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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 251-257, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To build a schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system in Sichuan Province, so as to provide technical support for facilitating the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in the province. METHODS: The surveillance sites for schistosomiasis transmission risk were assigned in 63 endemic counties (districts) of 11 cities (prefectures) in Sichuan Province. During the period from 2015 through 2018, wild feces contamination, the sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections (fever patients, livestock and wild animals), water infectivity in key settings, snail distribution in key settings, and snail breeding risk (snail importation and spread, floating debris carrying snails and snail breeding in ecological wetlands) were monitored in the surveillance sites. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, a total of 1 636 wild faces were detected in Sichuan Province, and 3 faces were positive for S. japonicum, with a 0.18% positive rate; among 3 995 livestock and 59 wild mice monitored, no S. japonicum infection was detected. A total of 49 414 fever patients were monitored in 2018, and 493 were seropositive for S. japonicum infection; then, 445 seropositives were subjected to stool examinations, and no egg-positives were found. From 2010 to 2018, a total of 93 sentinel sites were assigned, and 3 994 sentinel mice were placed for monitoring the water infectivity, with one S. japonicum-infected mouse detected. Between 2015 and 2018, a total of 4 156 key settings were investigated covering an area of 1 998.46 hm2, and 668 settings were detected with snails (16.07%), covering an area of 193.26 hm2; 497 suspected settings with a likelihood of snail importation with plant introduction were monitored from 2017 to 2018, and 65 settings with snails were found with 2 673 snails captured; 593 sites were assigned to collect the floating debris from 2017 to 2018, and 9 191.39 kg floating debris were collected with 186 snails captured; 4 wetlands were monitored for the risk of schistosomiasis transmission from 2013 to 2015, and snail breeding was found in 2 wetlands. No S. japonicum infection was identified in snails captured from all surveillance sites. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and effective schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system has been successfully established in Sichuan Province. There is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk in local areas of Sichuan Province. Therefore, the integrated schistosomiasis control measures with emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections should be further intensified, and snail monitoring and control and monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in wetlands should be also intensified.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Cruzamento , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 880-882, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484247

RESUMO

The recent developed diarrhea and acute respiratory infections surveillance systems were a breakthrough of the infectious disease surveillance and monitoring in Shanghai. This series "Infectious Disease Surveillance in Shanghai" briefly introduced current experiences of the updated surveillance systems, in order to provide evidences for promotion in other disease surveillance and to enhance the connection between different surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Doença Aguda , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 889-894, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484249

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the seasonality and etiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in adults from Shanghai. Methods: Adult patients with diarrhea who had visited the enteric disease clinics in 22 hospitals that carrying on the Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance sentinel programs in Shanghai during 2014-2017, were surveyed. Stool specimens were collected according to the different intervals of sampling and detected for 12 bacteria and 5 viruses. Concentration ratio and circular distribution method were used for data analysis. Results: From 2014 to 2017, a total of 9 573 stool specimens were collected from the targeted diarrhea patients ≥18 years old (n=96 067), through the Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance program. The positive rate of detection was 46.44%. Seasonal peaks of infectious diarrhea were both seen in summer (bacteria peak, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.) and in winter (virus peak, Norovirus, etc.). Both bacterial and viral infections presented seasonal concentration (Raleigh's test P<0.001) but more obvious with bacterial infection. Viral infection accounted for 60.19% of the cause of infectious diarrhea. The top five predominant pathogens appeared as Norovirus, Rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella spp.. Conclusions: Among the adult outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, obvious seasonality was seen, with peaks in both summer and winter. Viral infection with Norovirus in particular, appeared as the predominant source of infection. Active, continuous and comprehensive diarrhea-related surveillance programs would be able to monitor the changing dynamic of pathogen spectrum, and lead to the adoption of targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/etiologia , Fezes , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 900-903, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484251

