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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3634-3649, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739816

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of three different nanomaterials (NMs) on the growth, physiology and protein profile of the endosymbiotic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of vegetable cowpea. The alterations in growth and viability of the bacterial cells, their indole-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore production abilities, phosphate solubilization potential and total protein content were assessed. Further, the isolates were also analyzed for changes in their exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and secretion behavior with exposure to different concentrations of the NMs. The NM supplementation of the broth improved the growth, viable cell count, IAA content, siderophore production and potential to solubilize tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphorus (P)-source. The NMs also improved the total protein content of the bacterial cells indicating the improved physiology and biochemistry of the treated bacterial cells. The treated cells produced significantly high EPS compared to untreated control cultures. The present investigation revealed that the NMs improved plant growth abilities of cowpea root endosymbiotic bacteria, though the impact varied across various isolates as well as NM concentrations.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanotubos de Carbono , Vigna , Apatitas , Óxidos
2.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(6): 1337-1353, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611751

RESUMO

Vigna is a large, pan-tropic and highly variable group of the legumes family which is known for its > 10 cultivated species having significant commercial value for their nutritious grains and multifarious uses. The wild vignas are considered a reservoir of numerous useful traits which can be deployed for introgression of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and enhanced survival capability in extreme environments. Nonetheless, for their effective utilization through introgression breeding information on their genetic diversity, population structure and crossability is imperative. Keeping this in view, the present experiment was undertaken with 119 accessions including 99 wild Vigna accessions belonging to 19 species and 18 cultivated genotypes of Vigna and 2 of Phaseolus. Total 102 polymorphic SSRs were deployed to characterize the material at molecular level which produced 1758 alleles. The genotypes were grouped into four major clusters which were further sub-divided in nine sub-clusters. Interestingly, all cultivated species shared a single cluster while no such similarities were observed for the wild accessions as these were distributed in different groups of sub-clusters. The co-dominant allelic data of 114 accessions were then utilized for obtaining status of the accessions and their hybrid forms. The model-based population structure analysis categorized 114 accessions of Vigna into 6 genetically distinct sub-populations (K = 6) following admixture-model based simulation with varying levels of admixture. 91 (79.82%) accessions resembled their hierarchy and 23 (20.18%) accessions were observed as the admixture forms. Maximum number of accessions (25) were grouped in sub-population (SP) 6 and the least accessions were grouped in SP3 and SP5 (11 each). The population genetic structure, therefore, supported genetic diversity analysis and provided an insight into the genetic lineage of these species which will help in effective use of germplasm for development of cultivars following selective prebreeding activities.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Vigna/genética , Alelos , Grão Comestível/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Vigna/classificação
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0256397, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597320

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is the prime nutrient for crop production and carbon-based functions associated with soil quality. The objective of our study (2012 to 2019) was to evaluate the impact of variable rates of N fertilization on soil organic carbon (C) pools and their stocks, stratification, and lability in subtropical wheat (Triticum aestivum)-mungbean (Vigna radiata)-rice (Oryza sativa L) agroecosystems. The field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCB) with N fertilization at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140% of the recommended rates of wheat (100 kg/ha), mungbean (20 kg/ha), and rice (80 kg/ha), respectively. Composite soils were collected at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths from each replicated plot and analyzed for microbial biomass (MBC), basal respiration (BR), total organic C (TOC), particulate organic C (POC), permanganate oxidizable C (POXC), carbon lability indices, and stratification. N fertilization (120 and 140%) significantly increased the POC at both depths; however, the effect was more pronounced in the surface layer. Moreover, N fertilization (at 120% and 140%) significantly increased the TOC and labile C pools when compared to the control (100%) and the lower rates (60 and 80%). N fertilization significantly increased MBC, C pool (CPI), lability (CLI), and management indices (CMI), indicating improved and efficient soil biological activities in such systems. The MBC and POC stocks were significantly higher with higher rates of N fertilization (120% and 140%) than the control. Likewise, higher rates of N fertilization significantly increased the stocks of labile C pools. Equally, the stratification values for POC, MBC, and POXC show evidence of improved soil quality because of optimum N fertilization (120-140%) to maintain and/or improve soil quality under rice-based systems in subtropical climates.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Vigna/metabolismo , Biomassa , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(42): 12566-12577, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652137

