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1.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101998, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634630

RESUMO

Moniezia expansa and M. benedeni are two common tapeworm species of domestic ruminants over the world. However, their morphological and molecular data are available for limited specimens from a few countries. In the present study, we compared morphological characteristics of these two species collected from goats and cattle in northern Vietnam and analyzed their phylogenetic relationship based on the 5.8S and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species are clearly distinguishable from one another not only in the morphological appearance of the interproglottidal glands but also in the gross appearance of mature and gravid proglottids. Molecular analyses revealed that the 5.8S-ITS2 sequences of Vietnamese M. expansa were highly similar (99.7%) to the sequences from Japan and India, and made a common clade, which was clearly distinct from M. benedeni of Vietnam. For cox1 sequences, Vietnamese M. expansa showed a high similarity to and were grouped with the sequences from Ethiopia and some sequences from Senegal and China to make a common clade, which was separated from the remaining clades of Senegal and China. The cox1 sequences of M. benedeni from China, Vietnam, and Senegal were far distant (10.0-15.9%) from each other. The results of this study suggest that more sequence data of Moniezia species with details of morphological features from various geographical locations should be obtained to clarify the taxonomic status of Moniezia species.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Geografia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Vietnã/epidemiologia
2.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105221, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654901

RESUMO

Opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma (OV-CCA) is a major public health problem in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Countries, the poorest region in Asia. People in this region have similar traditions or respect the same religion. There is no difference in lifestyle and food culture. Excluding Thailand, publications on risk factors for OV-CCA from the GMS Countries are few, especially data on behavioral risk factors for OV-CCA. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the behavior-related risk factors and to compare the risk of OV-CCA among rural people living along the Mekong River in five GMS countries. It was a cross-sectional analytic study during June and October 2017. All participants with informed consent completed the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of risk factors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were used to compare the risk of OV-CCA. It was found that there were more drinkers than non-drinkers in all areas, except in Vietnam. The highest history of liver fluke infection was found in Cambodia. Praziquantel use and consumption of raw freshwater fish dishes were mostly found in Lao PDR. The highest consumption of nitrosamine-contaminated foodstuffs was found in Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The spatial comparison of OV-CCA risk showed that Lao PDR and Ubon Ratchathani were two risk areas when compared to Tachileik, Myanmar (a reference area). This study provided the behavior-related risk factors for OV-CCA among people in five GMS Countries which would be a major jigsaw puzzle leading to proactive surveillance for OV-CCA prevention in the future.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007928, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus (ST) is a leading cause of non-malarial febrile illness in Southeast Asia, but evidence of its true disease burden is limited because of difficulties of making the clinical diagnosis and lack of adequate diagnostic tests. To describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ST, we conducted an observational study using multiple diagnostic assays at a national tertiary hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We enrolled 1,127 patients hospitalized with documented fever between June 2012 and May 2013. Overall, 33 (2.9%) patients were diagnosed with ST by PCR and/or screening of ELISA for immunoglobulin M (IgM) with confirmatory tests: 14 (42.4%) were confirmed by indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IIP), and 19 (57.6%) were by IIP and PCR. Living by farming, conjunctival injection, eschar, aspartate aminotransferase elevation, and alanine aminotransferase elevation were significantly associated with ST cases (adjusted odds ratios (aORs): 2.8, 3.07, 48.8, 3.51, and 4.13, respectively), and having a comorbidity and neutrophilia were significantly less common in ST cases (aORs: 0.29 and 0.27, respectively). The majority of the ST cases were not clinically diagnosed with rickettsiosis (72.7%). Dominant IIP reactions against a single antigen were identified in 15 ST cases, whereas indistinguishably high reactions against multiple antigens were seen in 11 ST cases. The most frequently observed dominant IIP reaction was against Karp antigen (eight cases) followed by Gilliam (four cases). The highest diagnostic accuracy of IgM ELISA in acute samples was 78%. In a phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene, the majority (14 cases) were located in the Karp-related branch followed by the Gilliam-related (two cases), Kato-related (two cases), and TA763-related clades (one case). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both the clinical and laboratory diagnoses of ST remain challenging at a tertiary hospital. Implementation of both serological and nucleic acid amplification assays covering endemic O. tsutsugamushi strains is essential.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/patologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(8): 701-709, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852228

