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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440841

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has become one of the most serious health crises in human history, spreading rapidly across the globe from January 2020 to the present. With prompt and drastic measures, Vietnam is one of the few countries that has largely succeeded in controlling the outbreak. This result is derived from a harmonious combination of many factors, with the policy system playing a key role. This study assessed the policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam from the early days of the outbreak in January 2020 to 24 July 2020 (with a total of 413 cases confirmed and 99 days of no new cases infected from the local community) by synthesizing and evaluating 959 relevant policy documents in different classifications. The findings show that the Vietnamese policy system responded promptly, proactively, and effectively at multiple authority levels (33 different agencies from the national to provincial governments), using a range of policy tools and measures. Parallel to the daily occurrence of 2.24 new cases, 5.13 new policy documents were issued on average per day over the study period. The pandemic policy response over the first six months in Vietnam were divided into four periods, I (23 January-5 March), II (6-19 March), III (20 March-21 April), and IV (22 April-24 July). This paper synthesizes eight solution groups for these four anti-pandemic phases, including outbreak announcements and steering documents, medical measures, blockade of the schools, emergency responses, border and entry control measures, social isolation and nationwide social isolation measures, financial supports, and other measures. By emphasizing diversification of the policy responses, from the agencies to the tools and measures, the case study reviews and shares lessons from the successful COVID-19 prevention and control in Vietnam that could be useful for other nations.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Políticas , /prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia
2.
Front Public Health ; 8: 589437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313040

