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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1464-1468, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031360

RESUMO

Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission is ongoing only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Following a decline in case numbers during 2013-2016, the number of cases in Afghanistan has increased each year during 2017-2020. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2019-July 2020 and updates previous reports (2,3). Since April 2018, insurgent groups have imposed bans on house-to-house vaccination. In September 2019, vaccination campaigns in areas under insurgency control were restarted only at health facilities. In addition, during March-June 2020, all campaigns were paused because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of WPV1 cases reported in Afghanistan increased from 21 in 2018 to 29 in 2019. During January-July 2020, 41 WPV1 cases were reported as of August 29, 2020 (compared with 15 during January-July 2019); in addition, 69 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), and one case of ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (aVDPV2) (isolates with no evidence of person-to-person transmission or from persons with no known immunodeficiency) were detected. Dialogue with insurgency leaders through nongovernmental and international organizations is ongoing in an effort to recommence house-to-house campaigns, which are essential to stopping WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan. To increase community demand for polio vaccination, additional community health needs should be addressed, and polio vaccination should be integrated with humanitarian services.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1364-1368, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970661

RESUMO

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in 6,786,352 cases and 199,024 deaths in the United States.* Health care personnel (HCP) are essential workers at risk for exposure to patients or infectious materials (1). The impact of COVID-19 on U.S. HCP was first described using national case surveillance data in April 2020 (2). Since then, the number of reported HCP with COVID-19 has increased tenfold. This update describes demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, stratified by vital status, among 100,570 HCP with COVID-19 reported to CDC during February 12-July 16, 2020. HCP occupation type and job setting are newly reported. HCP status was available for 571,708 (22%) of 2,633,585 cases reported to CDC. Most HCP with COVID-19 were female (79%), aged 16-44 years (57%), not hospitalized (92%), and lacked all 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form† (56%). Of HCP with COVID-19, 641 died. Compared with nonfatal COVID-19 HCP cases, a higher percentage of fatal cases occurred in males (38% versus 22%), persons aged ≥65 years (44% versus 4%), non-Hispanic Asians (Asians) (20% versus 9%), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) (32% versus 25%), and persons with any of the 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form (92% versus 41%). From a subset of jurisdictions reporting occupation type or job setting for HCP with COVID-19, nurses were the most frequently identified single occupation type (30%), and nursing and residential care facilities were the most common job setting (67%). Ensuring access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and training, and practices such as universal use of face masks at work, wearing masks in the community, and observing social distancing remain critical strategies to protect HCP and those they serve.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to report the experience of telemonitoring Brazilian nursing homes before coronavirus and COVID-19 infections. METHODS: a descriptive experience report that occurred between March 18 and April 25, 2020 through telemonitoring nursing homes in Salvador, Bahia, following a script previously prepared for first contact and follow-up. The telemonitoring was carried out by professors from the School of Nursing of Universidade Federal da Bahia and Graduate Program students for four weeks. RESULTS: thirty-two institutions were followed for four weeks. Some facilities and difficulties appeared during the monitoring. FINAL CONSIDERATIOS: as nursing homes are collective households, their residents are vulnerable to transmission of infections. In addition, the diversity of structures and economic, social and human resources needs of these locations reveal their fragility and urgency of public policies that address such diversities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telefone , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Telefone/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020007, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a global and challenging disease that is accompany with mortality and morbidity. AIM OF STUDY: We evaluated the prevalence and the impact of comorbidities in thalassemia Iranian patients affected by COVID-19.  Methods: A multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted across all comprehensive thalassemia centers in Iran, from January to June 15th, 2020. RESULTS: Forty-three confirmed COVID-19 thalassemia patients (32 TDT, and 11 NTDT) were detected. The mean age of patients was 35.3 ± 11.5 years (range 9 - 67); 21 females and 22 males. Overall, 78.1% of TDT and 90.9% of NTDT patients were complicated with at least one comorbidity (P: 0.656). The overall mortality rate of thalassemia patients with COVID-19 was 18.6% while 27.3% was in NTDT patients compared to 15.6% in TDT patients (P:0.401). The dead group had a non-significant higher frequency of endocrinopathies compared to the recovered group (62.5% versus 45.7% P:0.457). Ten female thalassemia patients with positive COVID-19 had hypogonadism, six patients were receiving hormone replacement therapy and all of them recovered (zero death) compared to two deaths from 4 patients who were not receiving hormone replacement therapy (P:0.133). Furthermore, the prevalence of COVID-19 in NTDT patients was significantly higher than the general population (45 per 10,000 versus 22.29 per 10,000 respectively, P:0.018) while the prevalence of TDT was almost similar to the normal population (P:0.539). The mortality rate of COVID-19 was 4.71% in the normal Iranian population compared to 18.6% in ß-thalassemias (P: <0.001) at the same date. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to acknowledge that ß-thalassemia patients, especially young adults/adults, have a chronic condition which may contribute to increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. A higher susceptibility to the infection was observed in patients with NTDT and in untreated hypogonadal female thalassemic patients. However, to confirm these data, more accurate designed studies are needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transfusão de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Talassemia beta/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia beta/terapia
8.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(10): 872-878, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949547

