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1.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0215788, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990906

RESUMO

Sleep inertia is a potentially dangerous reduction in human alertness and occurs 0-4 hours after waking. The type of sound people set as their alarm for waking has been shown to reduce the effects of sleep inertia, however, the elemental musical factors that underpin these waking sounds and their relationships remain unclear. The goal of this research is to understand how a particular sound or music chosen to assist waking may counteract sleep inertia, and more specifically, what elements of these sounds may contribute to its reduction. Through an anonymous, self-report online questionnaire, fifty participants (N = 50) reported attributes of their preferred waking sound, their feeling towards the waking sound, and perceived sleep inertia after waking. This data enabled the analysis and comparison between these responses to identify statistically significant relationships. Our results did not return any significant association between sleep inertia and the reported waking sound type, nor the subject's feeling towards their sound. However, the analysis did reveal that a sound which is ranked as melodic by participants shows a significant relationship to reports of reductions in perceived sleep inertia, and in contrast, sound rated as neutral (neither unmelodic nor melodic) returns a significant relationship to the reports of increases in perceived sleep inertia. Additionally, our secondary analysis revealed that a sound rated as melodic is considered to be more rhythmic than a melodically neutral interpretation. Together these findings raise questions regarding the impact melody and rhythm may hold with respect to sleep inertia intensity. Considering that the implementation of auditory assisted awakening is a common occurrence, the musical elements of a chosen waking sound may be an area to further interrogate with respect to counteracting sleep inertia.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Música , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cafeína , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Som , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007268, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725712

RESUMO

Origin and functions of intermittent transitions among sleep stages, including short awakenings and arousals, constitute a challenge to the current homeostatic framework for sleep regulation, focusing on factors modulating sleep over large time scales. Here we propose that the complex micro-architecture characterizing the sleep-wake cycle results from an underlying non-equilibrium critical dynamics, bridging collective behaviors across spatio-temporal scales. We investigate θ and δ wave dynamics in control rats and in rats with lesions of sleep-promoting neurons in the parafacial zone. We demonstrate that intermittent bursts in θ and δ rhythms exhibit a complex temporal organization, with long-range power-law correlations and a robust duality of power law (θ-bursts, active phase) and exponential-like (δ-bursts, quiescent phase) duration distributions, typical features of non-equilibrium systems self-organizing at criticality. Crucially, such temporal organization relates to anti-correlated coupling between θ- and δ-bursts, and is independent of the dominant physiologic state and lesions, a solid indication of a basic principle in sleep dynamics.


Assuntos
Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ritmo Delta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Homeostase , Masculino , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
3.
Sleep Med Clin ; 14(4): 413-421, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640869

RESUMO

Driving a vehicle during a night shift increases the accident risk and incidents of falling asleep at the wheel. Individuals having worked a night shift (in any type of occupation) run a similar risk when commuting home from a night shift. Early starts of driving may increase risk. Detailed field studies of sleepiness indicate high levels of sleepiness during late night driving. The mechanism includes exposure to the circadian trough of alertness during work and sleep loss. High levels of sleepiness and sleep loss associated with night and early morning work define the diagnosis of shift work disorder.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Humanos , Vigília/fisiologia
4.
Sleep Med Clin ; 14(4): 423-429, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640870

RESUMO

Driving while sleepy on a regular basis may be due to sleep restriction associated with work schedules or with poor sleep hygiene. It also may be associated with sleep disorders or with sedative drugs. This review assesses the potential consequences of driving sleepy on a regular basis from a societal point of view. Driving while sleepy on a regular basis increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), impairs the ability to work, has an impact on productivity, and probably also has an impact on the risk of non-MVA occupational accidents and on public disasters.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/economia , Condução de Veículo , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Sono/fisiologia , Sonolência , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/economia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Vigília/fisiologia
5.
Rev Prat ; 69(5): 537-545, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626464