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. in Shanghai from 2013 to 2016. Methods: Stool samples collected from diarrhea outpatients were cultured for Campylobacter spp., using the membrane filter method in 23 hospitals under the sentinel programs, from 2013 to 2016. All the strains were identified by biochemical tests and PCR. Broth microdilution method was used to investigate the antibiotic resistance of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains that including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, telycin, klinthromycin and flurbenicol. Results: A total of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 10 444 stool samples (1.7%). Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli appeared as the predominant ones (94.4% and 5.6%). The incidence rate was higher in children than that in adults, with peaks of infections mainly from April to June and October to December. Campylobacter jejuni strains seemed highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (96.4%), tetracycline (83.4%) and nalidixic acid (81.7%). The resistant rates appeared higher on Campylobacter coli strains that isolated from patients. Some strains were resistant to multi-drugs. Conclusions: Campylobacter spp. seemed one of the important pathogens that isolated from outpatients with diarrhea, in Shanghai. Both age and season related characteristics of Campylobacter spp. were seen. Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients was highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Campylobacter/classificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Vigilância da População
5.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 904-910, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484252

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017. Methods: Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens. Results: A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001). Conclusions: In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 930-935, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484256

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the spatial-temporal distribution and epidemic characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Hebei province from 2005 to 2016. Methods: Records of HFRS cases reported from each county in Hebei during January 2005 to December 2016 were collected from National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). Global and local spatial association statistics were used to measure the spatial autocorrelation and software GeoDa 1.2.0. Software SaTScan 9.4.1 was used to analyze spatiotemporal clusters. Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to visualize the yearly scan results. Results: In Hebei province, a total of 8 437 human HFRS cases reported from 170 counties with an annual incidence rate of 0.99/100 000 population during 2005-2016. The peak incidence season was spring. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis on the incidence of HFRS at county-level showed that the value of Moran's I were all above 0 (P<0.05), indicating that the significant spatial cluster. The result of local indicators on spatial association (LISA) analysis revealed that identified hot spots were mainly in northeastern area, while cold spots were found in some counties of central and southern areas. Spatial-temporal scan detected that the primary cluster of HFRS incidence was mainly distributed in Qinhuangdao city and Tangshan city, including 11 counties (city/district): Beidaihe district, Haigang district, Funing district, Shanhaiguan district, Changli county, Lulong county and Qinglong Manchu autonomous county in Qinhuangdao city, and Qian'an city, Laoting county, Luanzhou city and Luannan county in Tangshan city (RR=39.64, P<0.001), during January-July in 2005. Conclusions: There were significant spatial-temporal cluster of HFRS in Hebei from 2005 to 2016. The cluster areas of HFRS were mainly in northeastern Hebei, it is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control programs of HFRS in these areas.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus Hantaan , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Incidência , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 1010-1017, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484271

RESUMO

In recent years, with the improvement of various surveillance network, surveillance system has become an important data source for ecological study. Different data types, including cross-sectional data, time series data and panel data, containing abundant information involving exposure, outcome and confoundings. Gradually, some new statistical methods have been developed or improved for the special structural characteristics of surveillance data. In this paper, we summarized the principles of these models, preconditions, as well as their advantages and limitations.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Modelos Estatísticos , Vigilância da População , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e43, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531621

RESUMO

In March 2014, the Quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccine (4vHPV) was introduced in the female adolescents vaccination schedule of the National Immunization Program (PNI). A school-based vaccination program was implemented. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of the adverse events that took place after HPV vaccination, reported to the Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) Information System in Sao Paulo State, from March 2014 to December 2016. All reports that fit the definitions of the 2014 National Manual on AEFI surveillance were included. AEFI risk was estimated by dividing the number of reports by the number of vaccine doses administered in the period. In the three-year period, 3,390,376 HPV vaccine doses were administered and 465 AEFI reports were registered, with 1,378 signs and symptoms. The reporting rate was 13.72 per 100,000 vaccine doses administered. The reports peaked in the first year of the program. The most frequent AEFI was syncope, with 5.7 reports per 100,000 doses administered, followed by dizziness, malaise, headache and nausea. Overall, 39 AEFI cases (8.4%) were classified as severe , with a reporting rate of 1.15 per 100,000 vaccine doses administered. Most cases were classified as severe because of hospitalization. Among them, there were cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, seizures and miscarriage. All young women recovered without sequelae. We identified five clusters of AEFI reports in four cities; the larger AEFI cluster occurred in the city of Bertioga, in September 2014, involving 13 female adolescents. Our data are in accordance with those from other countries and corroborate the safety of HPV vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Curr Urol Rep ; 20(10): 60, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478113

