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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 15, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria surveillance system strengthening is essential in the progress towards malaria elimination. In Nigeria, more attention is being given to this recently as the country is striving towards achieving elimination. However, the surveillance system performance is fraught with challenges including poor data quality with varying magnitude by state. This study evaluated the operation of the Kano State malaria surveillance system and assessed its key attributes. METHODS: An observational study design comprising a survey, record review and secondary data analysis, and mixed methods data collection approach were used. Four key stakeholders' and 35 Roll Back Malaria Focal Persons (RBMs) semi-structured interviews on operation of the system and attributes of the surveillance system, were conducted. We analyzed the abstracted 2013-2016 National Health Management Information System web-based malaria datasets. The surveillance system was evaluated using the "2001 United States Centers for Disease Control's updated guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems". Data were described using means, standard deviation, frequencies and proportions. Chi-squared for linear trends was used. RESULTS: Overall, 24 RBMs (68.6%) had ≤ 15-year experience on malaria surveillance, 29 (82.9%) had formal training on malaria surveillance; 32 RBMs (91.4%) reported case definitions were easy-to-use, reporting forms were easy-to-fill and data flow channels were clearly defined. Twenty-seven respondents (69.2%) reported data tools could accommodate changes and all RBMs understood malaria case definitions. All respondents (4 stakeholders and 34 RBMs [97.1%]) expressed willingness to continue using the system and 33 (84.6%) reported analyzed data were used for decision-making. Public health facilities constituted the main data source. Overall, 65.0% of funding were from partner agencies. Trend of malaria cases showed significant decline (χ2trend = 7.49; P = 0.0006). Timeliness of reporting was below the target (≥ 80%), except being 82% in 2012. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria surveillance system in Kano State was simple, flexible, acceptable, useful and donor-driven but the data were not representative of all health facilities. Timeliness of reporting was suboptimal. We recommended reporting from private health facilities, strengthening human resource capacity for supportive supervision and ensuring adequate government funding to enhance the system's representativeness and improve data quality.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Notificação de Doenças/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 18, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Plan for Malaria Elimination (NPME) in Myanmar (2016-2030) aims to eliminate indigenous Plasmodium falciparum malaria in six states/regions of low endemicity by 2020 and countrywide by 2030. To achieve this goal, in 2016 the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) implemented the "1-3-7" surveillance and response strategy. This study aims to identify the barriers to successful implementation of the NPME which emerged during the early phase of the "1-3-7" approach deployment. METHODS: A mixed-methods study was conducted with basic health staff (BHS) and Vector Born Disease Control Program (VBDC) staff between 2017 and 2018 in six townships of six states/regions targeted for sub-national elimination by 2020. A self-administered questionnaire, designed to assess the knowledge required to implement the "1-3-7" approach, was completed by 544 respondents. Bivariate analysis was performed for quantitative findings and thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative findings using Atals.ti software. RESULTS: Although 83% of participants reported performing the key activities in the "1-3-7" surveillance and response approach, less than half could report performing those activities within 3 days and 7 days (40 and 43%, respectively). Low proportion of BHS correctly identified six categories of malaria cases and three types of foci (22 and 26%, respectively). In contrast, nearly 80% of respondents correctly named three types of case detection methods. Most cited challenges included 'low community knowledge on health' (43%), 'inadequate supplies' (22%), and 'transportation difficulty' (21%). Qualitative data identified poor knowledge of key surveillance activities, delays in reporting, and differences in reporting systems as the primary challenges. The dominant perceived barrier to success was inability to control the influx of migrant workers into target jurisdictions especially in hard-to-reach areas. Interviews with township medical officers and the NMCP team leaders further highlighted the necessity of refresher training for every step in the "1-3-7" surveillance and response approach. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the "1-3-7" surveillance and response approach in Myanmar delivers promising results. However, numerous challenges are likely to slow down malaria elimination progress in accordance with the NPME. Multi-stakeholder engagement and health system readiness is critical for malaria elimination at the sub-national level.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(6)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046815