RESUMO

Sleep is a physiological condition essential to life, present in all living organisms with a neuronal and glial network. Its functions, not fully understood, include the conservation of energy, the regulation of our immune system and brain function through the modulation of synaptic plasticity and the elimination of substances accumulated during wakefulness. Sleep in human is characterized by two exclusive states, the non-REM and the REM -paradoxical- sleep, whose occurrence is driven by a cyclic organi zation. Sleep and wakefulness result from complex mechanisms involving a hetero geneous transition of different brain structures from one physiological state to another. The sleep duration and distribution of sleep over 24 hours are regulated by complex interconnected mechanisms, involving both the need for sleep accumulated during wakefulness -homeostatic process- and biological rhythm -mainly the circadian process- under the influence of external synchronizers like light-dark cycle. The propensity to sleep at a given moment is regulated by a physiological signal, sleepiness, in connection with the level of vigilance. The characteristics of sleep are relatively stable for a given individual because of a strong genetic determinism, but varies in duration and architecture according to age, individual habits, sleep schedules and environmental constraints. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is important for the clinician, allowing a better understanding of sleep dysfunction, responsible for various and frequent sleep disorders equiring appropriate care.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sono , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Sono/fisiologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia
6.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 25-28, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603839

RESUMO

Sleep is an active and cyclic physiological process that has a critical impact on health. Its functions are numerous: growth, development, learning, memory, synaptic efficiency, regulation of behavior, emotion, immune strengthening and cleaning time of neurotoxic substances. During the first years of life, there are a number of important changes in development, which lead to the expected pattern of sleep and wakefulness in adults. The sleep occupies a third of the adult's life. However, sleeping during the first months of life takes up more than 50% of time. This review of the topic will describe normal sleep patterns in childhood.


Assuntos
Sono/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Vigília/fisiologia
7.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S157-S161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381433

RESUMO

Objective: Drowsiness is a major cause of driver impairment leading to crashes and fatalities. Research has established the ability to detect drowsiness with various kinds of sensors. We studied drowsy driving in a high-fidelity driving simulator and evaluated the ability of an automotive production-ready driver monitoring system (DMS) to detect drowsy driving. Additionally, this feature was compared to and combined with signals from vehicle-based sensors. Methods: The National Advanced Driving Simulator was used to expose drivers to long, monotonous drives. Twenty participants drove for about 4 h in the simulator between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. They were allowed to use cruise control and traffic was sparse and semirandom, with both slower- and faster-moving vehicles. Observational ratings of drowsiness (ORDs) were used as the ground truth for drowsiness, and several dependent measures were calculated from vehicle and DMS signals. Drowsiness classification models were created that used only vehicle signals, only driver monitoring signals, and a combination of the 2 sources. Results: The model that used DMS signals performed better than the one that used only vehicle signals; however, the combination of the two performed the best. The models were effective at discriminating low levels of drowsiness from moderate to severe drowsiness; however, they were not effective at telling the difference between moderate and severe levels. A binary model that lumped drowsiness into 2 classes had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.897. Conclusions: Blinks and saccades have been shown to be predictive of microsleeps; however, it may be that detection of microsleeps and lane departures occurs too late. Therefore, it is encouraging that the model was able to distinguish mild from moderate drowsy driving. The use of automation may make vehicle-based signals useless for characterizing driver states, providing further motivation for a DMS. Future improvements in impairment detection systems may be expected through a combination of improved hardware, physiological measures from unobtrusive sensors and wearables, and the intelligent integration of environmental variables like time of day and time on task.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Vigília/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Automação , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(4): e20180264, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether airway narrowing during obstructive events occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level and results from dynamic changes in the lateral pharyngeal walls and in tongue position. METHODS: We evaluated 11 patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 7 healthy controls without OSA during wakefulness and during natural sleep (documented by full polysomnography). Using fast multidetector CT, we obtained images of the upper airway in the waking and sleep states. RESULTS: Upper airway narrowing during sleep was significantly greater at the retropalatal level than at the retroglossal level in the OSA group (p < 0.001) and in the control group (p < 0.05). The retropalatal airway volume was smaller in the OSA group than in the control group during wakefulness (p < 0.05) and decreased significantly from wakefulness to sleep only among the OSA group subjects. Retropalatal pharyngeal narrowing was attributed to reductions in the anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.001) and lateral diameter (p = 0.006), which correlated with an increase in lateral pharyngeal wall volume (p = 0.001) and posterior displacement of the tongue (p = 0.001), respectively. Retroglossal pharyngeal narrowing during sleep did not occur in the OSA group subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with OSA, upper airway narrowing during sleep occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level, affecting the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions, being associated with lateral pharyngeal wall enlargement and posterior tongue displacement.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Doenças Faríngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico por imagem , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Palato/diagnóstico por imagem , Palato/patologia , Palato/fisiopatologia , Doenças Faríngeas/patologia , Doenças Faríngeas/fisiopatologia , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Faringe/patologia , Faringe/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Valores de Referência , Doenças Respiratórias/patologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Língua/patologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Vigília/fisiologia
9.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(9): 1512-1520, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406365

