatedness of V. vulnificus strains, focusing on environmental origins. We conduct an extensive genotypic analysis and phenotypic assessment, including virulence testing in a wax moth model. Our findings aim to uncover genetic and evolutionary factors that drive pathogenic strain emergence in the environment. This research advances our ability to identify reliable virulence markers and understand the distribution of pathogenic strains, offering significant insights for public health and environmental risk management.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Vibrioses , Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio vulnificus/genética , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio vulnificus/classificação , Animais , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Humanos , Virulência/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Peixes/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Genótipo , Genoma Bacteriano/genética
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 709, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystatin is a protease inhibitor that also regulates genes expression linked to inflammation and plays a role in defense and regulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cystatin 10 (Smcys10) was cloned from Scophthalmus maximus and encodes a 145 amino acid polypeptide. The results of qRT-PCR showed that Smcys10 exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns, and its expression was significantly higher in the skin than in other tissues. The expression level of Smcys10 was significantly different in the skin, gill, head kidney, spleen and macrophages after Vibrio anguillarum infection, indicating that Smcys10 may play an important role in resistance to V. anguillarum infection. The recombinant Smcys10 protein showed binding and agglutinating activity in a Ca2+-dependent manner against bacteria. rSmcys10 treatment upregulated the expression of IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-ß in macrophages of turbot and hindered the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from macrophages after V. anguillarum infection, which confirmed that rSmcys10 reduced the damage to macrophages by V. anguillarum. The NF-κB pathway was suppressed by Smcys10, as demonstrated by dual-luciferase analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that Smcys10 is involved in the host antibacterial immune response.


Assuntos
Cistatinas , Doenças dos Peixes , Proteínas de Peixes , Linguados , Macrófagos , Vibrio , Animais , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/metabolismo , Vibrio/patogenicidade , Cistatinas/genética , Cistatinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrioses/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
9.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 43(7): 1469-1474, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735888

RESUMO

Non-cholera Vibrio spp. includes ubiquitous organisms living in aquatic environments. Their occurrence is associated with global warming and meteorological disasters. In May 2023 the Romagna region, Italy, was affected by severe floods. In the following 15 weeks we observed 5 patients with invasive infections caused by V. vulnificus (3/5) and V. harveyi (2/5). All patients (median age 77 years) had medical comorbidities and shared exposure to seawater. Two patients needed surgery; 2 died. In conclusion, we observed an increased burden of Vibrio spp. invasive infections after May 2023 floods, affecting old patients with predisposing medical conditions.


Assuntos
Inundações , Vibrioses , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Idoso , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio/genética , Estações do Ano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Desastres
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11584, 2024 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773245

RESUMO

Climate change and disease threaten shrimp farming. Here, we studied the beneficial properties of a phytogenic formulation, Shrimp Best (SB), in whiteleg shrimp. Functional studies showed that SB dose-dependently increased shrimp body weight and decreased feed conversion ratio. We found that SB protected against Vibrio parahaemolyticus as evidenced by survival rate, bacterial load, and hepatopancreatic pathology in shrimp. Finally, we explored the likely mechanism by which SB affects growth performance and vibriosis in shrimp. The 16S rRNA sequencing data showed that SB increased 6 probiotic genera and decreased 6 genera of pathogenic bacteria in shrimp. Among these, SB increased the proportion of Lactobacillus johnsonii and decreased that of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp guts. To dissect the relationship among SB, Lactobacillus and Vibrio, we investigated the in vitro regulation of Lactobacillus and Vibrio by SB. SB at ≥ 0.25 µg/mL promoted L. johnsonii growth. Additionally, L. johnsonii and its supernatant could inhibit V. parahaemolyticus. Furthermore, SB could up-regulate five anti-Vibrio metabolites of L. johnsonii, which caused bacterial membrane destruction. In parallel, we identified 3 fatty acids as active compounds from SB. Overall, this work demonstrated that SB improved growth performance and vibriosis protection in shrimp via the regulation of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade , Vibrioses/prevenção & controle , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio/patogenicidade , Probióticos
11.
Microb Pathog ; 191: 106677, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705217