RESUMO

Timely detection of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection cases is crucial to interrupt the spread of this virus. We assessed the required expertise and capacity for molecular detection of 2019-nCoV in specialised laboratories in 30 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Thirty-eight laboratories in 24 EU/EEA countries had diagnostic tests available by 29 January 2020. A coverage of all EU/EEA countries was expected by mid-February. Availability of primers/probes, positive controls and personnel were main implementation barriers.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Laboratórios/normas , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , União Europeia , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Análise de Sequência
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(4): 103-108, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999688

RESUMO

Suicide is a growing public health problem in the United States, claiming approximately 47,000 lives in 2017 (1). However, deaths from suicide represent only a small part of a larger problem because each year millions of persons experience suicidal ideation and engage in suicidal and nonsuicidal self-directed violence, both risk factors for suicide (2). Emergency departments (EDs) are an important setting for monitoring these events in near real time (3-5). From 2001 to 2016, ED visit rates for nonfatal self-harm increased 42% among persons aged ≥10 years (1). Using data from CDC's National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP), ED visits for suicidal ideation, self-directed violence, or both among persons aged ≥10 years during January 2017-December 2018 were examined by sex, age group, and U.S. region. During the 24-month period, the rate of ED visits for suicidal ideation, self-directed violence, or both increased 25.5% overall, with an average increase of 1.2% per month. Suicide prevention requires comprehensive and multisectoral approaches to addressing risk at personal, relationship, community, and societal levels. ED syndromic surveillance data can provide timely trend information and can support more targeted and prompt public health investigation and response. CDC's Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices includes tailored suicide prevention strategies for health care settings (6).


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 77, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rates of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital chlamydial infection and gonorrhea, are important for prevention and control of these diseases. However, nationwide rates are not reported in Japan. METHODS: We used the number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported by nationwide sentinel surveillance in 2015, together with the number of all disease outpatients in September 2014 at all medical institutions, drawn from the Survey of Medical Institutions of Japan. The number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the total population was estimated using the ratio estimation method with the number of all disease outpatients as auxiliary information. This method is currently used for estimating influenza cases from sentinel surveillance data in Japan. RESULTS: The estimated number of newly diagnosed cases per 100,000 population in 2015 in Japan was 244 (95% confidence interval 211-277) for genital chlamydial infection, 87 (95% confidence interval 74-100) for genital herpes, 61 (95% confidence interval 29-93) for condyloma acuminatum, and 89 (95% confidence interval 64-113) for gonorrhea. CONCLUSION: We estimated the nationwide number of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases in Japan from sentinel surveillance data. This provides useful information for public health policy-making.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20170498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report the results of the active surveillance of influenza infections in hospitalized patients and the evaluation of the seasonality and correlation with temperature and rainfall data. METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 775 patients were tested for 15 respiratory viruses (RVs). RESULTS: Most of the 57% of (n=444) virus-positive samples were human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, 10.4% (n=46) were influenza virus (80% FluA; 20% FluB). Age and SARI were significantly associated with influenza. FluB circulation was higher is 2013. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-epidemic period, influenza remains an important cause of hospitalization in SARI patients.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738866

RESUMO

The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance program that operates at sites in all jurisdictions in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2018 influenza season. In this observational surveillance system, cases were defined as patients admitted to any of the 17 sentinel hospitals with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid detection. Data were also collected on a frequency-matched control group of influenza-negative patients admitted with acute respiratory infection. During the period 3 April to 31 October 2018 (the 2018 influenza season), 769 patients were admitted with confirmed influenza to one of 17 FluCAN sentinel hospitals. Of these, 30% were elderly (≥65 years), 28% were children (<16 years), 6.4% were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, 2.2% were pregnant and 66% had chronic comorbidities. A small proportion of FluCAN admissions were due to influenza B (13%). Estimated vaccine coverage was 77% in the elderly (≥65 years), 45% in non-elderly adults with medical comorbidities and 26% in children (<16 years) with medical comorbidities. The estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the target population was 52% (95% CI: 37%, 63%). There were a smaller number of hospital admissions detected with confirmed influenza in this national observational surveillance system in 2018 than in 2017, with the demographic profile reflecting the change in circulating subtype from A/H3N2 to A/H1N1.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relatórios Anuais como Assunto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007517, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765382

