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2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091068

RESUMO

Traditional pathogen surveillance methods for white-nose syndrome (WNS), the most serious threat to hibernating North American bats, focus on fungal presence where large congregations of hibernating bats occur. However, in the western USA, WNS-susceptible bat species rarely assemble in large numbers and known winter roosts are uncommon features. WNS increases arousal frequency and activity of infected bats during hibernation. Our objective was to explore the effectiveness of acoustic monitoring as a surveillance tool for WNS. We propose a non-invasive approach to model pre-WNS baseline activity rates for comparison with future acoustic data after WNS is suspected to occur. We investigated relationships among bat activity, ambient temperatures, and season prior to presence of WNS across forested sites of Montana, USA where WNS was not known to occur. We used acoustic monitors to collect bat activity and ambient temperature data year-round on 41 sites, 2011-2019. We detected a diverse bat community across managed (n = 4) and unmanaged (n = 37) forest sites and recorded over 5.37 million passes from bats, including 13 identified species. Bats were active year-round, but positive associations between average of the nightly temperatures by month and bat activity were strongest in spring and fall. From these data, we developed site-specific prediction models for bat activity to account for seasonal and annual temperature variation prior to known occurrence of WNS. These prediction models can be used to monitor changes in bat activity that may signal potential presence of WNS, such as greater than expected activity in winter, or less than expected activity during summer. We propose this model-based method for future monitoring efforts that could be used to trigger targeted sampling of individual bats or hibernacula for WNS, in areas where traditional disease surveillance approaches are logistically difficult to implement or because of human-wildlife transmission concerns from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Acústica , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Ascomicetos , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Florestas , Hibernação , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Montana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
4.
J Med Primatol ; 49(6): 322-331, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing COVID-19 pandemic prompted the need for a surveillance program to determine the viral status of the California National Primate Research Center non-human primate breeding colony, both for reasons of maintaining colony health and minimizing the risk of interference in COVID-19 and other research studies. METHODS: We collected biological samples from 10% of the rhesus macaque population for systematic testing to detect SARS-CoV-2 virus by RT-PCR and host antibody response by ELISA. Testing required the development and validation of new assays and an algorithm using in laboratory-developed and commercially available reagents and protocols. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No SARS-CoV-2 RNA or antibody was detected in this study; therefore, we have proposed a modified testing algorithm for sentinel surveillance to monitor for any future transmissions. As additional reagents and controls become available, assay development and validation will continue, leading to the enhanced sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and efficiency of testing.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária
7.
Vet Rec ; 186(18): 597-598, 2020 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527893

RESUMO

This focus article has been prepared by Arthur Otter of the Cattle Expert Group at the APHA.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Órgãos Governamentais , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Vet Rec ; 186(15): 482-484, 2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358115

RESUMO

This focus article has been prepared by Susanna Williamson, Camilla Brena, Cornelia Bidewell, Ed Fullick, Alastair George, Livio Pittalis and Lévon Stephan.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Notificação de Doenças , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Suínos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Vet Rec ; 186(13): 408-409, 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245864

RESUMO

This focus article has been prepared by Amanda Carson, Sian Mitchell, Paul Phipps, Michele Macrelli and Elizabeth Dunnett of the APHA.


Assuntos
Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Masculino , Ovinos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Vet Rec ; 186(9): 275-277, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139627
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