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the long-standing controversy surrounding the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the detection, evaluation, and surveillance of prostate cancer, there is a need for a minimally invasive technique to identify and risk-stratify these patients. Additionally, in an effort to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies and identify clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa), there has been a shift in practice towards the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in conjunction with decision-making regarding prostate cancer diagnosis and management. In the current review, we summarize the data regarding the use of mpMRI in the detection, evaluation, and surveillance of csPCa. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent prospective clinical trials have determined that a pre-biopsy mpMRI may rule out insignificant prostate cancers, thereby reducing the number of patients who require a biopsy. The anatomic information gathered from these pre-biopsy mpMRI performed during MRI fusion biopsy in csPCa increases the accuracy of pathologic staging in terms of Gleason scores. In regard to active surveillance, prospective trials suggest little to no clinical utility for mpMRI and fusion biopsy in the surveillance of prostate cancer despite conflicting findings from retrospective studies. Recent trials suggest that mpMRI can play an important role in the detection and evaluation of csPCa. The ideal role for mpMRI in active surveillance remains limited.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(38): 819-824, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557148

RESUMO

Rheumatic diseases are a leading cause of chronic, noncancer pain. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease characterized by periodic flares that can result in irreversible target organ damage, including end-stage renal disease. Both intermittent and chronic musculoskeletal pain, as well as fibromyalgia (considered a centralized pain disorder due to dysregulation of pain processing in the central nervous system), are common in SLE. Opioids are generally not indicated for long-term management of musculoskeletal pain or centralized pain (fibromyalgia) because of lack of efficacy, safety issues ranging from adverse medical effects to overdose, and risk for addiction (1,2). In this study of 462 patients with SLE from the population-based Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance (MILES) Cohort and 192 frequency-matched persons without SLE, nearly one third (31%) of SLE patients were using prescription opioids during the study period (2014-2015), compared with 8% of persons without SLE (p<0.001). Among the SLE patients using opioids, 97 (68%) were using them for >1 year, and 31 (22%) were concomitantly on two or more opioid medications. Among SLE patients, those using the emergency department (ED) were approximately twice as likely to use prescription opioids (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.6; p = 0.004). In SLE, the combined contributions of underlying disease and adverse effects of immunosuppressive and glucocorticoid therapies already put patients at higher risk for some known adverse effects attributed to long-term opioid use. Addressing the widespread and long-term use of opioid therapy in SLE will require strategies aimed at preventing opioid initiation, tapering and discontinuation of opioids among patients who are not achieving treatment goals of reduced pain and increased function, and consideration of nonopioid pain management strategies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Risco
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(31): 673-678, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393865