RESUMO

Low back pain (LBP) is a universal public health problem for all age groups, related to the upright stance of humans. Postpartum LBP is more common and can lead to limitations to women's daily activity. Knowledge about preventing postpartum LBP is limited, and the relationship between prenatal physical activity (PA) and LBP remains inconclusive. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1807 singleton pregnant Vietnamese women to investigate the association between prenatal PA and postpartum LBP using logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of postpartum LBP was 12.3% (n = 222). Women reporting LBP spent more hours sitting per week. Relative to the lowest level of total PA, the highest level was associated with reduced odds of postpartum LBP (odds ratio = 0.55; 95% confidence interval = 0.38-0.80). Inverse associations with LBP were also observed for light intensity, moderate-to-vigorous intensity, household/caregiving, occupational, and transportation activities. Overall, prenatal PA was inversely associated with postpartum LBP in Vietnamese women.


Assuntos
Exercício , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 515, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is a health problem in Vietnam, but appropriate information is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, epidemiological aspects, symptoms and other health indicators of Strongyloides stercoralis infections in patients from 27 provinces of northern Vietnam attending the Hanoi Medical University Hospital during 2016 and 2017. METHODS: Blood samples of 2000 patients were analyzed for S. stercoralis infection with an IgG ELISA test. Seroprevalence was analyzed by gender, age group, locality of origin (rural or urban areas) and symptoms. Stools from the seropositive patients were examined for the detection of worms which were subsequently used for species identification by morphology and rDNA ITS1 sequencing. RESULTS: A seroprevalence of 20% was detected, showing an increasing prevalence from young to older age groups but without significant gender difference. Seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in urban areas, both in general and individually in all provinces without exception, and lower in the mountainous areas than in the large valley lowlands. The follow-up of the 400 patients showed eosinophilia in 100% of cases, diarrhoea in 64.5%, digestion difficulties in 58.0%, stomachache in 45.5%, stomach and duodenal ulcers in 44.5%, itching in 28.0% and fever in 9.5%. The prevalence of symptoms and signs were also higher in older age groups than in younger age groups. Worms were detected in stools of 10.5% of the patients. Sequencing of a 501-bp nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment allowed for the verification of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the largest survey of human strongyloidiasis in Vietnam so far and the first molecular identification of this nematode species in this country. Long-term chronicity may probably be usual in infected subjects, mainly in the older age groups.