RESUMO

Surveillance plays a crucial role in preventing emerging infectious diseases from becoming epidemic. In circumstances where it is possible to monitor the infection status of certain people, transport hubs, or hospitals, early detection of the disease allows interventions to be implemented before most of the damage can occur, or at least its impact can be mitigated. This paper addresses the question of which nodes we should select in a network of individuals susceptible to some infectious disease in order to minimize the number of casualties. By simulating disease outbreaks on a collection of empirical and synthetic networks we show that the best strategy depends on topological characteristics of the network. For highly modular or spatially embedded networks it is better to place the sentinels on nodes distributed across different regions. However, if the degree heterogeneity is high, then a strategy that targets network hubs is preferred. We further consider the consequences of having an incomplete sample of the network and demonstrate that the value of new information diminishes as more data is collected. Finally we find further marginal improvements using two heuristics informed by known results in graph theory that exploit the fragmented structure of sparse network data.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565121

RESUMO

Introduction: Hospital-based surveillance programs only capture people presenting to facilities and may underestimate disease burden. We conducted a healthcare utilisation survey to characterise healthcare-seeking behaviour among people with common infectious syndromes in the catchment areas of two sentinel surveillance hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted within three regions of Johannesburg from August to November 2015. Premises were randomly selected from an enumerated list with data collected on household demographics and selected syndromes using a structured questionnaire. Fisher's exact or chi-square tests were used to determine association of characteristics among different regions. Results: Of 3650 selected coordinates, 3358 were eligible dwellings and 2930 (87%) households with 9850 individuals participated. Four percent of participants (431/9850) reported influenza-like illness (ILI) in the last 30 days; equal numbers of participants (0.2%, 20/9850) reported pneumonia or tuberculosis symptoms in the last year and <1% reported diarrhoea or meningitis symptoms. Sixty eight percent (295/431) of participants who reported ILI, 75% (6/8) of children with diarrhoea and all participants who reported pneumonia (20), tuberculosis (20) or meningitis (6) sought healthcare. For all syndromes most sought care at registered healthcare providers. Of these only 10% (24/237) attended sentinel hospitals, predominantly those that lived closer to the hospitals. In contrast, of patients with meningitis, 50% (3/6) sought care at sentinel hospitals. Conclusion: Patterns of seeking healthcare differed by syndrome and distance from facilities. Surveillance programs are still relevant in collecting information on infectious syndromes and reflect a proportion of the hospital's catchment area.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104778, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586719

RESUMO

Multivariate Syndromic Surveillance (SyS) systems that simultaneously assess and combine information from different data sources are especially useful for strengthening surveillance systems for early detection of infectious disease epidemics. Despite the strong motivation for implementing multivariate SyS and there being numerous methods reported, the number of operational multivariate SyS systems in veterinary medicine is still very small. One possible reason is that assessing the performance of such surveillance systems remains challenging because field epidemic data are often unavailable. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a practical multivariate event detection method (directionally sensitive multivariate control charts) that can be easily applied in livestock disease SyS, using syndrome time series data from the Swiss cattle population as an example. We present a standardized method for simulating multivariate epidemics of different diseases using four diseases as examples: Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SV). Two directional multivariate control chart algorithms, Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MEWMA) and Multivariate Cumulative Sum (MCUSUM) were compared. The two algorithms were evaluated using 12 syndrome time series extracted from two Swiss national databases. The two algorithms were able to detect all simulated epidemics around 4.5 months after the start of the epidemic, with a specificity of 95%. However, the results varied depending on the algorithm and the disease. The MEWMA algorithm always detected epidemics earlier than the MCUSUM, and epidemics of IBR and SV were detected earlier than epidemics of BVD and BTV. Our results show that the two directional multivariate control charts are promising methods for combining information from multiple time series for early detection of subtle changes in time series from a population without producing an unreasonable amount of false alarms. The approach that we used for simulating multivariate epidemics is relatively easy to implement and could be used in other situations where real epidemic data are unavailable. We believe that our study results can support the implementation and assessment of multivariate SyS systems in animal health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Epidemias/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Algoritmos , Animais , Bovinos , Análise Multivariada , Vigilância da População/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1106-1110, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594154

