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1.
Gene ; 731: 144349, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935499

RESUMO

Gene expression is the process by which DNA is decoded to produce a functional transcript. The collection of all transcripts is referred to as the transcriptome and has extensively been used to evaluate differentially expressed genes in a certain cell or tissue type. In response to internal or external stimuli, the transcriptome is greatly regulated by epigenetic changes. Many studies have elucidated that antemortem gene expression (transcriptome) may be linked to an array of disease etiologies as well as potential targets for drug discovery; on the other hand, a number of studies have utilized postmortem gene expression (thanatotranscriptome) patterns to determine cause and time of death. The "transcriptome after death" involves the study of mRNA transcripts occurring in human tissues after death (thanatos, Greek for death). While antemortem gene expression can provide a wide range of important information about the host, the determination of the communication of genes after a human dies has recently been explored. After death a plethora of genes are regulated via activation versus repression as well as diverse regulatory factors such as the absence or presence of stimulated feedback. Even postmortem transcriptional regulation contains many more cellular constituents and is massively more complicated. The rates of degradation of mRNA transcripts vary depending on the types of postmortem tissues and their combinatorial gene expression signatures. mRNA molecules have been shown to persist for extended time frames; nevertheless, they are highly susceptible to degradation, with half-lives of selected mRNAs varying between minutes to weeks for specifically induced genes. Furthermore, postmortem genetic studies may be used to improve organ transplantation techniques. This review is the first of its kind to fully explore both gene expression and mRNA stability after death and the trove of information that can be provided about phenotypical characteristics of specific genes postmortem.


Assuntos
Morte , Vida , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Autopsia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética
6.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124475, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549636

RESUMO

Two commercial coating systems, each one consisting of both a primer and an antifouling ("System 1" based on Copper Oxide and "System 2" based on Zinc Oxide), have been analyzed in order to investigate their environmental impacts through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and laboratory tests. A cradle-to-grave analysis has been performed in order to quantify the environmental footprint of each coating solution and to define which element, material, or process mainly affect the environmental impact of such products. Moreover, it was performed a comparison between the different products to determine the most environmentally sustainable choice. In addition to LCA, several incubations of coated metal samples, by means of an innovative incubation system developed by the authors, have also been performed in marine water (Gulf of Naples, Mediterranean Sea, Italy), as critical environment favoring metal corrosion and biofouling generation. The life cycle analysis has showed that the production phase presents the highest environmental impact in almost all categories, mainly due to the use of chemical compounds. Moreover, after the laboratory tests, strong biotoxicity and contaminant diffusion, contributing to the marine toxicity potential, have been observed for both the commercial paints. As a final remark, there are straightforward indications of a strong need for anti-Microbial-Induced-Corrosion commercial coatings to substitute the toxic compounds with others in order to develop a greener solution.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Cobre , Ecossistema , Itália , Vida , Mar Mediterrâneo , Metais/análise , Pintura , Óxido de Zinco/análise
7.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(1): 1620552, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533574

RESUMO

This article explains how the strategic use of public health evidence, showing that criminalisation of abortion does not result in lower abortion rates, is changing the way judges are confronting constitutional challenges to abortion regulations. The state may have a legitimate interest - and in some legal systems, a duty - to protect prenatal life. Nevertheless, courts are upholding regulations liberalising abortion and declaring criminalisation regimes unconstitutional. This is possible given that lower abortion rates are not achieved through criminalisation, but through preventive policies. In addition, courts uphold liberalisation when the infringement of women's rights resulting from criminalisation outweighs its purported benefits. This new legal narrative has been developed during the last decades by a series of court decisions in Europe and Latin America, and may prove useful for legal advocacy in some countries in Africa. The narrative combines the use of an analytical framework called the proportionality principle with an interpretation of constitutional rights that draws from gender-sensitive international human rights standards and factual evidence about the effects of criminalisation on women's lives and health.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , África , Crime , Europa (Continente) , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , América Latina , Vida , Política , Saúde Pública , Direitos da Mulher
8.
Gastroenterology ; 157(5): 1443-1444, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513798
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 135, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion continues to be a major hazard for maternal health in Sub-Saharan Africa, where abortion remains highly controversial and access to safe abortion services is unequally distributed. Although national abortion laws are central in indicating women's potential for accessing safe abortion services, the character of an abortion law may alone say little about national discursive abortion landscapes and access scenarios. The article calls for the study and problematization of the relationship between legal abortion frameworks on the one hand, and discourses surrounding abortion on the other, in an attempt to move closer to an understanding of the complexity of factors that influence knowledge about and access to safer abortion services. With the restrictive abortion law in Tanzania as a starting point, the paper explores the ways in which the major global abortion discourses manifest themselves in the country and indicate potential implications of a hybrid abortion regime. METHODS: The study combined a review of major legal and policy documents on abortion, a review of publications on abortion in Tanzanian newspapers between 2000 and 2015 (300 articles), and 23 semi-structured qualitative interviews with representatives from central institutions and organizations engaged in policy- or practical work related to reproductive health. RESULTS: Tanzania's abortion law is highly restrictive, but the discursive abortion landscape is diverse and is made manifest through legal- and policy documents and legal- and policy related disputes. The discourses were characterized by diverse frames of reference based in religion, public health and in human rights-based values, and as such reflect the major global discourses. Fairclough's concepts interdiscursivity and recontextualization were drawn upon to develop an understanding of how the concepts health, rights and life emerge across the discourses, but are employed in contrasting lines of argumentation in struggles for hegemony and legitimacy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The paper demonstrates that a hybrid discursive regime relating to abortion characterizes the legally restrictive abortion context of Tanzania. We argue that such a complex discursive landscape, which cuts across the restrictive - liberal divide, generates an environment that seems to open avenues for enhanced access to abortion related knowledge and services.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Vida , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Tanzânia , Direitos da Mulher
10.
Nature ; 573(7772): 15, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485070
11.
Bioethics ; 33(8): 965-967, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389040