Assuntos
Strongyloides stercoralis/genética , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA Ribossômico/análise , DNA Ribossômico/química , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Strongyloides stercoralis/imunologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1478, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB) has increased rapidly in Vietnam. This study aimed to elucidate the factors influencing OW/OB among secondary schoolchildren. METHOD: A survey was conducted in January 2014 in four randomly selected state schools in two Hanoi urban districts, and 821 students in grade six (11-12 years old) participated. Definitions of OW/OB followed the World Health Organization standard cut-offs. RESULTS: Overall, 4.1% of children were underweight, 59.7% were normal weight, 17.1% were overweight, and 19.1% were obese. The odds of OW/OB were lowest among children whose parents had college/university degrees [father (aOR =0.65, 95% CI: 0.42-1.00); mother (aOR =0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.97)] compared with those whose parents had only a primary education. Children with an OW/OB family history had an increased risk of OW/OB. Other associated factors include parental OW/OB and birth weight (BW). The odds of OW/OB were highest among children with parents with OW/OB [father (aOR =2.022, 95% CI: 1.34-3.04); mother (aOR =2.83, 95% CI: 1.51-5.30)] compared with those with normal-weight parents. Children with both parents having OW/OB [both parents (aOR =6.59, 95% CI: 1.28-33.87) had the highest risk, followed by one parent (aOR =2.22, 95% CI: 1.50-3.27)] and then neither parent having OW/OB. Moreover, high-birth-weight children [BW ≥ 3500 g (aOR =1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15)] had greater odds than did normal-birth-weight children. Children who slept 11 h per day [8-11 h (aOR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.81) or more (aOR =0.44, 95% CI: 0.22-0.87)] had lower OW/OB odds than those who slept 8 h or less. Children with specific positive lifestyle behaviours had lower risk of OW/OB than those who did not engage in positive lifestyle behaviours. The odds were lower among children who exercised for weight reduction (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.11-0.23), lowered food intake (aOR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.09-0.17), and added vegetables to their diet (aOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19-0.35). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that parents and children with OW/OB parents or a high BW should be educated to prevent OW/OB at an early stage. Positive lifestyle behaviours should be adopted by the students.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 933, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has emerged as a major public health issue in Vietnam since 2003. We aimed to investigate the household transmission of HFMD and its causative viruses from 150 households in a high incidence province in Vietnam. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted in patients presenting to the provincial hospital with a HFMD-like syndrome, along with their household members between April and August 2014 in Dong Thap Province. Each participant was followed up for 2 weeks. We enrolled 150 patients aged under 15 who were clinically diagnosed with HFMD in Dong Thap Hospital, 600 household members, and 581/600 household members completed the study. All participants were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Throat swabs and blood samples were taken for molecular detection of viruses and assessment of neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Index cases were defined using a clinical case definition, household contact cases were defined using a similar definition applied to the 2 weeks before admission and 2 weeks after discharge of the index case. Characteristics of index cases, household contacts, the attack rate, serotype features and related factors of HFMD were reported. RESULT: Among 150 index cases, 113 were laboratory confirmed: 90/150 were RT-PCR-positive, 101/142 had a ≥ 4-fold increase of neutralizing antibody against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 or CV-A16 across the two samples collected. 80/150 (53%) were males, and 45/150 (30%) were under the age of 1. The predominant serotype was CV-A6, identified in 57/87 (65.5%) of the specimens. No deaths were reported. Among 581 household contacts, 148 were laboratory confirmed: 12/581 were RT-PCR-positive, 142/545 had a ≥ 4-fold increase of neutralizing antibodies against EV-A71, CV-A6 or CV-A16; 4 cases experienced HFMD in the past 4 weeks. Attack rate among household contacts was 148/581 (25.5%). In 7/12 (58%) instances, the index and secondary cases were infected with the same serotype. Having a relationship to index case was significantly associated with EV infection. CONCLUSION: The attack rate among household contacts was relatively high (25.5%) in this study and it seems justified to also consider the household setting as an additional target for intervention programs.


Assuntos
Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/transmissão , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Sorogrupo , Vietnã/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(11): 117007, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous literature suggests that higher ambient temperature may play a role in increasing the risk of suicide. However, no multi-country study has explored the shape of the association and the role of moderate and extreme heat across different locations. OBJECTIVES: We examined the short-term temperature-suicide relationship using daily time-series data collected for 341 locations in 12 countries for periods ranging from 4 to 40 y. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we performed location-specific time-stratified case-crossover analyses to examine the temperature-suicide association for each location. Then, we used a multivariate meta-regression to combine the location-specific lag-cumulative nonlinear associations across all locations and by country. RESULTS: A total of 1,320,148 suicides were included in this study. Higher ambient temperature was associated with an increased risk of suicide in general, and we observed a nonlinear association (inverted J-shaped curve) with the highest risk at 27°C. The relative risk (RR) for the highest risk was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.36) compared with the risk at the first percentile. Country-specific results showed that the nonlinear associations were more obvious in northeast Asia (Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan). The temperature with the highest risk of suicide ranged from the 87th to 88th percentiles in the northeast Asian countries, whereas this value was the 99th percentile in Western countries (Canada, Spain, Switzerland, the UK, and the United States) and South Africa, where nearly linear associations were estimated. The country-specific RRs ranged from 1.31 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.44) in the United States to 1.65 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.93) in Taiwan, excluding countries where the results were substantially uncertain. DISCUSSION: Our findings showed that the risk of suicide increased with increasing ambient temperature in many countries, but to varying extents and not necessarily linearly. This temperature-suicide association should be interpreted cautiously, and further evidence of the relationship and modifying factors is needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4898.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Filipinas/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007774, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770384