RESUMO

Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1). Other arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, La Crosse, Powassan, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2018 on nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses because they are primarily nondomestic viruses typically acquired through travel. In 2018, 48 states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,813 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including 2,647 (94%) WNV disease cases. Of the WNV disease cases, 1,658 (63%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis), for a national incidence of 0.51 cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease per 100,000 population. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness and have no definitive treatment, maintaining surveillance is important to direct and promote prevention activities. Health care providers should consider arboviral infections in patients with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis, perform appropriate diagnostic testing, and report cases to public health authorities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vigilância da População , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, German hospitals have been requested to record and evaluate antibiotic use in their institution. In this publication, the use of antibiotics in hospitals belonging to the administrative district Frankfurt/Main between 2012 and 2017 is presented and discussed with regards to the targets set in 2014. These targets are to improve the perioperative prophylaxis, reduce the use of cefuroxime, and increase the penicillin/cephalosporin ratio. METHODS: Since 2012, hospitals in Frankfurt/Main have been transmitting the defined daily doses (DDD) of all antibiotics used, the absolute number of patients, and their days of treatment. Since 2013, the data have also distinguished between intensive care and other units. The Frankfurt health authority calculated the total number of antibiotics and the DDD/100 patient days for all hospitals combined as well as for every hospital compared to each other. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2017, the number of absolute annual patient days increased from 1,592,161 to 1,615,180. Antibiotic use decreased from 1,073,975 DDD to 953,349 DDD, leading to a decrease from 67.5 DDD per 100 patient days to 59.0 DDD per 100 patient days. Cefuroxime was the most frequently used antibiotic in all hospitals. The use of cefuroxime showed a significant decrease between 2012 and 2017 (from 250,398 in 2012 to 165,160 DDD in 2017, a decrease of 34%). The use of ceftriaxone was reduced by 27%, ciprofloxacin by 9%, and levofloxacin by 16%. DISCUSSION: The targets set in 2014 were reached in the entirety of Frankfurt hospitals. However, there were significant differences between the hospitals taking part. The results were given as feedback to the hospitals in order to support their efforts in further improving antibiotic stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Regulamentação Governamental , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Vigilância da População
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 61, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trend of leprosy indicators in a hyperendemic state of Brazil, from 2001-2015. METHODS: This is a time-series study of leprosy indicators in the state of Maranhão, Northeastern region of Brazil. The study used data from the Brazilian National System of Reportable Diseases, for the period between 2001 and 2015. The following indicators were evaluated: (i) detection coefficient in the general population; (ii) detection coefficient in people under 15 years old; (iii) rate of cases with grade 2 physical disability in the diagnosis; (iv) rate of examined contacts, and (v) proportion of healing . The Prais-Winsten regression model was used for trend analysis. Analyses were performed for the state and by each health region. RESULTS: 77,697 leprosy cases were analyzed in the general population and 7,599 in individuals under 15 years old. The detection coefficient in the general population ranged from 80.7/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001 to 51.2/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015. The coefficient in the general population presented a downward trend (annual percentage variation [APV] = -2.98; 95%CI -4.15- -1.79). For the population under 15 years old, the rate was 24.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2001, and 19.9/100 thousand inhabitants in 2015, with downward trend (APV = -3.07; 95%CI -4.95- -1.15). It was observed upward trend in rate of contacts examined (APV = 2.35; 95%CI 0.58-4.15) and rate of cases with grade 2 disability (APV = 2.19; 95%CI 0.23-4.19). Stationary trend was observed in the proportion of healing (APV = -0.10; 95%CI -0.50-0.30). Regional differences were found in the performance of the indicators. CONCLUSIONS: A downward trend for the detection coefficients in the general population and in individuals under 15 years old was found in Maranhão. Despite this result, the rates are still very high, demanding efforts from all spheres of public administration and health professionals to reduce the burden of the disease in the state.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Hanseníase/transmissão , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 2, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402963