RESUMO

Early undernutrition has been found to be closely associated with subsequent neurodevelopment. However, studies examining crude growth in terms of body weight/tail length cannot clarify how diets might mediate associations between the gut microbiota and cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a 7% protein diet and mung bean protein diet (MBPD) for 6 weeks to assess central nervous system functions. Bifidobacterium longum subsp, Alloprevotella, and Lactobacillus were significantly altered after supplementary MBPD. Additionally, tryptophan, tyrosine, and glycine significantly restored in the brain, and the choline system also improved. Moreover, mung bean supplementation also upregulated expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, postsynaptic density 95 protein (PSD95), synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), downregulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor kB (NF-kB). Metabolites in the serum also underwent changes. Together, these results showed that malnutrition perturbed neurodevelopment, while MBPD reversed this trend.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Desnutrição , Vigna , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682374

RESUMO

Accumulation of micro-plastics (MPs) in the environment has resulted in various ecological and health concerns. Nowadays, however, studies are mainly focused on toxicity of MPs on aquatic organisms, but only a few studies assess the toxic effects of micro-plastics on terrestrial plants, especially edible agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to investigate the adverse effects of polyethylene (PE) microplastics on the germination of two common food crops of China, i.e., soybean (Glycine max) and mung bean (Vigna radiata). Both the crops were treated with polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) of two sizes (6.5 µm and 13 µm) with six different concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/L). Parameters studied were (i) seed vigor (e.g., germination energy, germination index, vigor index, mean germination speed, germination rate); (ii) morphology (e.g., root length, shoot length) and (iii) dry weight. It was found that the phyto-toxicity of PE-MPs to soybean (Glycine max) was greater than that of mung bean (Vigna radiata). On the 3rd day, the dry weight of soybean was inhibited at different concentrations as compared to the control and the inhibition showed decline with the increase in the concentration of PE-MPs. After the 7th day, the root length of soybean was inhibited by PE-MPs of 13 µm size, and the inhibition degree was positively correlated with the concentration, whereas the root length of mung bean was increased, and the promotion degree was positively correlated with the concentration. Present study indicated the necessity to explore the hazardous effects of different sizes of PE-MPs on the growth and germination process of agricultural crops. Additionally, our results can provide theoretical basis and data support for further investigation on the toxicity of PE-MPs to soybean and mung bean.


Assuntos
Vigna , Produtos Agrícolas , Germinação , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno/toxicidade , Soja
6.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684718

RESUMO

The infrared heating of preconditioned cowpea improves its utilization and potential application in food systems. This study investigated the effect of optimizing preconditioning and infrared heating parameters of temperature and time on cooking characteristics of precooked cowpeas using response surface methodology (RSM). The moisture level (32-57%), infrared heating temperature (114-185 °C), and time of processing the seeds (2-18 min) were optimized using a randomized central composite design to achieve optimal characteristics for bulk density and water absorption. A second-order polynomial regression model was fitted to the obtained data, and the fitted model was used to compute the multi-response optimum processing conditions, which were the moisture of 45%, the heating temperature of 185 °C, and time of 5 min. Precooked cowpea seeds from optimized conditions had a 19% increase in pectin solubility. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were significantly reduced through complexation of the seeds' phenolic compounds with other macromolecules but nonetheless exhibited antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals. There was also a significant reduction in phytate and oxalates by 24% and 42%, respectively, which was due to the heat causing the inactivation of these antinutrients. The obtained optimized conditions are adequate in the production of precooked cowpea seeds with improved quality.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Calefação/métodos , Vigna/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Raios Infravermelhos , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Água
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257924, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587203