RESUMO

Urban livestock provides an important source of food and income, but it may increase the risks for disease transmission. Vectors, such as mosquitoes, might increase and thereby cause an enhanced transmission of infectious diseases, such as dengue fever; considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease globally. This cross-sectional study evaluated the awareness of dengue fever and investigated how the presence of dengue vectors is affected by the keeping of livestock in urban households in the city of Hanoi, Vietnam. From February to March 2018, during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue in Hanoi, 140 households were interviewed, of which 69 kept livestock. A general trend was observed; respondents living in the Dan Phuong district, a peri-urban district, had better knowledge and practice regarding dengue as compared to the urban Ha Dong district. In total, 3899 mosquitoes were collected and identified, of which 52 (1.33%) were Aedes species. A significant difference between the two districts was observed, with more households in Ha Dong having Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.02) and a higher incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.001). There was no significant association between livestock-rearing and the presence of Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.955), or between livestock-rearing and the incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.08). In conclusion, this study could not find any indication that households keeping livestock were at higher risk of dengue virus infections in Hanoi during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue, but clearly indicated the need of more information provided to urban inhabitants, particularly on personal protection.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Gado/virologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/virologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 199-212, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564730

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal viral disease that causes an estimated 59,000 human deaths each year. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries in Asia. Canine rabies is endemic to Vietnam, which is, however, moving towards the disease's elimination. Many countries, such as Vietnam, have invested tremendous resources in controlling rabies, highlighting the goal of regional and global elimination of this neglected disease. In Vietnam, rabies is recognised as one of five high-priority, zoonotic diseases by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Investment by the government and by international partners for rabies prevention and control has played a substantial role in reducing human rabies deaths from 404 cases in 1992 to 74 cases in 2017. The catalyst for this effort was the Prime Minister's creation of the National Rabies Program in 1996, which led to increased support and resources for rabies prevention and control. Interventions carried out since then include the expansion of post-exposure prophylaxis centres throughout the country, the introduction or revision of key legislation and guidelines, and improved multisectoral One Health collaboration. In addition, support from international partners, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has helped to increase awareness, manage dog populations more effectively, and improve Vietnam's surveillance and diagnostic capabilities. To pursue the goal of eliminating dog-mediated rabies in Vietnam, political commitment is crucial. Resources must be made available to enforce the regulations and guidelines that will enable Vietnam to achieve greater canine rabies vaccination coverage. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the animal and human health systems in Vietnam, as well as past, current and future directions of rabies prevention and control.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Raiva , Animais , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1347-1357, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has set ambitious targets for the global elimination of tuberculosis. However, these targets will not be achieved at the current rate of progress. METHODS: We performed a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, to evaluate the effectiveness of active community-wide screening, as compared with standard passive case detection alone, for reducing the prevalence of tuberculosis. Persons 15 years of age or older who resided in 60 intervention clusters (subcommunes) were screened for pulmonary tuberculosis, regardless of symptoms, annually for 3 years, beginning in 2014, by means of rapid nucleic acid amplification testing of spontaneously expectorated sputum samples. Active screening was not performed in the 60 control clusters in the first 3 years. The primary outcome, measured in the fourth year, was the prevalence of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis among persons 15 years of age or older. The secondary outcome was the prevalence of tuberculosis infection, as assessed by an interferon gamma release assay in the fourth year, among children born in 2012. RESULTS: In the fourth-year prevalence survey, we tested 42,150 participants in the intervention group and 41,680 participants in the control group. A total of 53 participants in the intervention group (126 per 100,000 population) and 94 participants in the control group (226 per 100,000) had pulmonary tuberculosis, as confirmed by a positive nucleic acid amplification test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (prevalence ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.78; P<0.001). The prevalence of tuberculosis infection in children born in 2012 was 3.3% in the intervention group and 2.6% in the control group (prevalence ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.70 to 2.36; P = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: Three years of community-wide screening in persons 15 years of age or older who resided in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, resulted in a lower prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in the fourth year than standard passive case detection alone. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; ACT3 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000372684.).