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the HIV infection status and related factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Tianjin during 2016-2018. Methods: According to the sentinel surveillance protocol, continuous cross-sectional studies were conducted to collect the information about the awareness of AIDS, related behaviors, HIV infection, syphilis prevalence and HCV infection in the MSM in Tianjin with the annual sample seize of 400 between April and June during 2016-2018. Results: From 2016 to 2018, a total of 1 200 MSM were surveyed. The condom use rate in anal sex was 45.4% (544/1 198) in the past 6 months. The HIV test rate in MSM recruited through network declined with year (trend χ(2)=42.742, P<0.001). The overall HIV infection rate was 3.3% (40/1 200). The HIV-1 infection rate was 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.5%). The overall prevalence rate of syphilis was 6.7% (80/1 200). The overall HCV infection rate was 0.8% (9/1 200). Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors associated with HIV infection in the MSM included divorced or widowed (compared with unmarried, aOR=7.137, 95%CI: 1.621-31.419) and syphilis positive group (compared with syphilis negative group, aOR=3.684, 95%CI: 1.520-8.932). The protective factors for HIV infection in the MSM included consistent use of condom in the past 6 months (compared with occasional use of condom, aOR=0.343, 95%CI: 0.126-0.932) and HIV test (compared with receiving no HIV test, aOR=0.314, 95%CI: 0.123-0.801). Conclusions: The HIV infection rate in the MSM in Tianjin was high from 2016 to 2018. Syphilis prevalence status in MSM should not be neglected. The rate of consistent condom use in anal sex was low in the MSM. It is necessary to take effective measures to promote condom use and strengthen HIV test in MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522661

RESUMO

The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel-hospital-based surveillance program that operates at sites in all jurisdictions in Australia. This report summarises the epidemiology of hospitalisations with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2017 influenza season. In this observational surveillance system, cases were defined as patients admitted to any of the 17 sentinel hospitals with influenza confirmed by nucleic acid detection. Data are also collected on a frequency-matched control group of influenza-negative patients admitted with acute respiratory infection. During the period 3 April to 31 October 2017 (the 2017 influenza season), 4,359 patients were admitted with confirmed influenza to one of 17 FluCAN sentinel hospitals. Of these, 52% were elderly (≥65 years), 14% were children (<16 years), 6.5% were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, 1.6% were pregnant and 78% had chronic comorbidities. A significant proportion were due to influenza B (31%). Estimated vaccine coverage was 72% in the elderly (≥65 years), 50% in non-elderly adults with medical comorbidities and 24% in children (<16 years) with medical comorbidities. The estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the target population was 23% (95% CI: 7%, 36%). There were a large number of hospital admissions detected with confirmed influenza in this national observational surveillance system in 2017, with case numbers more than twice that reported in 2016.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/classificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Influenza Humana/etnologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Gravidez , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1222: 75-80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559569

RESUMO

People most at risk of influenza complications are the elderly with impaired immunity. Clinical picture of influenza virus infection includes symptoms such as chills, increased body temperature, dry cough, chest pain, or dizziness as well as headaches and muscle aches. In the diagnosis of influenza, quick and effective tests are necessary. Sensitive diagnostic methods of molecular biology require more time, but the result firmly confirm or exclude the presence of the genetic material of influenza or other respiratory viruses. Influenza vaccination plays an important role in combating influenza infection. Unfortunately, the awareness of vaccination benefits is insufficient in Poland. In this study we demonstrate the results of examination of 4,507 people aged over 14 years toward the influenza infection in the epidemic season of 2017/18. Most of the confirmed infections were reported in older people aged over 65, a high-risk population group. A low percentage of the vaccinated population may affect an increased number of confirmed influenza viruses in the elderly. The findings demonstrate a need to increase awareness of vaccination benefits, which is particularly essential to avoid influenza infection in the elderly.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 880-882, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484247