RESUMO

To effectively control the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) outbreak in later stages in Vietnam requires addressing the existing gaps in the national health emergency framework, consolidate, and inform its structure, we conducted this study to evaluate the importance and collaborative mechanism between health and community service workers with intersectional organizations at grassroots levels in Vietnam. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted from 12/2019 to 02/2020 on 581 participants (37 health workers, 473 medical students, and 71 community service workers). The snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants. We used exploratory factor analysis to test the construct validity of the questionnaire measuring the perceived efficiency of involving community service workers in health care-related activities and Tobit models to examine its associated factors. The results showed the importance of local organizations in epidemic preparedness and response at grassroots levels, with scores ranging from 6.4 to 7.1, in which the Vietnam Youth Federation played the most important role (mean = 7.1, SD = 2.2). Of note, community service workers were viewed as performing well in health communication and education at agencies, schools, and other localities. Medical students perceived higher efficiency of involving community service workers in health care-related activities at grassroots levels as compared to health workers. We encourage the government to promote intersectoral collaboration in epidemic preparedness and response, giving attention to scale up throughout training as well as interdistrict and interprovincial governance mechanisms.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Defesa Civil , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , /transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vietnam applied strict quarantine measures to mitigate the rapid transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus. Central questions were how the COVID-19 pandemic affected health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the Vietnamese general population, and whether there is any difference in HRQOL among people under different quarantine conditions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 1 April- 30 May 2020 when the COVID-19 pandemic was at its peak in Vietnam. Data was collected via an online survey using Google survey tool. A convenient sampling approach was employed, with participants being sorted into three groups: people who were in government quarantine facilities; people who were under self-isolation at their own place; and the general population who did not need enforced quarantine. The Vietnamese EQ-5D-5L instrument was used to measure HRQOL. Differences in HRQOL among people of isolation groups and their socio-demographic characteristics were statistically tested. RESULTS: A final sample was made of 406 people, including 10 persons from government quarantine facilities, 57 persons under self-isolation at private places, and the rest were the general population. The mean EQ-VAS was reported the highest at 90.5 (SD: 7.98) among people in government quarantine facilities, followed by 88.54 (SD: 12.24) among general population and 86.54 (SD 13.69) among people in self-isolation group. The EQ-5D-5L value was reported the highest among general population at 0.95 (SD: 0.07), followed by 0.94 (SD: 0.12) among people in government quarantine facilities, and 0.93 (SD: 0.13) among people who did self-isolation. Overall, most people, at any level, reported having problems with anxiety and/or depression in all groups. CONCLUSION: While there have been some worries and debates on implementing strict quarantine measures can hinder people's quality of life, Vietnam showed an opposite tendency in people's HRQOL even under the highest level of enforcement in the prevention and control of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/complicações , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Ferramenta de Busca , Classe Social , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243889, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incubation period of Vietnamese confirmed COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Only confirmed COVID-19 cases who are Vietnamese and locally infected with available data on date of symptom onset and clearly defined window of possible SARS-CoV-2 exposure were included. We used three parametric forms with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo method for Bayesian Inference to estimate incubation period for Vietnamese COVID-19 cases. Leave-one-out Information Criterion was used to assess the performance of three models. RESULTS: A total of 19 cases identified from 23 Jan 2020 to 13 April 2020 was included in our analysis. Average incubation periods estimated using different distribution model ranged from 6.0 days to 6.4 days with the Weibull distribution demonstrated the best fit to the data. The estimated mean of incubation period using Weibull distribution model was 6.4 days (95% credible interval (CrI): 4.89-8.5), standard deviation (SD) was 3.05 (95%CrI 3.05-5.30), median was 5.6, ranges from 1.35 to 13.04 days (2.5th to 97.5th percentiles). Extreme estimation of incubation periods is within 14 days from possible infection. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides evidence for an average incubation period for COVID-19 of approximately 6.4 days. Our findings support existing guidelines for 14 days of quarantine of persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Although for extreme cases, the quarantine period should be extended up to three weeks.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Quarentena , /patogenicidade , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , /virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 809, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an emerging global health threat. Surveillance of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae in the Western Pacific Region is important, as resistant strains have typically emerged from this region. There are sparse data regarding antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae from Vietnam. This study aimed to provide updated data on antibiotic susceptibilities in N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: From 2017 to 2019, 409 N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates were collected at the National Hospital for Venereology and Dermatology in Hanoi, Vietnam. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol. The zone diameters of inhibition were recorded and interpreted according to standard CLSI criteria, except for azithromycin, due to the absence of CLSI interpretation. Categorical variables were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Linear regression was used to evaluate zones of inhibition by year. RESULTS: Among the 409 isolates, no isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. There were 122/407 (30.0%) isolates resistant to azithromycin and there was an association between resistance and year (p <  0.01), ranging from 15.3% of isolates in 2017 to 46.7% of the isolates in 2018. Resistance to cefixime was found in 13/406 (3.2%) of isolates and there was no association by year (p = 0.30). Resistance to ceftriaxone occurred in 3/408 (0.7%) of isolates. Linear regression indicated the zone of inhibition diameters decreased by 0.83 mm each year for ceftriaxone (95% CI: - 1.3, - 0.4; p <  0.01) and decreased by 0.83 mm each year (95% CI: - 1.33, - 0.33; p <  0.01) for azithromycin; the association was not significant for cefixime (p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: We found decreasing susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, as well as a high prevalence of resistance to azithromycin, among isolates in Hanoi, Vietnam from 2017 to 2019. The trends of decreasing susceptibility to first-line treatments are concerning and highlight the urgency of addressing antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. Expanded surveillance efforts within the Western Pacific Region are critical to monitoring trends and informing treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1125-1127, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175706

RESUMO

Sharing a common land border with China, Vietnam has faced a high risk of transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Rapid decision making and robust public health measures were established by the Vietnamese Government to control the situation. As of 17 May 2020, Vietnam reported 320 total confirmed cases of COVID-19, of whom 260 had fully recovered, while the remaining 60 cases were still under treatment. Noteworthy, the current data still confirms zero deaths and within the last 32 consecutive days prior to this submission, there have been no new infections in the country. Valuable lessons from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 such as use of quarantine, early recognition and quick response to the infection, and increased awareness of its citizens have put Vietnam in a somewhat better position against COVID-19 compared to other places. Vietnam, at the current time, mulls declaring an end of the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Humanos , Quarentena , Vietnã/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228096