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614836

RESUMO

Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is critical to evaluate the burden of frailty in the older population.This study explored the prevalence of frailty among Vietnamese older people in rural communities, determined the factors associated with frailty, and examined the differences in HRQOL between non-frail, pre-frail, and frail people. A cross-sectional study was conducted on older adults (≥60 years old) residing in Soc Son district, northern Vietnam. Non-frailty, pre-frailty, and frailty conditions were evaluated using Fried's frailty criteria. The EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Levels(EQ-5D-5L) instrument was employed to measure HRQOL. Socioeconomic, behavioral, health status, and healthcare utilization characteristics were collected as covariates. Among 523 older adults, 65.6% were pre-frail, and 21.7% were frail. The mean EQ-5D-5L indexes of the non-frailty, pre-frailty, and frailty groups were 0.70 (SD = 0.18), 0.70 (SD = 0.19), and 0.58 (SD = 0.20), respectively. The differences were found between non-frailty and frailty groups (p < 0.01), as well as the pre-frailty and frailty groups (p<0.01). After adjusting for covariates, the estimated mean difference in the HRQOL between the non-frailty and frailty groups was -0.10 (95%CI= -0.17; -0.02) (R2 = 45.2%), showing a 10% reduction of the maximum EQ-5D-5L index.This study emphasized the high prevalence of frailty among older adults in the rural communities of Vietnam. Frailty was found to be associated with a small reduction of HRQOL in this population.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569612

RESUMO

Although comorbidities are prevalent in older people experiencing falls, there is a lack of studies examining their influence on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in this population. This study examines the prevalence of comorbidities and associations between comorbidities and HRQOL in older patients after falls in Vietnamese hospitals. A cross-sectional design was employed among 405 older patients admitted to seven hospitals due to fall injuries in Thai Binh province, Vietnam. The EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) was used to measure HRQOL. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire, while comorbidities and other clinical characteristics were examined by physicians and extracted from medical records. Multivariate Tobit regression was used to determine the associations between comorbidities and HRQOL. Among 405 patients, 75.6% had comorbidities, of which hypertension and osteoarthritis were the most common. Lumbar spine/cervical spine diseases (Coefficient (Coef.) = -0.10; 95%CI = -0.18; 0.03) and stroke (Coef. = -0.36; 95%CI = -0.61; -0.10) were found to be associated with a significantly decreased EQ-5D index. Participants with three comorbidities had EQ-5D indexes 0.20 points lower (Coef. = -0.20; 95%CI = -0.31; -0.09) in comparison with those without comorbidities. This study underlined a significantly high proportion of comorbidities in older patients hospitalized due to fall injuries in Vietnam. In addition, the existence of comorbidities was associated with deteriorating HRQOL. Frequent monitoring and screening comorbidities are critical to determining which individuals are most in need of HRQOL enhancement.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 822, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines and targets for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on school-based deworming for school-age children, given the high risk of associated morbidity in this age group. However, expanding deworming to all age groups may achieve improved STH control among both the community in general and school-age children, by reducing their risk of reinfection. This trial aims to compare school-based targeted deworming with community-wide mass deworming in terms of impact on STH infections among school-age children. METHODS: The CoDe-STH (Community Deworming against STH) trial is a cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 64 primary schools in Dak Lak province, Vietnam. The control arm will receive one round of school-based targeted deworming with albendazole, while in the intervention arm, community-wide mass deworming with albendazole will be implemented alongside school-based deworming. Prevalence of STH infections will be measured in school-age children at baseline and 12 months following deworming. The primary outcome is hookworm prevalence in school-age children at 12 months, by quantitative PCR. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with outcomes compared between study arms using generalised linear and non-linear mixed models. Additionally, cost-effectiveness of mass and targeted deworming will be calculated and compared, and focus group discussions and interviews will be used to assess acceptability and feasibility of deworming approaches. Individual based stochastic models will be used to predict the impact of mass and targeted deworming strategies beyond the RCT timeframe to assess the likelihood of parasite population 'bounce-back' if deworming is ceased due to low STH prevalence. DISCUSSION: The first large-scale trial comparing mass and targeted deworming for STH control in South East Asia will provide key information for policy makers regarding the optimal design of STH control programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12619000309189 .