RESUMO

Introduction: Liberia remains at high risk of poliovirus outbreaks due to importation. The country maintained certification level acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicators each year until 2014 due to Ebola outbreak. During this time, there was a significant drop in non-polio AFP rate to (1.2/100,000 population under 15 years) in 2015 from 2.9/100, 000 population in 2013, due to a variety of reasons including suspension on shipment of acute flaccid paralysis stool specimen to the polio regional lab in Abidjan, refocusing of surveillance officers attention solely on Ebola virus disease (EVD) surveillance, inactivation of national polio expert committee (NPEC) and National Certification Committee (NCC). The Ministry of Health (MOH) supported by partners worked to restore AFP surveillance post EVD outbreak and ensure that Liberia maintains its polio free certification. Methods: We conducted a desk review to summarize key activities conducted to restore acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance based on World Health Organization (WHO) AFP surveillance guidelines for Africa region. We also reviewed AFP surveillance indicators and introduction of new technologies. Data sources were from program reports, scientific and gray literature, AFP database, auto visual AFP detection and reporting (AVADAR) and ONA Servers. Data analysis was done using Microsoft excel and access spread sheets, ONA software and Geographic Information System (Arc GIS). Results: AFP surveillance indicators improved with a rebound of non-polio AFP rate (NPAFP) rate from 1.2/100, 000 population under 15 years in 2015 to 4.3 in 2017. The stool adequacy rate at the national level also improved from 79% in 2016 to 82% in 2017, meeting the global target. The percentage of counties meeting the two critical AFP surveillance indicators NPAFP rate and stool adequacy improved from 47% in 2016 to 67% in 2017.The Last polio case reported in Liberia was in late 2010. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in the key AFP surveillance indicators such as NPAFP rate and stool adequacy with a 3.5 fold increase in NPAFP from 2014 to 2017. By 2017, the stool adequacy rate was up to target levels compared to 2016, which was below target level of 80%. The number of counties meeting target for the two critical AFP surveillance indicators also increased by 20% points between 2016 and 2017. Similarly there was approximately two-fold increase in the oral polio vaccines (OPV) coverage for the reported AFP cases between 2015 and 2017. Strategies employed to address gaps in AFP surveillance included enhanced active case search for AFP, re-instatement of laboratory testing, supportive supervision in addition to facilitating enhanced community engagement in surveillance activities. New technologies such as AVADAR Pilot, electronic integrated supportive supervision (ISS) and electronic surveillance (eSurv) tools were introduced to improve real time AFP case reporting. However, there remain residual gaps in AFP surveillance in the country especially at the sub-national level. Similarly, the newly introduced technologies will require continued funding and capacity building for MOH staff to ensure sustainability of the initiatives.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Paralisia/prevenção & controle , Paralisia/virologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404290

RESUMO

Introduction: Early detection of disease outbreaks is paramount to averting associated morbidity and mortality. In January 2018, nine cases including four deaths associated with meningococcal disease were reported in three communities of Foya district, Lofa County, Liberia. Due to the porous borders between Lofa County and communities in neighboring Sierra Leone and Guinea, the possibility of epidemic spread of meningococcal disease could not be underestimated. Methods: The county incidence management system (IMS) was activated that coordinated the response activities. Daily meetings were conducted to review response activities progress and challenges. The district rapid response team (DRRT) was the frontline responders. The case based investigation form; case line list and contacts list were used for data collection. A data base was established and analysed daily for action. Tablets Ciprofloxacin were given for chemoprophylaxis. Results: Sixty-seven percent (67%) of the cases were males and also 67% of the affected age range was 3 to 14 years and attending primary school. The attack rate was 7/1,000 population and case fatality rate was 44.4 % with majority of the deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of symptoms onset. Three of the cases tested positive for Neisseria Meningitidis sero-type W while six cases were Epi-linked. None of the cases had recent meningococcal vaccination and no health-worker infections were registered. Conclusion: This cluster of cases of meningococcal disease during the meningitis season in a country that is not traditionally part of the meningitis belt emphasized the need for strengthening surveillance, preparedness and response capacity to meningitis.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População
17.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 656-661, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461816