RESUMO

A novel endophytic Streptomyces griseorubens CIBA-NS1 was isolated from a salt marsh plant Salicornia sp. The antagonistic effect of S. griseorubens against Vibrio campbellii, was studied both in vitro and in vivo. The strain was validated for its endophytic nature and characterized through scanning electron microscopy, morphological and biochemical studies and 16SrDNA sequencing. The salinity tolerance experiment has shown that highest antibacterial activity was at 40‰ (16 ± 1.4 mm) and lowest was at 10 ‰ salinity (6.94 ± 0.51 mm). In vivo exclusion of Vibrio by S. griseorubens CIBA-NS1 was studied in Penaeus indicus post larvae and evaluated for its ability to improve growth and survival of P. indicus. After 20 days administration of S. griseorubens CIBA-NS1, shrimps were challenged with V. campbellii. The S. griseorubens CIBA-NS1 reduced Vibrio population in test group when compared to control, improved survival (60.5 ± 6.4%) and growth, as indicated by weight gain (1.8 ± 0.05g). In control group survival and growth were 48.4 ± 3.5% and 1.4 ± 0.03 g respectively. On challenge with V. campbellii, the S. griseorubens CIBA-NS1 administered group showed better survival (85.6 ± 10%) than positive control (64.3 ± 10%). The results suggested that S. griseorubens CIBA-NS1 is antagonistic to V. campbellii, reduce Vibrio population in the culture system and improve growth and survival. This is the first report on antagonistic activity of S. griseorubens isolated from salt marsh plant Salicornia sp, as a probiotic candidate to prevent V. campbellii infection in shrimps.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae , Endófitos , Probióticos , Streptomyces , Vibrio , Animais , Vibrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio/fisiologia , Chenopodiaceae/microbiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Streptomyces/fisiologia , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Streptomyces/genética , Penaeidae/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Antibiose , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrioses/prevenção & controle , Salinidade , Larva/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia
12.
Microbiol Res ; 285: 127775, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788350

RESUMO

Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens in marine animals and humans. In this study, A transposon mutation library of the V. alginolyticus E110 was used to identify motility-related genes, and we found three flagellar and one capsular polysaccharide (CPS) synthesis-related genes were linked to swarming motility. Then, gene deletion and complementation further confirmed that CPS synthesis-related gene ugd is involved in the swarming motility of V. alginolyticus. Phenotype assays showed that the Δugd mutant reduced CPS production, decreased biofilm formation, impaired swimming ability, and increased cytotoxicity compared to the wild-type strain. Transcriptome analysis showed that 655 genes (15%) were upregulated and 914 genes (21%) were downregulated in the Δugd strain. KEGG pathway and heatmap analysis revealed that genes involved in two-component systems (TCSs), chemotaxis, and flagella assembly pathways were downregulated in the Δugd mutant. On the other hand, genes involved in pathways of human diseases, biosynthesis ABC transporters, and metabolism were upregulated in the Δugd mutant. The RT-qPCR further validated that ugd-regulated genes are associated with motility, biofilm formation, virulence, and TCSs. These findings imply that ugd may be an important player in the control of some physiological processes in V. alginolyticus, highlighting its potential as a target for future research and potential therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Cápsulas Bacterianas , Proteínas de Bactérias , Biofilmes , Flagelos , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Vibrio alginolyticus , Vibrio alginolyticus/genética , Vibrio alginolyticus/fisiologia , Vibrio alginolyticus/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Flagelos/genética , Flagelos/metabolismo , Flagelos/fisiologia , Cápsulas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Cápsulas Bacterianas/genética , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/genética , Virulência , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Vibrioses/microbiologia
13.
Microbiol Res ; 285: 127744, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735242

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis associated with seafood consumption worldwide. Not all members of the species are thought to be pathogenic, thus identification of virulent organisms is essential to protect public health and the seafood industry. Correlations of human disease and known genetic markers (e.g. thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)) appear complex. Some isolates recovered from patients lack these factors, while their presence has become increasingly noted in isolates recovered from the environment. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing in combination with mammalian and insect models of infection to assess the pathogenic potential of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from European Atlantic shellfish production areas. We found environmental V. parahaemolyticus isolates harboured multiple virulence-associated genes, including TDH and/or TRH. However, carriage of these factors did not necessarily reflect virulence in the mammalian intestine, as an isolate containing TDH and the genes coding for a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) 2α virulence determinant, appeared avirulent. Moreover, environmental V. parahaemolyticus lacking TDH or TRH could be assigned to groups causing low and high levels of mortality in insect larvae, with experiments using defined bacterial mutants showing that a functional T3SS1 contributed to larval death. When taken together, our findings highlight the genetic diversity of V. parahaemolyticus isolates found in the environment, their potential to cause disease and the need for a more systematic evaluation of virulence in diverse V. parahaemolyticus to allow better genetic markers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Toxinas Bacterianas , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Vibrioses , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Fatores de Virulência , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/patogenicidade , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/classificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Virulência/genética , Europa (Continente) , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Fenótipo , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia
14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 49: 100611, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735644