RESUMO

In this research, eight local mung bean (Vigna radiata) varieties were analyzed for their performance against two levels of CdCl2 solution (0.3 and 0.5 mM) alone and priming with gibberellic acid (GA3) (100 µM), salicylic acid (SA) (50 µM) and proline (5 mM) solution prior to Cd exposure. Mung bean seedlings were analyzed for disturbance in cytological, morphological, biochemical and enzymatic parameters under cadmium stress. For cytological studies, 48 h grown mung bean seedlings root tips were used to prepare slides and studied for percent mitotic index (MI%) and to calculate percent C-mitosis, laggard, sticky and fragmented chromosomes, pictures were captured by a Nikon camera (DS-Fi 1 Japan) attached with a microscope. One-week grown mung seedlings were studied for growth traits, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein, proline and antioxidant enzymes. ANOVA and DMR test of this research revealed that all the tested mung bean varieties and treatments were significantly different regarding mitotic index and number of chromosomal aberrations. Both the Cd treatments exhibited increased total chromosomal aberrations with different types and a maximum decrease in MI%. In pretreated samples, GA3, SA and proline serve as mitigating agents that reduce mutagenic effects of Cd in mung bean by increasing MI% and decreasing chromosomal aberrations as compared to non-pretreated samples. Both the Cd treatments showed a decrease in all growth traits. Total proteins were also found to be significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all genotypes. Cd treatment increased the activities of all antioxidant enzymes tested. Cd caused oxidative damage as indicated by elevated levels of MDA content in treated samples in comparison to control. Proline content levels were also high in Cd treated seedlings indicating stress. Results demonstrated that pretreatment with phytohormones and proline before Cd were found to improve all morphological parameters, by altering antioxidant enzymes activities along with a decrease in MDA and proline contents as well. It was further noticed that the performance of GA3 was better at 0.3 mM Cd treatment while SA was found to be a good mitigating agent at 0.5 mM Cd stress in all tested mung bean varieties. This research concluded less deleterious effects of Cd on AZRI-2006 while more sensitivity to NM-51 towards Cd. Priming with phytohormones and proline is a user-friendly, economical, and simple mitigation strategy to reduce Cd toxicity in plants and get better yield from contaminated lands.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Prolina/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , DNA de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Índice Mitótico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/genética , Vigna/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(39): 11554-11571, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551518

RESUMO

Mung bean contains various neuroprotective polyphenols, so it might be a healthy food for Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention. Totally, 19 major phenolic compounds were quantified in mung bean, including 10 phenolic acids and 9 flavonoids. After summarizing their contents and effective doses in rodent AD models, it was speculated that vitexin, isovitexin, sinapic acid, and ferulic acid might be the major bioactive compounds for mung bean-mediated neuroprotection. The mechanisms involved inhibition of ß-amyloidogenesis, tau hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, and promotion of autophagy and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. Notably, the neuroprotective phenolic profile in mung bean changed after germination, with decreased vitexin and isovitexin, and increased rutin, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin, and caffeic acid detected. However, only studies of individual phenolic compounds in mung bean are published at present. Hence, further studies are needed to elucidate the neuroprotective activities and mechanisms of extractions of mung bean seeds and sprouts, and the synergism between different phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Vigna , Acetilcolinesterase , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Neuroproteção , Polifenóis , Roedores
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579118