RESUMO

Neural circuits construct distributed representations of key variables-external stimuli or internal constructs of quantities relevant for survival, such as an estimate of one's location in the world-as vectors of population activity. Although population activity vectors may have thousands of entries (dimensions), we consider that they trace out a low-dimensional manifold whose dimension and topology match the represented variable. This manifold perspective enables blind discovery and decoding of the represented variable using only neural population activity (without knowledge of the input, output, behavior or topography). We characterize and directly visualize manifold structure in the mammalian head direction circuit, revealing that the states form a topologically nontrivial one-dimensional ring. The ring exhibits isometry and is invariant across waking and rapid eye movement sleep. This result directly demonstrates that there are continuous attractor dynamics and enables powerful inference about mechanism. Finally, external rather than internal noise limits memory fidelity, and the manifold approach reveals new dynamical trajectories during sleep.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Behav Ther ; 50(5): 994-1001, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422853

RESUMO

Discrepancy between objective and subjective sleep parameters is a frequent symptom in persons suffering from insomnia. Since it has an impairing effect on daytime well-being and neglects possible positive objective improvements, it would be useful if it was treated. Apart from hypnotics, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-I) is the therapy of choice for chronic forms of insomnia. However, there is limited information about whether CBT-I can also improve subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. We investigated a large sample of patients showing chronic forms of insomnia regarding their subjective-objective sleep discrepancy pre and post CBT-I. Objective sleep data were obtained from 3 nights (2 baseline nights and 1 night after therapy) using polysomnography in our sleep laboratory. All 92 patients participated in a 14-day inpatient program with CBT-I including psychoeducation about subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. Repeated measures analyses showed an improvement in subjective-objective sleep discrepancy parameters after CBT-I. Those parameters were also correlated with perceived quality of sleep. We conclude that CBT-I is a useful tool to improve subjective-objective sleep discrepancy in patients showing chronic forms of insomnia.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Vigília/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Biol Res Nurs ; 21(5): 510-518, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low sleep quality (LSQ) activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is related to arousal. Nursing staff, who work in shifts, tend to exhibit LSQ, which affects the level of vigor after awakening. This study investigated the effects of nocturnal sleep quality on diurnal cortisol profiles and sustained attention in day-shift nurses. METHOD: This study adopted a prospective cross-sectional design. Participants were recruited from a university-affiliated hospital in northern Taiwan. In the initial stage of this study, the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Questionnaire was administered to 199 participants to categorize them as either LSQ (PSQI > 5) or high sleep quality (HSQ; PSQI ≤ 5). Participants were then randomly sampled from the two groups. Nocturnal sleep data and four diurnal saliva samples were collected for each participant. Sustained attention was measured before they started work. A total of 32 and 29 participants in the HSQ and LSQ groups, respectively, completed the data collection process. RESULTS: Compared with the HSQ group, the LSQ group exhibited earlier wake-up times (p = .02), a flatter cortisol awakening response (CAR) slope (p < .01), a flatter morning-to-evening slope (p < .01), and prolonged reaction speed and mean reaction time before starting work (p < .01). CONCLUSION: Compared with the HSQ group, the LSQ group exhibited impaired HPA-axis regulation, with a flatter CAR and diurnal cortisol slope and poor sustained attention in the morning. Nursing staff are advised to achieve HSQ to improve attention and performance levels and maintain optimum work safety.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia , Taiwan
12.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 36(4): 250-256, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274687