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between plasma amyloid-ß (Aß) and cognitive decline during 2 year follow-up in a population-based cohort in Xi'an rural areas. Methods: The study was conducted in Qubao village in Xi'an suburbs cognitively normal residents over 40 years old were recruited from October 2014 to March 2015 and given a face-to-face standardized interview. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was employed to evaluate the global cognitive function, and quantification of plasma Aß was measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline. Two years later, MMSE was tested at the end of study. Then logistic regression was performed to analyze the relationship between baseline Aß and cognitive change during 2 year follow-up. Results: A total of 1 020 participants completed the study, among whom 223 subjects (21.9%) presented MMSE scores decline (defined as MMSE scores decreased ≥2 points). Compared with those without decline, participants in the MMSE decline group were older (P<0.001) and had lower education level (P<0.001), while gender, hypertension, hyperlipemia, diabetes mellitus and APOE genotype were not significantly different between two groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the MMSE score decline was slighter in the lower tertile of baseline Aß(1)-40 compared with middle tertile (P=0.012), while MMSE decline were similar between different Aß(1)-42 level groups and Aß(1-42)/Aß(1-40) ratio groups (P=0.758, P=0.671, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that MMSE scores in the lower baseline plasma Aß(1-40) level declined more slowly (OR=0.565, 95%CI 0.379-0.845, P=0.005). However, the MMSE decline were also similar among different baseline plasma Aß(1-42) levels groups and Aß(1-42)/Aß(1-40) ratio groups. Conclusion: Population with lower level of baseline plasma Aß(1-40) manifests lower cognitive decline during 2 years, however further investigation on dynamics of plasma Aß and long term follow up are needed.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/sangue , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , População Rural , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16928, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441879

RESUMO

The consistent, sporadic transmission of shigellosis in Taiwan necessitates an exploration of risk factors for the occurrence of shigellosis. The purpose of this study was to study the epidemiologic characteristics and the relationship between climatic factors and the incidence of shigellosis in Taiwan. We collected data from cases of shigellosis reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) from 2001 to 2016. Climatic data were obtained from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau. The relationships between weather variability and the incidence of shigellosis in Taiwan were determined via Poisson regression analyses. During the 16-year study period, a total of 4171 clinical cases of shigellosis were reported to the Taiwan CDC. Among them, 1926 (46.2%) were classified as confirmed cases. The incidence of shigellosis showed significant seasonality, with the majority of cases occurring in summertime (for oscillation, P < .001). The number of shigellosis cases started to increase when temperatures reached 21°C (r = 0.88, P < .001). Similarly, the number of shigellosis cases began to increase at a relative humidity of 70-74% (r = 0.75, P < .005). The number of shigellosis cases was positively associated with the mean temperature and relative humidity in the period preceding the infection. In conclusion, the occurrence of shigellosis is significantly associated with increasing temperature and relative humidity in Taiwan. Therefore, these factors could be regarded as warning signals indicating the need to implement preventive measures.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Vigilância da População , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 724-728, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437140

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes nearly all cervical cancers and some cancers of the vagina, vulva, penis, anus, and oropharynx (1).* Most HPV infections are asymptomatic and clear spontaneously within 1 to 2 years; however, persistent infection with oncogenic HPV types can lead to development of precancer or cancer (2). In the United States, the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) is available to protect against oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 as well as nononcogenic types 6 and 11 that cause genital warts. CDC analyzed data from the U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS)† to assess the incidence of HPV-associated cancers and to estimate the annual number of cancers caused by HPV, overall and by state, during 2012-2016 (3,4). An average of 43,999 HPV-associated cancers were reported annually, and an estimated 34,800 (79%) of those cancers were attributable to HPV. Of these 34,800 cancers, an estimated 32,100 (92%) were attributable to the types targeted by 9vHPV, with 19,000 occurring among females and 13,100 among males. The most common were cervical (9,700) and oropharyngeal cancers (12,600). The number of cancers estimated to be attributable to the types targeted by 9vHPV ranged by state from 40 to 3,270 per year. HPV vaccination is an important strategy that could prevent these cancers, but during 2018, only half of adolescents were up to date on HPV vaccination (5). These surveillance data from population-based cancer registries can be used to inform the planning for, and monitor the long-term impact of, HPV vaccination and cancer screening efforts nationally and within states.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Vigilância da População , Neoplasias do Ânus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Penianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Penianas/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/virologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/virologia
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