RESUMO

Adzuki bean consumption has many health benefits, but its effects on obesity and regulating gut microbiota imbalances induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) have not been thoroughly studied. Mice were fed a low-fat diet, a HFD, and a HFD supplemented with 15% adzuki bean (HFD-AB) for 12 weeks. Adzuki bean supplementation significantly reduced obesity, lipid accumulation, and serum lipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels induced by HFD. It also mitigated liver function damage and hepatic steatosis. In particular, adzuki bean supplementation improved glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin sensitivity. In addition, it significantly reversed HFD-induced gut microbiota imbalances. Adzuki bean significantly reduced the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B); enriched the occurrence of Bifidobacterium, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcus_1, norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Alloprevotella, Muribaculum, Turicibacter, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, and Lachnoclostridium; and returned HFD-dependent taxa (Desulfovibrionaceae, Bilophila, Ruminiclostridium_9, Blautia, and Ruminiclostridium) back to normal status. PICRUSt2 analysis showed that the changes in gut microbiota induced by adzuki bean supplementation may be associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, sulfur, and cysteine and methionine; and LPS biosynthesis; and valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/etiologia , Vigna , Ração Animal , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 117968, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523532

RESUMO

Chromium toxicity to crops is a big scientific issue of the present time. Thus, continuous scientific attempts have been taken for reducing chromium toxicity in crop plants. In this study, we have tested potential of ethylene (ET) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating hexavalent chromium [(Cr(VI)] stress in two pulse crops i.e. black bean and mung bean. Cr(VI) declined growth (by 21 % and 27 % in black and mung bean, respectively) and also negatively affected photosynthesis in both pulse crops due to accumulation of Cr(VI) and cell death in roots. Under similar conditions, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were enhanced but antioxidant defense system showed differential responses. The addition of AVG (an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis) and PAG (an inhibitor of H2S biosynthesis) with Cr(VI) further increased toxicity of Cr(VI) suggesting that endogenous H2S and ET are important for tolerating Cr(VI) toxicity. But supplementation of either ET or H2S alleviated Cr(VI) toxicity. Interestingly, ET did not rescue negative effects of PAG under Cr(VI) stress but NaHS rescued negative effect of AVG. Overall, results indicate that though both ET and H2S are able in alleviating Cr(VI) stress but endogenous H2S is crucial in ET-mediated mitigation of Cr(VI) stress. Furthermore, H2S appears to be a downstream signal of ET in alleviating Cr(VI) stress in two pulse crops.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Vigna , Cromo/toxicidade , Etilenos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529693

RESUMO

Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is an important constraint in successful production of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in many countries, including Pakistan. The MYMV spreads by insect vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius). The use of resistant cultivars is the most effective management tactics for MYMV. Twenty mungbean varieties/lines were screened against insect vector of MYMV under field condition in the current study. Resistance levels for varieties/lines were assessed through visual scoring of typical disease symptoms. Furthermore, the impacts of two insecticides 'Imidacloprid' and 'Thiamethoxam' and two plant extracts, i.e., neem (Azadirachta indica), and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) were tested on the suppression of whitefly. Field screening indicated that none of the tested varieties/lines proved immune/highly resistant, while significant variations were recorded among varieties/lines for resistance level. All varieties/lines were systemically infected with MYMV. The varieties 'AARI-2006' and 'Mung-14043' were considered as resistant to MYMV based on visual symptoms and the lowest vector population. These varieties were followed by 'NM-2006' and 'NL-31', which proved as moderately resistant to MYMV. All remaining varieties/lines were grouped as moderately to highly susceptible to MYMV based on visual symptoms' scoring. These results revealed that existing mungbean germplasm do not possess high resistance level MYMV. However, the lines showing higher resistance in the current study must be exploited in breeding programs for the development of resistant mungbean varieties/lines against MYMV. Imidacloprid proved as the most effective insecticide at all concentrations to manage whitefly population. Therefore, use of the varieties with higher resistance level and spraying Imidacloprid could lower the incidence of MYMV.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vigna , Animais , Begomovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/virologia , Paquistão
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502164