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Helmintíase/economia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 454, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite great success in significantly reducing the malaria burden in Viet Nam over recent years, the ongoing presence of malaria vectors and Plasmodium infection in remote forest areas and among marginalised groups presents a challenge to reaching elimination and a threat to re-emergence of transmission. Often transmission persists in a population despite high reported coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), the mainstay control method for malaria. To investigate what factors may contribute to this, a mixed-methods study was conducted in Son Thai commune, a community in south-central Viet Nam that has ongoing malaria cases despite universal LLIN coverage. A cross-sectional behavioural and net-coverage survey was conducted along with observations of net use and entomological collections in the village, farm huts and forest sites used by members of the community. RESULTS: Most community members owned a farm hut plot and 71.9% of adults aged 18+ years sometimes slept overnight in the farm hut, while one-third slept overnight in the forest. Ownership and use of nets in the village households was high but in the farm huts and forest was much lower; only 44.4% reported regularly using a bednet in the farm and 12.1% in the forest. No primary anopheline species were captured in the village, but Anopheles dirus (s.l.) (n = 271) and An. maculatus (s.l.) (n = 14) were captured as far as 4.5 km away in farm huts and forest. A high proportion of biting was conducted in the early evening before people were under nets. Entomological inoculation rates (EIR) of An. dirus (s.l.) were 17.8 and 25.3 infectious bites per person per year in the outdoor farm hut sites and forest, respectively, for Plasmodium falciparum and 25.3 in the forest sites for P. vivax. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high net coverage in the village, gaps in coverage and access appear in the farm huts and forest where risk of anopheline biting and parasite transmission is much greater. Since subsistence farming and forest activities are integral to these communities, new personal protection methods need to be explored for use in these areas that can ideally engage with the community, be durable, portable and require minimal behavioural change.


Assuntos
Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anopheles/parasitologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Malária/transmissão , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Florestas , Humanos , Mosquiteiros , Vietnã/epidemiologia
17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(9): 2757-2761, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554374

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to characterize the expression of LMP-1, LMP-2 in clinical swab samples in order to find out the potential molecular based biomarker for NPC diagnosis and screening, which could offer a chance in development of rapid method for NPC diagnosis in Vietnamese population. Materials and Methods: A total of 93 nasopharyngeal carcinoma swab samples and 100 healthy nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected to evaluate LMP-1, LMP-2 expression by Real-time reversed PCR. Results: we figured out the significant association between the expression of LMP-1 (counting for 48.39%), LMP-2 (counting for 39.78%) and NPC. No LMP-1 expression was observed, and only 1 of 100 specimens was detected with LMP-2 positive in healthy samples. In the combination of LMP-1 (+) and/or LMP-2 (+), the frequency of positive was 53.76%, greater than each gene expression. Additionally, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of assay were 99.00%, 98.04%, 69.72%, and 77.02%, respectively. Additionally, the LMP-2 expression level was 5.50 times higher in NPC samples than non-cancerous samples. Conclusion: Our results indicated the molecular invasive method based on the expression of LMP-1, LMP-2 in swab samples would be a promising supplement in NPC diagnosis, screening in the near future in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(9): 2775-2780, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554376