RESUMO

Knowledge of normal patterns is essential for correct EEG interpretation. The overinterpretation of EEG (i.e., ascribing abnormality to EEG patterns that are not associated with disease) is a common problem and can contribute to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. Here, the authors concisely review normal patterns that might be improperly interpreted as abnormal. These include posterior slow waves of youth, central theta, K complexes, asymmetric sleep spindles, hypnagogic and hypnopompic hypersynchrony, arousal patterns, rhythmic midtemporal theta of drowsiness, and the wicket rhythm. Recognition of these patterns will lead to greater accuracy in EEG interpretation and help avoid incorrect management.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Erros de Diagnóstico , Humanos , Sono/fisiologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219087, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared psychomotor vigilance in female shift workers of the Bergmannsheil University Hospital in Bochum, Germany (N = 74, 94% nurses) after day and night shifts. METHODS: Participants performed a 3-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) test bout at the end of two consecutive day and three consecutive night shifts, respectively. Psychomotor vigilance was analyzed with respect to mean reaction time, percentage of lapses and false starts, and throughput as an overall performance score, combining reaction time and error frequencies. We also determined the reaction time coefficient of variation (RTCV) to assess relative reaction time variability after day and night shifts. Further, we examined the influence of shift type (night vs. day) by mixed linear models with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, chronotype, study day, season, and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). RESULTS: At the end of a night shift, reaction times were increased (ß = 7.64; 95% CI 0.94; 14.35) and the number of lapses higher compared to day shifts (exp(ß) = 1.55; 95% CI 1.16-2.08). By contrast, we did not observe differences in the number of false starts between day and night shifts. Throughput was reduced after night shifts (ß = -15.52; 95% CI -27.49; -3.46). Reaction times improved across consecutive day and night shifts, whereas the frequency of lapses decreased after the third night. RTCV remained unaffected by both, night shifts and consecutive shift blocks. DISCUSSION: Our results add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that night-shift work is associated with decreased psychomotor vigilance. As the analysis of RTCV suggests, performance deficits may selectively be driven by few slow reactions at the lower end of the reaction time distribution function. Comparing intra-individual PVT-performances over three consecutive night and two consecutive day shifts, we observed performance improvements after the third night shift. Although a training effect cannot be ruled out, this finding may suggest better adaptation to the night schedule if avoiding fast-changing shift schedules.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330770

RESUMO

Research on driver status recognition has been actively conducted to reduce fatal crashes caused by the driver's distraction and drowsiness. As in many other research areas, deep-learning-based algorithms are showing excellent performance for driver status recognition. However, despite decades of research in the driver status recognition area, the visual image-based driver monitoring system has not been widely used in the automobile industry. This is because the system requires high-performance processors, as well as has a hierarchical structure in which each procedure is affected by an inaccuracy from the previous procedure. To avoid using a hierarchical structure, we propose a method using Mobilenets without the functions of face detection and tracking and show this method is enabled to recognize facial behaviors that indicate the driver's distraction. However, frames per second processed by Mobilenets with a Raspberry pi, one of the single-board computers, is not enough to recognize the driver status. To alleviate this problem, we propose a lightweight driver monitoring system using a resource sharing device in a vehicle (e.g., a driver's mobile phone). The proposed system is based on Multi-Task Mobilenets (MT-Mobilenets), which consists of the Mobilenets' base and multi-task classifier. The three Softmax regressions of the multi-task classifier help one Mobilenets base recognize facial behaviors related to the driver status, such as distraction, fatigue, and drowsiness. The proposed system based on MT-Mobilenets improved the accuracy of the driver status recognition with Raspberry Pi by using one additional device.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Telefone Celular , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Automóveis , Direção Distraída/prevenção & controle , Humanos
15.
Behav Processes ; 167: 103914, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349023