RESUMO

People with pre-existing health conditions (PEHC) are vulnerable to viral infection while health literacy (HL) and preventive behaviors (PB) have been shown to benefit people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to examine the association between PEHC and suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S), and to investigate the modification effect of HL and PB. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8291 participants visiting outpatient departments at 18 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from 14 February to 31 May 2020. Data were collected regarding participant's characteristics, HL, PB, PEHC, and S-COVID-19-S. Regression models were used for analyzing the associations. Results showed that people with PEHC had a 3.38 times higher likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (odds ratio, OR, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 3.01, 3.79; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and with the lowest HL score, those with PEHC and one HL score increment had a 7% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92, 0.94; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and not adhering to mask wearing, those with PEHC and adhering to mask wearing had a 77% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.32; p < 0.001). Higher HL and adherence to mask wearing can protect people from having S-COVID-19-S, especially in those with PEHC.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Máscaras , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia
8.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMO

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Idioma , Laos/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
9.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(5): 293-301, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some countries imposed entry bans against Chinese visitors. We sought to identify the effects of border shutdowns on the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We used the synthetic control method to measure the effects of entry bans against Chinese visitors on the cumulative number of confirmed cases using World Health Organization situation reports as the data source. The synthetic control method constructs a synthetic country that did not shut down its borders, but is similar in all other aspects. RESULTS: Six countries that shut down their borders were evaluated. For Australia, the effects of the policy began to appear 4 days after implementation, and the number of COVID-19 cases dropped by 94.4%. The border shutdown policy took around 13.2 days to show positive effects and lowered COVID-19 cases by 91.7% on average by the end of February. CONCLUSIONS: The border shutdowns in early February significantly reduced the spread of the virus. Our findings are informative for future planning of public health policies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Viagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Austrália/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/legislação & jurisprudência , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Singapura/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
10.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020502, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110585