RESUMO

Studies in experimental animals show transmissibility of amyloidogenic proteins associated with prion diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Although these data raise potential concerns for public health, convincing evidence for human iatrogenic transmission only exists for prions and amyloid ß after systemic injections of contaminated growth hormone extracts or dura mater grafts derived from cadavers. Even though these procedures are now obsolete, some reports raise the possibility of iatrogenic transmission of amyloid ß through putatively contaminated neurosurgical equipment. Iatrogenic transmission of amyloid ß might lead to amyloid deposition in the brain parenchyma and blood vessel walls, potentially resulting in cerebral amyloid angiopathy after several decades. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy can cause life-threatening brain haemorrhages; yet, there is no proof that the transmission of amyloid ß can also lead to Alzheimer's dementia. Large, long-term epidemiological studies and sensitive, cost-efficient tools to detect amyloid are needed to better understand any potential routes of amyloid ß transmission and to clarify whether other similar proteopathic seeds, such as tau or α-synuclein, can also be transferred iatrogenically.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Vigilância da População , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Animais , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/metabolismo , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/patologia , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/transmissão , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(3): 204-208, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954710

RESUMO

Death rates due to COVID-19 pandemic vary considerably across regions and countries. Case Mortality Rates (CMR) per 100,000 population are more reliable than case-fatality rates per 100 test-positive cases, which are heavily dependent on the extent of viral case testing carried out in a country. We aimed to study the variations in CMR against population risk factors such as aging, underlying chronic diseases and social determinants such as poverty and overcrowding. Data on COVID-19 CMR in 93 countries was analyzed for associations with preexisting prevalence rates of eight diseases [asthma, lung cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), hypertension, ischemic heart disease, depression and diabetes], and six socio-demographic factors [Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, unemployment, age over 65 years, urbanization, population density, and socio-demographic index]. These data were analyzed in three steps: correlation analysis, bivariate comparison of countries, and multivariate modelling. Bivariate analysis revealed that COVID-19 CMR were higher in countries that had high prevalence of population risk factors such as AD, lung cancer, asthma and COPD. On multivariate modeling however, AD, COPD, depression and higher GDP predicted increased death rates. Comorbid illnesses such as AD and lung diseases may be more influential than aging alone.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200096, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with food insecurity in families living in the urban area of Tocantins/Brazil. METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the urban area of 22 municipalities in the 8 microregions of the state. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the head of household to obtain socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA) was used to assess food insecurity at home. The anthropometric assessment of the residents was made by measuring weight, height/length and waist circumference. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the association of food insecurity with individual/household variables, and Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare whether there was a difference in the prevalence of food insecurity between microregions and between families with and without individuals under 18 years. RESULTS: A total of 596 households were evaluated, of which 63.4% were in a food insecurity situation. The final model of the multivariate analysis showed that low head-of-household schooling, low per capita income, receiving social assistance benefits and lack of clean drinking water in the household were associated with food insecurity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study reveal the high prevalence of food insecurity in the families studied and their associated factors, showing the need for local actions and public policies to improve health conditions, education and income of the population, and consequently, improve the scenario of food and nutritional insecurity in the state.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Brasil , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
11.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 661-666, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South African guidelines recommend a syndromic approach for the management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), based on the presence of genital symptoms. However, the guidelines do not prescribe specific indications for microbiology testing for patients presenting with or without repeat genital symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of and factors associated with repeat genital symptoms among STI service attendees at primary care facilities. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study at 7 STI primary care facilities participating in the aetiological surveillance of STIs between January 2015 and December 2016. Demographic and clinical information and appropriate genital specimens were collected from participants presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS), male urethral syndrome (MUS) and/or genital ulcer syndrome (GUS). Repeat genital symptoms were defined as self-reported history of the same STI-related genital symptoms in the preceding 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with repeat genital symptoms. RESULTS: Of 1 822 eligible participants, 480 (30%) had repeat genital symptoms (25% and 75% in the preceding 3 months and 12 months, respectively). Of those with repeat genital symptoms, the median age was 28 (interquartile range (IQR) 24 - 32) years, and 54% were females. The most common aetiological agents among participants with VDS, MUS and GUS were bacterial vaginosis (n=132; 55%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n=172; 81%) and ulcers (n=67; 63%), respectively. One hundred and seven (20%) participants had no detectable common STI aetiology. In the multivariable analysis, repeat genital symptoms were associated with HIV co-infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 - 1.78), VDS diagnosis (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.10 - 1.76), self-reported condom use (aOR 1.56; 95% CI 1.20 - 2.03) and age 25 - 34 years (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03 - 1.71). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a high prevalence of repeat genital symptoms ‒ a significant proportion without STI aetiology. Identified factors of repeat genital symptoms highlight the need for improved integration of HIV and STI prevention and management. Further research is needed to determine the aetiology of repeat genital symptoms and the contribution of non-STI causes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Úlcera/epidemiologia , Descarga Vaginal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 235, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data analysis and visualization is an essential tool for exploring and communicating findings in medical research, especially in epidemiological surveillance. RESULTS: Data on COVID-19 diagnosed cases and mortality, from January 1st, 2020, onwards is collected automatically from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). We have developed a Shiny application for data visualization and analysis of several indicators to follow the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic using ECDC data. A country-specific tool for basic epidemiological surveillance, in an interactive and user-friendly manner. The available analyses cover time trends and projections, attack rate, population fatality rate, case fatality rate, and basic reproduction number. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID19-World online web application systematically produces daily updated country-specific data visualization and analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide. The application may help for a better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Computacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Visualização de Dados , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vigilância da População/métodos
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1328-1334, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867445