RESUMO

Plant pathogenic bacteria cause significant economic losses in the global food production sector. To secure an adequate amount of high-quality nutrition for the growing human population, novel approaches need to be undertaken to combat plant disease-causing agents. As the currently available methods to eliminate bacterial phytopathogens are scarce, we evaluated the effectiveness and mechanism of action of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP). It was ignited from a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operation in a plasma pencil, and applied for the first time for eradication of Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp., inoculated either on glass spheres or mung bean seeds. Furthermore, the impact of the DBD exposure on mung bean seeds germination and seedlings growth was estimated. The observed bacterial inactivation rates exceeded 3.07 logs. The two-minute DBD exposure stimulated by 3-4% the germination rate of mung bean seeds and by 13.4% subsequent early growth of the seedlings. On the contrary, a detrimental action of the four-minute DBD subjection on seed germination and early growth of the sprouts was noted shortly after the treatment. However, this effect was no longer observed or reduced to 9.7% after the 96 h incubation period. Due to the application of optical emission spectrometry (OES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we found that the generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), i.e., N2, N2+, NO, OH, NH, and O, probably led to the denaturation and aggregation of DNA, proteins, and ribosomes. Furthermore, the cellular membrane disrupted, leading to an outflow of the cytoplasm from the DBD-exposed cells. This study suggests the potential applicability of NTAPPs as eco-friendly and innovative plant protection methods.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Gases em Plasma/administração & dosagem , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/microbiologia , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/microbiologia
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 408, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a warm-season legume crop and belongs to the papilionoid subfamily of the Fabaceae family. China is the leading producer of mung bean in the world. Mung bean has significant economic and health benefits and is a promising species with broad adaptation ability and high tolerance to environmental stresses. OSCA (hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel) gene family members play an important role in the modulation of hypertonic stress, such as drought and salinity. However, genome-wide analysis of the OSCA gene family has not been conducted in mung bean. RESULTS: We identified a total of 13 OSCA genes in the mung bean genome and named them according to their homology with AtOSCAs. All the OSCAs were phylogenetically split into four clades. Phylogenetic relationship and synteny analyses showed that the VrOSCAs in mung bean and soybean shared a relatively conserved evolutionary history. In addition, three duplicated VrOSCA gene pairs were identified, and the duplicated VrOSCAs gene pairs mainly underwent purifying selection pressure during evolution. Protein domain, motif and transmembrane analyses indicated that most of the VrOSCAs shared similar structures with their homologs. The expression pattern showed that except for VrOSCA2.1, the other 12 VrOSCAs were upregulated under treatment with ABA, PEG and NaCl, among which VrOSCA1.4 showed the largest increased expression levels. The duplicated genes VrOSCA2.1/VrOSCA2.2 showed divergent expression, which might have resulted in functionalization during subsequent evolution. The expression profiles under ABA, PEG and NaCl stress revealed a functional divergence of VrOSCA genes, which agreed with the analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of VrOSCA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the study provided a systematic analysis of the VrOSCA gene family in mung bean. Our results establish an important foundation for functional and evolutionary analysis of VrOSCAs and identify genes for further investigation of their ability to confer abiotic stress tolerance in mung bean.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vigna/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473806

RESUMO

Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in the production and cultivation of crops. In recent years, the extensive use of imidacloprid in agricultural production has resulted in large amounts of pesticide residues in agricultural products and the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid, accurate, sensitive and convenient method for detecting imidacloprid pesticide residues to ensure the safety of agricultural products and the environment. To clarify how to use the molecular imprinting method for the electrochemical rapid residue detection of imidacloprid. This paper selected reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles as modifiers modified on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) chitosan as a functional monomer, and imidacloprid as template molecule to prepare molecularly imprinted polymer, and applied this sensor to the residue detection of imidacloprid. The results showed that the concentration of imidacloprid showed a good linear relationship with the peak response current, and the detection limit of imidacloprid was 0.5 µM, while the sensor had good repeatability and interference resistance. The recoveries of imidacloprid spiked on three samples, mango, cowpea and water, were in the range of 90-110% (relative standard deviation, RSD<5%), which proved the practicality and feasibility of the assay established in this paper. The results of this paper can be used as a basis for the research on the detection of imidacloprid pesticide residues in food or environment.