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit all corners of the world, challenging governments to act promptly in controlling the spread of the pandemic. Due to limited resources and inferior technological capacities, developing countries including Vietnam have faced many challenges in combating the pandemic. Since the first cases were detected on 23 January 2020, Vietnam has undergone a 3-month fierce battle to control the outbreak with stringent measures from the government to mitigate the adverse impacts. In this study, we aim to give insights into the Vietnamese government's progress during the first three months of the outbreak. Additionally, we relatively compare Vietnam's response with that of other Southeast Asia countries to deliver a clear and comprehensive view on disease control strategies. Methods: The data on the number of COVID-19 confirmed and recovered cases in Vietnam was obtained from the Dashboard for COVID-19 statistics of the Ministry of Health (https://ncov.vncdc.gov.vn/). The review on Vietnam's country-level responses was conducted by searching for relevant government documents issued on the online database 'Vietnam Laws Repository' (https://thuvienphapluat.vn/en/index.aspx), with the grey literature on Google and relevant official websites. A stringency index of government policies and the countries' respective numbers of confirmed cases of nine Southeast Asian countries were adapted from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (https://www.bsg.ox.ac.uk/research/research-projects/coronavirus-government-response-tracker). All data was updated as of 24 April 2020. Results: Preliminary positive results have been achieved given that the nation confirmed no new community-transmitted cases since 16 April and zero COVID-19 - related deaths throughout the 3-month pandemic period. To date, the pandemic has been successfully controlled thanks to the Vietnamese government's prompt, proactive and decisive responses including mobilization of the health care systems, security forces, economic policies, along with a creative and effective communication campaign corresponding with crucial milestones of the epidemic's progression. Conclusions: Vietnam could be one of the role models in pandemic control for low-resource settings. As the pandemic is still ongoing in an unpredictable trajectory, disease control measures should continue to be put in place in the foreseeable short term.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 757, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals that work and sleep in remote forest and farm locations in the Greater Mekong Subregion continue to remain at high risk of both acquiring and transmitting malaria. These difficult-to-access population groups largely fall outside the reach of traditional village-centered interventions, presenting operational challenges for malaria programs. In Vietnam, over 60% of malaria cases are thought to be individuals who sleep in forests or on farms. New malaria elimination strategies are needed in countries where mobile and migrant workers frequently sleep outside of their homes. The aim of this study was to apply targeted surveillance-response based investigative approaches to gather location-specific data on confirmed malaria cases, with an objective to identify associated malaria prevention, treatment and risk behaviors of individuals sleeping in remote forest and farms sites in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using novel targeted reactive investigative approaches at remote area sleeping sites was conducted in three mountainous communes in Phu Yen province in 2016. Index cases were defined as individuals routinely sleeping in forests or farms who had tested positive for malaria. Index cases and non-infected neighbors from forest and farm huts within 500 m of the established sleeping locations of index cases were interviewed at their remote-area sleeping sites. RESULTS: A total of 307 participants, 110 index cases and 197 neighbors, were enrolled. Among 93 participants who slept in the forest, index cases were more likely to make > 5 trips to the forest per year (prevalence odds ratio (POR) 7.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.66-20.63), sleep in huts without walls (POR 44.00, 95% CI 13.05-148.33), sleep without mosquito nets (POR 2.95, 95% CI 1.26-6.92), and work after dark (POR 5.48, 95% CI 1.84-16.35). Of the 204 farm-based respondents, a significantly higher proportion of index cases were involved in non-farming activities (logging) (POR 2.74, 95% CI 1.27-5.91). CONCLUSION: Investigative approaches employed in this study allowed for the effective recruitment and characterization of high-priority individuals frequently sleeping in remote forest and farm locations, providing relevant population and site-specific data that decision makers can use to design and implement targeted interventions to support malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Florestas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquiteiros , Razão de Chances , Assunção de Riscos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Vietnã/etnologia
13.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(16): 2449-2453, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029087

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is a novel infectious disease pandemic with the agent SARS-CoV-2 virus which is currently affecting and causing damage globally. The outbreak has been crossing over 200 countries in the world. In the situation of the outbreak of COVID-19, Vietnam has first sixteen typical cases confirmed positive updated to Feb 28th, 2020. After completely applying the medical prevention and active control, Vietnam has the ability to take control of the outbreak of COVID-19 as a recent of WHO assessment. Vietnam has been reported as an effective country for prevention and control the outbreak of COVID-19. We retroactive reviewed our experience with 16 positive cases isolation. This article aims to present the first cohort of COVID-19 patients updated to Feb 28th, 2020 in Vietnam and sharing the national response to the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vietnã/epidemiologia
14.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 11(1): 13-21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963887

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to enhance the capacity of dengue prediction by investigating the relationship of dengue incidence with climate and environmental factors in the Mekong Delta region (MDR) of Viet Nam by using remote sensing data. Methods: To produce monthly data sets for each province, we extracted and aggregated precipitation data from the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation project and land surface temperatures and normalized difference vegetation indexes from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite observations. Monthly data sets from 2000 to 2016 were used to construct autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict dengue incidence for 12 provinces across the study region. Results: The final models were able to predict dengue incidence from January to December 2016 that concurred with the observation that dengue epidemics occur mostly in rainy seasons. As a result, the obtained model presents a good fit at a regional level with the correlation value of 0.65 between predicted and reported dengue cases; nevertheless, its performance declines at the subregional scale. Conclusion: We demonstrated the use of remote sensing data in time-series to develop a model of dengue incidence in the MDR of Viet Nam. Results indicated that this approach could be an effective method to predict regional dengue incidence and its trends.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Vietnã/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946537