RESUMO

Group vigilance is a cooperative behaviour in social species that reduces individual risk of predation. Lama guanicoe is a social species of camelid performing cooperative vigilance, but little is known about the vigilance behaviour of different social units. We analysed the vigilance behaviour in different types of social units of L. guanicoe, to better understand the complexity of this behaviour. The best supported models for both the frequency of vigilance and the proportion of time vigilant included the type and size of social units as the most important predictors that affect the vigilance behaviour. Solitary males devoted proportionally more time in vigilance behaviour than family, mixed or bachelor groups, whereas females in female groups spent more time vigilant than guanacos in mixed groups. Frequency of vigilance was higher in family individuals and solitary males than in bachelor or mixed groups. It is likely that that in family and females groups, the presence of offspring would increase the vigilance behaviour to detect possible predators. Topography and habitat characteristics that determine the predation risk, affected vigilance behaviour of mixed groups and solitary males. Our results suggest that vigilance behaviour should not be generalized for this species, since there are differences between the types of social units, probably related to intrinsic characteristics of each one and the perception of risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Camelídeos Americanos/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório , Comportamento Social
16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 160: 359-370, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277860

RESUMO

This chapter presents hypotheses on the mechanisms responsible for the succession of the three vigilance states, namely waking, nonrapid eye movement (non-REM) (slow-wave sleep-SWS), and REM sleep (paradoxical sleep-PS). It can be proposed that waking is induced by the activity of multiple waking systems, including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, and hypocretin systems. At the onset of sleep, the SWS-active neurons are activated by the circadian clock localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and a hypnogenic factor, adenosine, which progressively accumulates in the brain during waking. A number of studies support the hypothesis that SWS results from the activation of GABAergic neurons localized in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. However, additional GABAergic systems have been described, localized in the parafacial, accumbens, and reticular thalamic nuclei, and these are also presented. In addition, the chapter discusses the fact that a large body of data strongly suggests that the switch from SWS to PS is due to the interaction of multiple populations of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons localized in the posterior hypothalamus and the brainstem.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Melatonina/metabolismo , Sono/fisiologia
17.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(3): 244-251, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225802

RESUMO

To investigate ictal cerebral haemodynamic characteristics during spontaneous typical absence seizures (TAS) and hyperventilation-evoked absence seizures in paediatric patients, relative to brief complex partial seizures (BCPS). All children diagnosed with seizures using real-time transcranial doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and sleep-deprived video-EEG (vEEG) from 2015 to 2017 in our hospital were included. The seizures were diagnosed based on the video and EEG findings. Mean cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFVm) of the unilateral middle cerebral artery was measured using TCD. TCD and vEEG data were integrated for a synchronous assessment of CBFVm changes and epileptic status. Baseline and peak CBFVm for TAS and BCPS were compared by T-test. Six children (two boys and four girls) with TAS and two girls with BCPS were enrolled. A total of 15 spontaneous TAS, 14 hyperventilation-evoked absence seizures, and six BCPS were recorded using real-time TCD-vEEG monitoring. During spontaneous TAS, whether awake or asleep, the CBFVm decreased by 20-40% compared to baseline. During hyperventilation-evoked absence seizures and BCPS, the CBFVm increased by 50-150% and 20-30% over baseline levels, respectively. The haemodynamic characteristics during TAS and BCPS are distinct, and thus our results may provide a new method to diagnose typical absence seizures using dynamic CBFVm curves. Ictal cerebral haemodynamic characteristics during spontaneous typical absence seizures and hyperventilation-evoked absence seizures may reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms and networks compared with BCPS.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Vigília/fisiologia
18.
Neuron ; 103(4): 686-701.e8, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248729