RESUMO

The recent developed diarrhea and acute respiratory infections surveillance systems were a breakthrough of the infectious disease surveillance and monitoring in Shanghai. This series "Infectious Disease Surveillance in Shanghai" briefly introduced current experiences of the updated surveillance systems, in order to provide evidences for promotion in other disease surveillance and to enhance the connection between different surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Doença Aguda , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 883-888, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484248

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of Norovirus among adult patients suffering from infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, so as to provide evidence for developing related strategies on prevention and control of the disease. Methods: Diarrheal outpatients were monitored at the 'Intestinal clinic' from 22 hospitals involved in the sentinel surveillance program in Shanghai. Information on demographic and epidemiologic features of the patients was collected while data and clinical, fecal specimens were collected and sent to the district CDC for Norovirus detection. Positive rates of Norovirus were also compared in various populations and seasons during 2013-2018. Multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to fit into the comparisons between non-Norovirus and Norovirus groups. Results: 19.28% of the 12 083 diarrheal cases were found to have carried the Norovirus, with GⅡgroup the most commonly identified genotype. Rates of detection was seen higher in males (20.78%) than in females (17.73%). 30-44 year-old were found having the highest positive rate (21.51%). The positive rates were found the highest (23.60%) in the year of 2015. All the above shown differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Diarrheal patients affected with Norovirus would present watery stool (75.94%) and vomiting (35.84%). Data from the multivariate logistic analysis showed that factors as: being males, 30-44 years old, officials/clerks, in winter season and with histories of travelling etc., were related to higher risks on Norovirus infection. Conclusions: Infectious diarrhea caused by Norovirus occurred all year round, with seasonal peaks seen in winter and spring, in Shanghai. Specific prevention and control measures should be taken on Norovirus- caused infectious diarrhea, according to the difference on age, gender and season.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/virologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1089, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring seasonal influenza epidemics is the corner stone to epidemiological surveillance of acute respiratory virus infections worldwide. This work aims to compare two sentinel surveillance systems within the Daily Acute Respiratory Infection Information System of Catalonia (PIDIRAC), the primary care ILI and Influenza confirmed samples from primary care (PIDIRAC-ILI and PIDIRAC-FLU) and the severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza system (SHLCI), in regard to how they behave in the forecasting of epidemic onset and severity allowing for healthcare preparedness. METHODS: Epidemiological study carried out during seven influenza seasons (2010-2017) in Catalonia, with data from influenza sentinel surveillance of primary care physicians reporting ILI along with laboratory confirmation of influenza from systematic sampling of ILI cases and 12 hospitals that provided data on severe hospitalized cases with laboratory-confirmed influenza (SHLCI-FLU). Epidemic thresholds for ILI and SHLCI-FLU (overall) as well as influenza A (SHLCI-FLUA) and influenza B (SHLCI-FLUB) incidence rates were assessed by the Moving Epidemics Method. RESULTS: Epidemic thresholds for primary care sentinel surveillance influenza-like illness (PIDIRAC-ILI) incidence rates ranged from 83.65 to 503.92 per 100.000 h. Paired incidence rate curves for SHLCI -FLU / PIDIRAC-ILI and SHLCI-FLUA/ PIDIRAC-FLUA showed best correlation index' (0.805 and 0.724 respectively). Assessing delay in reaching epidemic level, PIDIRAC-ILI source forecasts an average of 1.6 weeks before the rest of sources paired. Differences are higher when SHLCI cases are paired to PIDIRAC-ILI and PIDIRAC-FLUB although statistical significance was observed only for SHLCI-FLU/PIDIRAC-ILI (p-value Wilcoxon test = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: The combined ILI and confirmed influenza from primary care along with the severe hospitalized laboratory confirmed influenza data from PIDIRAC sentinel surveillance system provides timely and accurate syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza from the community level to hospitalization of severe cases.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/terapia , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 88: 135-140, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide descriptive epidemiology of human CCHF cases in Afghanistan by demographic, geographical, and seasonal characteristics. METHODOLOGY: This paper's findings are based on the retrospective analysis of the National Surveillance System's collected data from 2016 to 2018. Weekly cases exceeding the 90th percentile of the expected number of cases were considered to be exceptional and above normal. RESULTS: The National Surveillance System detected 1,284 CCHF cases from 2007 to 2018, of which 163 cases were in 2016, 245 cases in 2017 and 483 cases in 2018. A total of 891 suspected and confirmed cases were reported between 2016 and 2018, 293 (33%) of these cases were confirmed by detecting IgM antibody using ELISA and RT-PCR. Among confirmed cases, the three-year case fatality ratio (CFR) was 43.3%. Among the reported cases, 68.5% were males and 31.5% females. The frequent reported occupational groups were housewives (15%), health staff (13%), shepherds (11%), butchers (6%), students (6%), animal dealers and farmers (both 2%) respectively, 19% were unemployed, and occupation was not recorded for 26% of cases. CONCLUSION: Recently, CCHF has significantly increased in Afghanistan. Despite the increased frequency of cases, the laboratory capacity to test specimens and overall knowledge of CCHF management remains limited.