RESUMO

Patient satisfaction, a healthcare recipient's reaction to salient aspects of their service experience, has been considered an important metric of the overall quality of healthcare in both advanced and developing countries. Given the growing number of studies on patient satisfaction in developing and transitioning countries, publications using high-quality patient surveys in these countries remain scarce. This study examines factors associated with inpatient satisfaction levels using nationwide, large-scale interview data from 10,143 randomized and voluntary patients of 69 large and public hospitals in Vietnam during 2017-2018. We find that older patients, poor patients, female patients, patients with lower levels of education, patients not working for private enterprises (or foreign enterprises), and rural patients reported higher levels of overall satisfaction. Health insurance is found to have positive influence on overall patient satisfaction, primarily driven by limiting patient concerns about treatment costs, as well as increasing positive perceptions of hospital staff. We further find that patients who paid extra fees for their hospital admission expressed higher scores for hospital living arrangements and medical staff, but were mostly dissatisfied with treatment costs. These findings have important policy implications for current policy makers in Vietnam as well as for other countries with limited healthcare resources and ongoing healthcare reforms.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Satisfação do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042045, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) in hospital healthcare workers (HCWs), cloth masks resulted in a higher risk of respiratory infections compared with medical masks. This was the only published RCT of cloth masks at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To do a post hoc analysis of unpublished data on mask washing and mask contamination from the original RCT to further understand poor performance of the two-layered cotton cloth mask used by HCWs in that RCT. SETTING: 14 secondary-level/tertiary-level hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: A subgroup of 607 HCWs aged ≥18 years working full time in selected high-risk wards, who used a two-layered cloth mask and were part of a randomised controlled clinical trial comparing medical masks and cloth masks. INTERVENTION: Washing method for cloth masks (self-washing or hospital laundry). A substudy of contamination of a sample of 15 cloth and medical masks was also conducted. OUTCOME MEASURE: Infection rate over 4 weeks of follow up and viral contamination of masks tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Viral contamination with rhinovirus was identified on both used medical and cloth masks. Most HCW (77% of daily washing) self-washed their masks by hand. The risk of infection was more than double among HCW self-washing their masks compared with the hospital laundry (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.00); p=0.04). There was no significant difference in infection between HCW who wore cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry compared with medical masks (p=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Using self-reported method of washing, we showed double the risk of infection with seasonal respiratory viruses if masks were self-washed by hand by HCWs. The majority of HCWs in the study reported hand-washing their mask themselves. This could explain the poor performance of two layered cloth masks, if the self-washing was inadequate. Cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry were as protective as medical masks. Both cloth and medical masks were contaminated, but only cloth masks were reused in the study, reiterating the importance of daily washing of reusable cloth masks using proper method. A well-washed cloth mask can be as protective as a medical mask. TRIAL RESGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000887077.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Desinfecção , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/normas , Desinfecção/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Masculino , Máscaras/classificação , Máscaras/normas , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vietnã/epidemiologia
17.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 387-392, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871632

RESUMO

A serological survey was performed using ELISA to estimate the prevalence of tissue and luminal helminthic infections among hospital patients in Hanoi region, Vietnam. An overall seroprevalence of tissue and luminal helminthiases was 64.0% (95% CI 61.2-66.8) among 1,120 patients who visited Hanoi Medical University Hospital, Vietnam in 2018. The highest seroprevalence was observed against Toxocara spp. (59.0%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (46.3%), Gnathostoma spp. (25.5%), cysticercus (12.8%), Angiostrongylus cantonensis (10.5%), Fasciola spp. (11.1%), and Clonorchis sinensis (8.7%). Mono-infection by one species (11.1%) was lower than multiple infections (53.0%) (P<0.05). The seroprevalence in males (59.3%) was lower than in females (66.2%) but not statistically significant (P>0.05). Children (<15 years) revealed lower seroprevalence (34.0%) than adults (68.4%), and the age group 51-70 years revealed the highest seroprevalence (76.0%). Among the seropositive patients, eosinophilia (≥8.0%) was noted in 80.2%. The present results suggested active transmission of various tissue and luminal helminths among people in Hanoi, Vietnam.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Strongyloides stercoralis , Toxocara , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 112, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944509