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics and differences of diarrhea-related symptoms caused by different pathogens, and the clinical features of various pathogens causing diarrhea. Methods: Etiology surveillance program was conducted among 20 provinces of China from 2010 to 2016. The acute diarrhea outpatients were collected from clinics or hospitals. A questionnaire was used to survey demographics and clinical features. VFeces samples were taken for laboratory detection of 22 common diarrhea pathogens, to detect and analyze the clinical symptom pattern characteristics of the patient's. Results: A total of 38 950 outpatients were enrolled from 20 provinces of China. The positive rates of Rotavirus and Norovirus were the highest among the five diarrhea-causing viruses (Rotavirus: 18.29%, Norovirus: 13.06%). In the isolation and culture of 17 diarrhea-causing bacterial, Escherichia coli showed the highest positive rates (6.25%). The clinical features of bacterial diarrhea and viral diarrhea were mainly reflected in the results of fecal traits and routine examination, but pathogenic Vibrio infection was similar to viral diarrhea. Conclusion: Infectious diarrhea presents different characteristics due to various symptoms which can provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Disenteria/microbiologia , Disenteria/virologia , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1220-1224, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867427

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 monitoring cases in Yinzhou district based on health big data platform to provide evidence for the construction of COVID-19 monitoring system. Methods: Data on Yinzhou COVID-19 daily surveillance were collected. Information on patients' population classification, epidemiological history, COVID-19 nucleic acid detection rate, positive detection rate and confirmed cases monitoring detection rate were analyzed. Results: Among the 1 595 COVID-19 monitoring cases, 79.94% were community population and 20.06% were key population. The verification rate of monitoring cases was 100.00%. The total percentage of epidemiological history related to Wuhan city or Hubei province was 6.27% in total, and was 2.12% in community population and 22.81% in key population (P<0.001). The total COVID-19 nucleic acid detection rate was 18.24% (291/1 595), and 53.00% in those with epidemiological history and 15.92% in those without (P<0.001).The total positive detection rate was 1.72% (5/291) and the confirmed cases monitoring detection rate was 0.31% (5/1 595). The time interval from the first visit to the first nucleic acid detection of the confirmed monitoring cases and other confirmed cases was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusions: The monitoring system of COVID-19 based on the health big data platform was working well but the confirmed cases monitoring detection rate need to be improved.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Big Data , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Vigilância da População , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
16.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020499, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901699