Assuntos
Mangifera/química , Impressão Molecular/instrumentação , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Vigna/química , Água/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 713-722, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500196

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate copper (Cu) toxicity alleviatory potential of silicon in Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) seedlings. Moreover, attention has also been paid to find out whether endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has any role in Si-governed alleviation of Cu stress. The length of root and shoot, fresh weight, and biochemical attributes were adversely affected by Cu exposure. However, application of Si rescued negative effects of Cu. Cu exposure decreased cell viability, and enhanced cell death and levels of oxidative stress markers (O2•‾, H2O2 and MDA), but Si significantly mitigated these effects of Cu. Application of Cu substantially stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase while inhibited activity of catalase. However, Si addition reversed this effect of Cu. Ascorbate and glutathione contents in roots and shoots were declined by Cu but stimulated by Si. Moreover, we noticed that addition of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and sodium tungstate (Tung) further augmented Cu toxicity but addition of sodium nitroprusside rescued adverse effects of L-NAME and Tung. Altogether, data suggest that though Si was able in alleviating Cu toxicity in mung bean seedlings but it requires endogenous nitric oxide.


Assuntos
Plântula , Vigna , Antioxidantes , Cobre/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Óxido Nítrico , Estresse Oxidativo , Plântula/metabolismo , Silício , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Vigna/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347813

RESUMO

The increasing severity of Striga gesnerioides attacks on cowpea across West Africa has been related to its prolificity, seed mobility and longevity, and adaptation to aridity, in a context of agricultural intensification. To understand this fast extension, we analyzed (1) the distributions of the crop and the witchweed with ecological niche modeling and multivariate climate analysis, and (2) the chronological information available from collections and the literature. The ecoclimatic envelope of S. gesnerioides attacks on cowpea is the same as on wild hosts. Consistently, the modeled distribution of cowpea infestations is closely similar to the simple superposition of the parasite model (involving all hosts) and the crop model. Striga gesnerioides infestations are restricted to the driest component of the cultivated cowpea ecoclimatic niche, corresponding to the Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian belts and the Dahomey gap. Thus, the parasite distribution, determined by its own requirements, does not constrain cowpea cultivation under Guinean climates. The spatial and temporal distributions of S. gesnerioides field infestations are consistent with an earlier impact on cowpea production in eastern West Africa, related itself to a similar trend in cowpea cultivation intensification from Niger, Nigeria and Benin to Burkina Faso and Ghana. Mali and Senegal were affected later, and literature reports of Senegalese strains of S. gesnerioides from the wild developing virulence on cowpea offer a model for the diffusion of witchweed parasitism by multilocal evolution, through host-driven selection, instead of epidemic diffusion. A contrario, in Côte d'Ivoire, cowpea is much less widespread, so the parasite has remained confined to the wild compartment. Thus, both historical and ecogeographic analyses refute the vision of S. gesnerioides as an invader. Instead, they point to the increasing importance and intensification of the crop, and the consequent loss of biodiversity, as the main drivers of the extension and diversification of its crop-specific strains.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Geografia , Striga/fisiologia , Vigna/fisiologia , África Ocidental , Clima , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Prevalência , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(11): 3675-3686, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368889