RESUMO

Background: Although "social isolation" protects the life and health of Vietnamese citizens from the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, it also triggers massive reductions in the economic activities of the country. Objective: our study aimed to identify negative impacts of COVID-19 on occupations of Vietnamese people during the first national lockdown, including the quality and quantity of jobs as well as adverse problems at work due to COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study using web-based platforms was conducted during the first time of social isolation in Vietnam at the beginning of April 2020. We utilized a respondent-driven sampling technique to select 1423 respondents from 63 cities and provinces over Vietnam. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to define sub-domains of perceived impacts of COVID-19 on occupations. Findings: Approximately two-thirds of respondents reported decreases in their income (61.6%), and 28.2% reported that their income deficit was 40% and above. The percentage of female individuals having decreased revenue due to COVID-19 was higher than that of male respondents (65.2% and 54.7%, respectively). "Worry that colleagues exposed to COVID-19 patients" and "Being alienated because employment-related to COVID-19" accounted for the highest score in each factor. Compared to healthcare workers, being self-employed/unemployed/retired were less likely to suffer from "Increased workload and conflicts due to COVID-19" and "Disclosure and discrimination related to COVID-19 work exposure." Conclusion: Our study revealed a drastic reduction in both the quality and quantity of working, as well as the increased fear and stigmatization of exposure to COVID-19 at workplaces. Health protection and economic support are immediate targets that should be focused on when implementing policies and regulations.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Desempenho Profissional , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2487-2493, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772250

RESUMO

Since late 2018, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has reemerged and rapidly swept through pig farms in North and Central Vietnam, despite widespread use of commercial FMD vaccines. To investigate the FMD virus (FMDV) strains responsible for the current epidemics, 40 FMDV samples were collected from 17 provinces during November-December 2018, and the VP1 coding genes were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons revealed that all of the reemerging Vietnamese FMDVs belonged to the Mya-98 lineage of the O/Southeast Asia topotype (O/SEA/Mya-98) and shared high nucleotide (99.06-100% identity) and amino acid (97.65-100% identity) sequence similarity with each other. The study results suggested that the reemerging FMDVs originated from local Vietnamese strains. Field viruses had different amino acids in the antigenic sites of VP1 when compared to the strains used in the vaccines. The present study provides an important basis for vaccine selection in the battle against FMD in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1540-1548, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748781

RESUMO

Malaria in Vietnam has become focal to a few provinces, including Phu Yen. This study aimed to assess correlations between intervention (population proportion protected by insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying) and climatic variables with malaria incidence in Phu Yen Province. The Vietnam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology provided incidence data for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax for 104 communes of Phu Yen Province from January 2005 to December 2016. A multivariable, zero-inflated Poisson regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive prior structure to identify the underlying spatial structure of the data and quantify associations with covariates. There were a total of 2,778 P. falciparum and 1,770 P. vivax cases during the study period. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence increased by 5.4% (95% credible interval [CrI] 5.1%, 5.7%) and 3.2% (95% CrI 2.9%, 3.5%) for a 10-mm increase in precipitation without lag, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence decreased by 7.7% (95% CrI 5.6%, 9.7%) and 10.5% (95% CrI 8.3%, 12.6%) for a 1°C increase in minimum temperature without lag, respectively. There was a > 95% probability of a higher than provincial average trend of P. falciparum and P. vivax in Song Cau and Song Hoa districts. There was a > 95% probability of a lower than provincial average trend in Tuy Dong Xuan and Hoa districts for both species. Targeted distribution of resources, including intensified interventions, in this part of the province will be required for local malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Plasmodium vivax/fisiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura , Vietnã/epidemiologia
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