RESUMO

Background: The picture of Vietnamese patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) remains mostly undetermined. Our study intended to determine the frequency of JAK2V617F, CALR exon 9, and MPL exon 10 mutations as well as to analyze clinical characteristics associated with different mutational status in Vietnamese ET patients. Methods: We explored mutations of JAK2V617F, MPL, and CALR from 395 patients using allele specific oligonucleotide ­ polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing techniques; then, the clinical and hematological features were compared according to mutation patterns. Results: We found that JAK2V617F, CALR exon 9, and MPL exon 10 mutations were present in 56.2%, 27.6%, and 1% of the 395 patients with ET, respectively. Twelve different types of CALR mutation were detected in 109 patients, with the CALR type 1 mutation (c.1099_1150del; L367fs*46) was the most common, followed by CALR type 2 mutation (c.1154_1155insTTGTC; K385fs*47). The JAK2V617F-positive patients had older age, higher white blood cell counts and higher hemoglobin levels but lower platelet counts than patients with CALR mutations or patients negative for triple tests. There was no significant difference regarding sex ratio, white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin levels among CALR mutation subtypes. Conclusion: we reported high frequency of JAK2V617F, CALR, and MPL mutations in Vietnamese patients with ET and underscored the importance of combined genetic tests for diagnosis and classification of ET into different subtypes.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Mutação , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombocitemia Essencial/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500107

RESUMO

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been scaled up significantly in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of polysubstance use in 395 MMT patients and its contextualized associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in three outpatient MMT clinics in Nam Dinh Province. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with polysubstance use status. The mean MMT duration and the current MMT dose was 3.3 years and 69.2 mg, respectively. Among participants, 24.8% reported daily alcohol use, 68.6% smoked regularly, and 6% used illicit drugs. Peer pressure and MMT suboptimal adherence were found to associate with continual usage of drugs (47.8%). Participants who lived with a spouse/partner, were self-employed, and smoked were more likely to drink alcohol. Those who drink were also more likely to smoke, and vice versa. Recommendations for policymakers include community-based education and promotional programs aiming to decrease substance usage in the community as well as encouraging and supporting the private health sector in establishing private MMT services and clinics. Further longitudinal studies on polysubstance usage among MMT patients should also be conducted.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of evidence on the burden and risk factors for malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Vietnam limits evidence-based interventions. We aimed to define the nutritional status of children with CP in Vietnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study utilized data from active prospective hospital-based surveillance modelled on the Pediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance system. Children (0-18 years) with CP attending the National Children's Hospital Hanoi, Vietnam between June-November 2017 were included. Data on demographic, clinical and rehabilitation status were collected following detailed neurodevelopmental assessment. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Nutritional status was determined using the World Health Organization guideline. RESULTS: Of 765 children (the mean (SD) age was 2.6 (2.5) years; 35.8% were female), 28.9% (n = 213) were underweight and 29.0% (n = 214) stunted. The odds of underweight were significantly higher among children aged >5 years and/or having a monthly family income of <50 USD. Underweight and/or stunting was high among children with quadriplegia (81%, n = 60 and 84.5%, n = 87) and/or Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level IV-V (62.5%, n = 45 and 67.0%, n = 67). Nearly one-third of intellectually impaired and more than half of hearing-impaired children were underweight and/or stunted. CONCLUSIONS: Poor economic status and increased motor severity increased vulnerability to malnutrition. Our findings will inform nutritional rehabilitation programs among these vulnerable children.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Crianças com Deficiência , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/reabilitação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/reabilitação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/reabilitação , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
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