RESUMO

Joona Räsänen has argued that pro-life arguments against the permissibility of infanticide are not persuasive, and fail to show it to be immoral. We responded to Räsänen's arguments, concluding that his critique of pro-life arguments was misplaced. Räsänen has recently replied in 'Why pro-life arguments still are not convincing: A reply to my critics', providing some additional arguments as to why he does not find pro-life arguments against infanticide convincing. Here, we respond briefly to Räsänen's critique of the substance view, and also to his most important claim: that possession of a right to life by an infant does not rule out the permissibility of infanticide. We demonstrate that this claim is unfounded, and conclude that Räsänen has not refuted pro-life arguments against infanticide.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Vida , Dissidências e Disputas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infanticídio , Masculino , Gravidez , Valor da Vida
13.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 805-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414857

RESUMO

In hybrid foraging tasks, observers search visual displays, so called patches, for multiple instances of any of several types of targets with the goal of collecting targets as quickly as possible. Here, targets were photorealistic objects. Younger and older adults collected targets by mouse clicks. They could move to the next patch whenever they decided to do so. The number of targets held in memory varied between 8 and 64 objects, and the number of items (targets and distractors) in the patches varied between 60 and 105 objects. Older adults foraged somewhat less efficiently than younger adults due to a more exploitative search strategy. When target items became depleted in a patch and search slowed down, younger adults acted according to the optimal foraging theory and moved on to the next patch when the instantaneous rate of collection was close to their average rate of collection. Older adults, by contrast, were more likely to stay longer and spend time searching for the last few targets. Within a patch, both younger and older adults tended to collect the same type of target in "runs." This behavior is more efficient than continual switching between target types. Furthermore, after correction for general age-related slowing, RT × set size functions revealed largely preserved attention and memory functions in older age. Hybrid foraging tasks share features with important real-world search tasks. Differences between younger and older observers on this task may therefore help to explain age differences in many complex search tasks of daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atenção/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Memória , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(656): 1282-1285, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268257

RESUMO

Chronic pain is strongly related to the emotional state of the individual and may be associated with suicidal ideation. The concepts of demoralization and meaning in life may have a role in suicidal ideation as a factor of crisis and resilience, respectively. Demoralization, and especially one of its elements, hopelessness, predisposes to suicidal behavior and is often associated with chronic pain conditions. In addition, the meaning that a patient with chronic pain attributes to his or her existence may also influence suicidal behavior. Follow-ups focused on demoralization and meaning in life may be a promising psychotherapeutic approach for patients suffering from chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Vida , Ideação Suicida , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Autoimagem
18.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 862-866, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328930

RESUMO

Psychological research on regret has focused mostly on the negative emotions associated with troubling past decisions. Because aging is associated with a preference for positive information in attention and memory, investigation into positive emotions elicited by regrets may provide insights into adult developmental changes in subjective experience. The present study investigated age differences in regret-related affect in a survey of adults (n = 629) aged 18-92 years. Positive and negative affect emerged as discrete dimensions of regret-related affect with age trajectories that benefit well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções , Memória , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Orig Life Evol Biosph ; 49(1-2): 77-88, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222432

RESUMO

A new definition of life is proposed and discussed in the present article. It is formulated by modifying and extending NASA's working definition of life, which postulates that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution". The new definition includes a thermodynamical aspect of life as a far from equilibrium system and considers the flow of information from the environment to the living system. In our derivation of the definition of life we have assumed the hypothesis, that during the emergence of life evolution had to first involve autocatalytic systems that only subsequently acquired the capacity of genetic heredity. The new proposed definition of life is independent of the mode of evolution, regardless of whether Lamarckian or Darwinian evolution operated at the origins of life and throughout evolutionary history. The new definition of life presented herein is formulated in a minimal manner and it is general enough that it does not distinguish between individual (metabolic) network and the collective (ecological) one. The newly proposed definition of life may be of interest for astrobiology, research into the origins of life or for efforts to produce synthetic or artificial life, and it furthermore may also have implications in the cognitive and computer sciences.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Vida , Origem da Vida , Termodinâmica
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