RESUMO

Non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae, a comparably poorly studied pathogen is culpable of sporadic but serious infections. We report a case of non O1 non O139 Vibrio cholerae septicemia in a middle aged male recently diagnosed with carcinoma pancreas. He underwent biliary tract interventional procedure for hematemesis three weeks before the presentation. Now, he presented with fever, abdominal pain, hematemesis and melena. Endoscopy revealed severe portal hypertensive gastropathy and mild hemobilia. Blood culture grew Vibrio cholerae, identified as non O1 non O139 by serogrouping. He recovered successfully with timely diagnosis, appropriate antibiotics and supportive measures.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Sepse , Vibrio cholerae não O1 , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/microbiologia , Vibrio cholerae não O1/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae não O1/classificação , Vibrio cholerae não O1/patogenicidade , Vibrio cholerae não O1/genética , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cólera/microbiologia , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/complicações , Vibrioses/diagnóstico , Vibrioses/microbiologia
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 150: 109598, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697375

RESUMO

In mammals, IL-22 is considered as a critical cytokine regulating of immunity and homeostasis at barrier surfaces. Although IL-22 have been functional characterization in different species of fish, the studies about distinct responses of IL-22 in different organs/tissues/cell types is rather limited. Here, we identified and cloned IL-22 gene (named as Ec-IL-22) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Ec-IL-22 gene was detected in all orangs/tissues examined, and was induced in intestine, gill, spleen, head kidney, and primary head kidney/intestine leukocytes following the stimulation of LPS and poly (I:C), as well as Vibrio harveyi and Singapore grouper iridovirus infection (SGIV). In addition, the stimulation of DSS could induce the expression of Ec-IL-22 in intestine and primary leukocytes from intestine. Importantly, the treatment of recombinant Ec-IL-22 induced the mRNA level of proinflammatory cytokines in primary intestine/head kidney leukocytes. The present results improve the understanding of expression patterns and functional characteristics of fish IL-22 in different organs/tissues/cell types.


Assuntos
Bass , Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Doenças dos Peixes , Proteínas de Peixes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina 22 , Interleucinas , Vibrioses , Vibrio , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , Bass/imunologia , Bass/genética , Vibrio/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/genética , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ranavirus/fisiologia
16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(6): e0053924, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809043

RESUMO

Antibiotics are often used to treat severe Vibrio infections, with third-generation cephalosporins and tetracyclines combined or fluoroquinolones alone being recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increases in antibiotic resistance of both environmental and clinical vibrios are of concern; however, limited longitudinal data have been generated among environmental isolates to inform how resistance patterns may be changing over time. Hence, we evaluated long-term trends in antibiotic resistance of vibrios isolated from Chesapeake Bay waters (Maryland) across two 3-year sampling periods (2009-2012 and 2019-2022). Vibrio parahaemolyticus (n = 134) and Vibrio vulnificus (n = 94) toxR-confirmed isolates were randomly selected from both sampling periods and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility against eight antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. A high percentage (94%-96%) of V. parahaemolyticus isolates from both sampling periods were resistant to ampicillin and only 2%-6% of these isolates expressed intermediate resistance or resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, amikacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Even lower percentages of resistant V. vulnificus isolates were observed and those were mostly recovered from 2009 to 2012, however, the presence of multiple virulence factors was observed. The frequency of multi-drug resistance was relatively low (6%-8%) but included resistance against antibiotics used to treat severe vibriosis in adults and children. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, indicating its sustained efficacy as a first-line agent in the treatment of severe vibriosis. Overall, our data indicate that antibiotic resistance patterns among V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus recovered from the lower Chesapeake Bay have remained relatively stable since 2009.IMPORTANCEVibrio spp. have historically been susceptible to most clinically relevant antibiotics; however, resistance and intermediate-resistance have been increasingly recorded in both environmental and clinical isolates. Our data showed that while the percentage of multi-drug resistance and resistance to antibiotics was relatively low and stable across time, some Vibrio isolates displayed resistance and intermediate resistance to antibiotics typically used to treat severe vibriosis (e.g., third-generation cephalosporins, tetracyclines, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and aminoglycosides). Also, given the high case fatality rates observed with Vibrio vulnificus infections, the presence of multiple virulence factors in the tested isolates is concerning. Nevertheless, the continued susceptibility of all tested isolates against ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is indicative of its use as an effective first-line treatment of severe Vibrio spp. infections stemming from exposure to Chesapeake Bay waters or contaminated seafood ingestion.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Baías , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio vulnificus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio vulnificus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baías/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Maryland , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Humanos
17.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1352469, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711504