Assuntos
Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Geografia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/genética , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/sangue , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 369-375, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma (PCC) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that were considered to be predominantly sporadic. However, with the identification of novel susceptibility genes over the last decade, it is currently estimated that up to 40% of cases can occur in the context of a hereditary syndrome. We aimed to characterize PGL/PCC families to exemplify the different scenarios in which hereditary syndromes can be suspected and to emphasize the importance for patients and their families of making an opportune genetic diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with PGL/PCC. Germline mutations were studied using next-generation sequencing panels including SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Clinical data were collected from clinical records, and all patients received genetic counseling. RESULTS: We describe 4 families with PGL/PCC and germline mutations in SDH complex genes. 2 families have SDHB mutations and 2 SDHD mutations. The clinical presentation of the patients and their families was heterogeneous, with some being atypical according to the literature. CONCLUSIONS: PGL/PCC are more commonly associated with a germline mutation than any other cancer type, therefore, all individuals with these types of tumors should undergo genetic risk evaluation. NGS multigene panel testing is a cost-effective approach given the overlapping phenotypes. Individuals with germline mutations associated with PGL/PCC should undergo lifelong clinical, biochemical and imaging surveillance and their families should undergo genetic counseling. For all these reasons, it is critical that all medical staff can suspect and diagnose these inherited cancer predisposition syndromes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 585, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The study assessed the health and economic burden of ILI and LRTI according to age and comorbidities, since available evidence is limited and heterogeneous. METHOD: The prevalence of comorbidities, the seasonal incidence rates and the mean and per capita direct costs of ED accesses for ILI/LRTI, whether followed by hospitalization or not, recorded in adults aged ≥50 years over the last 6 years, in the referral hospitals located in the Genoese metropolitan area (Liguria, Italy) where the syndromic surveillance system is active, were evaluated through a retrospective observational study. Comorbidities were estimated through the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse that integrates multiple Medicare data sources. A comparison with the administrative healthcare International Classification of Diseases-9th revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)-based data was also conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of subjects with ≥1 comorbidity ranged from 23.49 to 59.92%. The most prevalent all-age comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The overall ILI/LRTI incidence rate was 6.73/1000 person-years, almost double the value derived from routine data, and increased with age. The highest rates were observed in patients with renal failure and bronchopneumopathies. The mean cost of ED accesses/hospitalization for ILI/LRTI was €3353 and was almost twice as high in the ≥85 years as in the youngest age-group. The highest mean costs were observed in patients with renal failure and cancer. The per capita costs increased from €4 to €71 with age, and were highest in patients with renal failure and bronchopneumopathy. CONCLUSION: The burden of ILIs/LRTIs in terms of ED accesses and hospitalizations in adults aged ≥50 years is heavy, and is related to increasing age and, especially, to specific comorbidities. These results could contribute to revising age- and risk-based anti-influenza and -pneumococcus immunization strategies.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Influenza Humana/economia , Infecções Respiratórias/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Prevalência , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
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