RESUMO

This article presents an experience report about integration between public and private health services, health service managers and the academy, for surveillance and control of the COVID-19 epidemic, in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The city is home to a university and has a large flow of people from different parts of the country, as well as being one of the first municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina to report cases of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The measures adopted included the implementation of the COVID-19 Monitoring Committee, the Municipal Health Emergency Operations Center, and the COVID-19 Contingency Plan. After 100 days of pandemic, 5,979 cases had been reported, 431 (7.2%) had been confirmed, of which five (1.2%) died. Early decisions, such as the immediate suspension of business activities and crowded events, may have reduced the spread of the virus. The partnerships put into place have provided innovation and supported public service management in decision-making based upon scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Relações Interinstitucionais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Comitês Consultivos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vigilância da População/métodos
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e17242, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the influenza epidemiology among primary care workers could guide future recommendations to prevent transmission in primary care practices. Therefore, we designed a pilot study to assess the feasibility of using a work-based online influenza surveillance system among primary care workers. Such an approach is of particular relevance in the context of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, as its findings could apply to other infectious diseases with similar mechanisms of transmission. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the feasibility of using a work-based online influenza surveillance system for primary care workers in Switzerland. METHODS: Physicians and staff of one walk-in clinic and two selected primary care practices were enrolled in this observational prospective pilot study during the 2017-2018 influenza season. They were invited to record symptoms of influenza-like illness in a weekly online survey sent by email and to self-collect a nasopharyngeal swab in case any symptoms were recorded. Samples were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction for influenza A, influenza B, and a panel of respiratory pathogens. RESULTS: Among 67 eligible staff members, 58% (n=39) consented to the study and 53% (n=36) provided data. From the time all participants were included, the weekly survey response rate stayed close to 100% until the end of the study. Of 79 symptomatic episodes (mean 2.2 episodes per participant), 10 episodes in 7 participants fitted the definition of an influenza-like illness case (attack rate: 7/36, 19%). One swab tested positive for influenza A H1N1 (attack rate: 3%, 95% CI 0%-18%). Swabbing was considered relatively easy. CONCLUSIONS: A work-based online influenza surveillance system is feasible for use among primary care workers. This promising methodology could be broadly used in future studies to improve the understanding of influenza epidemiology and other diseases such as COVID-19. This could prove to be highly useful in primary care settings and guide future recommendations to prevent transmission. A larger study will also help to assess asymptomatic infections.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sistemas On-Line , Vigilância da População/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Suíça
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1305-1309, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941415

RESUMO

After recognition of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid- to late February 2020, indicators of influenza activity began to decline in the Northern Hemisphere. These changes were attributed to both artifactual changes related to declines in routine health seeking for respiratory illness as well as real changes in influenza virus circulation because of widespread implementation of measures to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data from clinical laboratories in the United States indicated a 61% decrease in the number of specimens submitted (from a median of 49,696 per week during September 29, 2019-February 29, 2020, to 19,537 during March 1-May 16, 2020) and a 98% decrease in influenza activity as measured by percentage of submitted specimens testing positive (from a median of 19.34% to 0.33%). Interseasonal (i.e., summer) circulation of influenza in the United States (May 17-August 8, 2020) is currently at historical lows (median = 0.20% tests positive in 2020 versus 2.35% in 2019, 1.04% in 2018, and 2.36% in 2017). Influenza data reported to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) FluNet platform from three Southern Hemisphere countries that serve as robust sentinel sites for influenza from Oceania (Australia), South America (Chile), and Southern Africa (South Africa) showed very low influenza activity during June-August 2020, the months that constitute the typical Southern Hemisphere influenza season. In countries or jurisdictions where extensive community mitigation measures are maintained (e.g., face masks, social distancing, school closures, and teleworking), those locations might have little influenza circulation during the upcoming 2020-21 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The use of community mitigation measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, plus influenza vaccination, are likely to be effective in reducing the incidence and impact of influenza, and some of these mitigation measures could have a role in preventing influenza in future seasons. However, given the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainty of continued community mitigation measures, it is important to plan for seasonal influenza circulation in the United States this fall and winter. Influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months remains the best method for influenza prevention and is especially important this season when SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus might cocirculate (1).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Austrália/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882868

RESUMO

Over the years, coronaviruses (CoV) have posed a severe public health threat, causing an increase in mortality and morbidity rates throughout the world. The recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that affected more than 215 countries with over 23 million cases and 800,000 deaths as of today. The situation is critical, especially with the absence of specific medicines or vaccines; hence, efforts toward the development of anti-COVID-19 medicines are being intensively undertaken. One of the potential therapeutic targets of anti-COVID-19 drugs is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 was identified as a key functional receptor for CoV associated with COVID-19. ACE2, which is located on the surface of the host cells, binds effectively to the spike protein of CoV, thus enabling the virus to infect the epithelial cells of the host. Previous studies showed that certain flavonoids exhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Thus, it is being postulated that these flavonoids might also interact with ACE2. This postulation might be of interest because these compounds also show antiviral activity in vitro. This article summarizes the natural flavonoids with potential efficacy against COVID-19 through ACE2 receptor inhibition.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Antivirais/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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