RESUMO

The role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep is controversial: early studies suggested a sleep-promoting role, but eventually the paradigm shifted toward a wake-promoting function for the serotonergic raphe. Here, we provide evidence from zebrafish and mice that the raphe are critical for the initiation and maintenance of sleep. In zebrafish, genetic ablation of 5-HT production by the raphe reduces sleep, sleep depth, and the homeostatic response to sleep deprivation. Pharmacological inhibition or ablation of the raphe reduces sleep, while optogenetic stimulation increases sleep. Similarly, in mice, ablation of the raphe increases wakefulness and impairs the homeostatic response to sleep deprivation, whereas tonic optogenetic stimulation at a rate similar to baseline activity induces sleep. Interestingly, burst optogenetic stimulation induces wakefulness in accordance with previously described burst activity of the raphe during arousing stimuli. These results indicate that the serotonergic system promotes sleep in both diurnal zebrafish and nocturnal rodents. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Camundongos/fisiologia , Núcleos da Rafe/fisiologia , Serotonina/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta/genética , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Buspirona/farmacologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Fenclonina/farmacologia , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Optogenética , Quipazina/farmacologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Serotonina/biossíntese , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Triptofano Hidroxilase/deficiência , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética , Vigília/genética , Vigília/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Yale J Biol Med ; 92(2): 205-212, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249481

RESUMO

The correct expression of circadian rhythmicity, together with a good sleep behavior, are key factors for the body homeostasis. Rest-activity circadian rhythms (RARs) are involved in the control of the sleep-wake cycle and altered RARs could lead to a compromised health status. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the existence of RAR and to study actigraphy-based sleep behavior in a 14-year-old male patient affected by severe idiopathic scoliosis and treated with a rigid brace 23 hours per day. RAR and sleep parameters were studied through actigraphy for seven consecutive days in July 2018. The mean cosinor analysis revealed the presence of a significant RAR (p < 0.001), specifically: the percentage of rhythm was 23.4%, the mean MESOR was 84.6 Activity Count (AC), the amplitude registered a mean value of 74.4 AC's, and the acrophase occurred at 17:56 h. The subject reached a good sleep quantity: 507.9 ± 30.2 minutes of Time in Bed with a mean Total Sleep Time of 450.7 ± 20.1 minutes; Similarly, Sleep Efficiency was equal to 83.3 ± 7.2% and the Fragmentation Index was 27.3 ± 12.8%. We observed that both RAR and sleep behavior had normal trends in a 14-year-old patient treated with a rigid brace for a severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Improved assessment of sleep in routine clinical practice can help to identify and manage health-related problems that could potentially affect some clinical outcomes, such as pain, mood state, and recovery process.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/métodos , Braquetes , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Escoliose/terapia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Vigília/fisiologia
20.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn ; 67(3): 364-381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251711

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of neutral hypnosis and hypnotic temperature suggestions in thermal and pain thresholds compared to resting state. Sixteen healthy medium or high hypnotizable volunteers were enrolled. Hypnotizability was assessed with the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP); QST was checked in resting state, in neutral hypnosis, after suggestions of heat and cold, and after deinduction. A significant increase in heat threshold was recorded during hypnosis with both cold and heat suggestions compared to neutral hypnosis. HIP induction score showed a linear correlation with changes of temperature thresholds after heat and cold suggestions. Thermal suggestions may result in a significant increase of heat perception thresholds with respect to neutral hypnosis. HIP score is related to thermal threshold changes. QST is a valuable and manageable tool to measure temperature threshold change during hypnosis.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Sugestão , Sensação Térmica , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Hipnose Anestésica , Masculino , Limiar da Dor , Sensação Térmica/fisiologia
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