RESUMO

Vibriosis, caused by Vibrio, seriously affects the health of fish, shellfish, and shrimps, causing large economic losses. Teleosts are represent the first bony vertebrates with both innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogens. Aquatic animals encounter hydraulic pressure and more pathogens, compared to terrestrial animals. The skin is the first line of defense in fish, constituting the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), which belongs to the main mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). However, little is known about the function of immunity related proteins in fish. Therefore, this study used iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) to compare the skin proteome between the resistant and susceptible families of Cynoglossus semilaevis. The protein integrin beta-2, the alpha-enolase isoform X1, subunit B of V-type proton ATPase, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6, and ubiquitin-like protein ISG15, were highly expressed in the resistant family. The 16S sequencing of the skin tissues of the resistant and susceptible families showed significant differences in the microbial communities of the two families. The protein-microbial interaction identified ten proteins associated with skin microbes, including immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (BCL10) and pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 isoform X2 (PBX2). This study highlights the interaction between skin proteins and the microbial compositions of C. semilaevis and provides new insights into understanding aquaculture breeding research.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes , Proteínas de Peixes , Linguados , Microbiota , Pele , Vibrioses , Vibrio , Animais , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Linguados/imunologia , Linguados/microbiologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Vibrio/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 149: 109574, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692379

RESUMO

B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (BCL2), an anti-apoptotic factor in the mitochondrial regulatory pathway of apoptosis, is critically important in immune defenses. In this study, a novel BCL2 gene was characterized from Pteria penguin (P. penguin). The PpBCL2 was 1482 bp long, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 588 bp encoding 195 amino acids. Four highly conserved BCL-2 homology (BH) domains were found in PpBCL2. Amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree showed that PpBCL2 had the highest similarity with BCL2 of Crassostrea gigas at 65.24 %. Tissue expression analysis showed that PpBCL2 had high constitutive expression in gill, digestive diverticulum and mantle, and was significantly increased 72 h of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) challenge in these immune tissues. Furthermore, PpBCL2 silencing significantly inhibited antimicrobial activity of hemolymph supernatant by 1.4-fold, and significantly reduced the survival rate by 51.7 % at 72 h post infection in P. penguin. These data indicated that PpBCL2 played an important role in immune response of P. penguin against V. parahaemolyticus infection.


Assuntos
Sequência de Aminoácidos , Imunidade Inata , Filogenia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Alinhamento de Sequência , Spheniscidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/imunologia , Spheniscidae/imunologia , Spheniscidae/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Sequência de Bases
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 149: 109550, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593891

RESUMO

Signal transducing adapter molecule 2 (STAM2), a member of the Signal Transducing Adapter Molecule (STAM) family, is a protein with significant implications in diverse signaling pathways and endocytic membrane trafficking. However, the role of the STAM2, especially in fish, remains largely unknown. In this study, we discovered that STAM2 negatively regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway, and its inhibitory effect is enhanced upon LPS induction. Our study confirmed that STAM2 can enhance the degradation of myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88), an upstream regulator of NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the UIM domain of STAM2 is important for the inhibition of MyD88. Mechanistically, STAM2 inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway by targeting the MyD88 autophagy pathway. In addition, we showed that STAM2 promotes the proliferation of Vibrio harveyi. In summary, our study reveals that STAM2 inhibits NF-κB signaling activation and mediates innate immunity in teleost via the autophagy pathway.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Proteínas de Peixes , Imunidade Inata , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , NF-kappa B , Perciformes , Vibrioses , Vibrio , Animais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Perciformes/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
20.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 25(4): 329-331, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608243

RESUMO

Background: Vibrio vulnificus infections develop rapidly and have high mortality and disability rates. Vibrio vulnificus can cause local wound infection, gastroenteritis, or septicemia. Case Presentation: In this case, an 86-year-old male was accidentally stabbed in the middle of his right thumb while cleaning whitewater fish and came to the emergency department with high fever and painful swelling of the right hand. Physical examination revealed hemorrhagic bullae in the right hand. Emergency surgery and bacterial culture were performed. Because of timely antibiotic use and surgical treatment, the patient eventually recovered and was discharged from the hospital. Conclusions: This case suggests that the possibility of Vibrio vulnificus should be considered in cases of severe infection of the extremities, even without a history of seafood consumption or seawater exposure. Early recognition, rational choice of antibiotic agents, and timely wound debridement can substantially improve the prognosis of patients and reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Fasciite Necrosante , Sepse , Vibrioses , Vibrio vulnificus , Humanos , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/cirurgia , Masculino , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrioses/diagnóstico , Vibrioses/tratamento farmacológico , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/cirurgia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Dedos/cirurgia , Dedos/microbiologia , Desbridamento
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