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: An Oligo-FISH barcode system was developed for two model legumes, allowing the identification of all cowpea and common bean chromosomes in a single FISH experiment, and revealing new chromosome rearrangements. The FISH barcode system emerges as an effective tool to understand the chromosome evolution of economically important legumes and their related species. Current status on plant cytogenetic and cytogenomic research has allowed the selection and design of oligo-specific probes to individually identify each chromosome of the karyotype in a target species. Here, we developed the first chromosome identification system for legumes based on oligo-FISH barcode probes. We selected conserved genomic regions between Vigna unguiculata (Vu, cowpea) and Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv, common bean) (diverged ~ 9.7-15 Mya), using cowpea as a reference, to produce a unique barcode pattern for each species. We combined our oligo-FISH barcode pattern with a set of previously developed FISH probes based on BACs and ribosomal DNA sequences. In addition, we integrated our FISH maps with genome sequence data. Based on this integrated analysis, we confirmed two translocation events (involving chromosomes 1, 5, and 8; and chromosomes 2 and 3) between both species. The application of the oligo-based probes allowed us to demonstrate the participation of chromosome 5 in the translocation complex for the first time. Additionally, we detailed a pericentric inversion on chromosome 4 and identified a new paracentric inversion on chromosome 10. We also detected centromere repositioning associated with chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9, confirming previous results for chromosomes 2 and 3. This first barcode system for legumes can be applied for karyotyping other Phaseolinae species, especially non-model, orphan crop species lacking genomic assemblies and cytogenetic maps, expanding our understanding of the chromosome evolution and genome organization of this economically important legume group.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem/métodos , Phaseolus/genética , Vigna/genética , Centrômero , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sondas Moleculares
18.
Analyst ; 146(18): 5675-5681, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388232

RESUMO

The wide application of nano-particles (NPs) has raised a serious concern over their impact on plants. However, evaluation of the effects of NPs on plant metabolism by direct detection of chemicals inside solid tissues presents a challenge. In this study, we report on a direct ionization method in mass spectrometry, internal extractive electrospray ionization (iEESI), for the direct evaluation of phytotoxicity of three different NPs (including CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs), gold nano-particles (Au NPs), and silver nano-particles (Ag NPs)) both on surfaces and inside solid tissues from the mung bean seeds (Vigna radiata) that were cultured in aqueous solutions of three NPs at 50 µg mL-1. The results showed that NPs could stimulate the biological accumulation of trigonelline and the decomposition of polysaccharides/oligosaccharides to glucose and maltose within 21 h of culture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to apply internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS) for the direct measurement of solid tissue samples to evaluate the phytotoxicity of NPs on mung bean sprouts. Our study lays a solid foundation for further examination of other NPs-induced damaging effects such as apoptosis/necrosis, helping us to understand the phytotoxicity of NPs on plants.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio , Pontos Quânticos , Vigna , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Telúrio
19.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3762-3769, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463817

RESUMO

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) crops stand out for their efficient adaptation to edaphoclimatic conditions. Insect pests, such as the leaf beetle Cerotoma arcuata, are among the main factors that limit cowpea yield. Chemical control methods are commonly used to control such pests; however, biological methods are an alternative to reduce the indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Beauveria bassiana inoculation on the growth and physiological parameters of the cowpea plant and assess the influence of the inoculation on the feeding performance and survival of C. arcuata adults. Colonization by B. bassiana was recorded in the stems (63.89%), roots (45.83%), and leaves (25%) of the cowpea plant. It was found that B. bassiana enhanced the plant height, number of leaves, and the dry mass of the inoculated cowpea plants as compared to the control. The treated plants exhibited higher net carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation rates in the gas exchange evaluation as well as higher stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration rates, and chlorophyll (a + b) content than the control plants. Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the B. bassiana negatively affected the survival of the insect in the leaf disc assays.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Besouros , Vigna , Animais , Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16604, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400661

RESUMO

Host-specific legume-rhizobium symbiosis is strictly controlled by rhizobial type III effectors (T3Es) in some cases. Here, we demonstrated that the symbiosis of Vigna radiata (mung bean) with Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110 is determined by NopE, and this symbiosis is highly dependent on host genotype. NopE specifically triggered incompatibility with V. radiata cv. KPS2, but it promoted nodulation in other varieties of V. radiata, including KPS1. Interestingly, NopE1 and its paralogue NopE2, which exhibits calcium-dependent autocleavage, yield similar results in modulating KPS1 nodulation. Furthermore, NopE is required for early infection and nodule organogenesis in compatible plants. Evolutionary analysis revealed that NopE is highly conserved among bradyrhizobia and plant-associated endophytic and pathogenic bacteria. Our findings suggest that V. radiata and B. diazoefficiens USDA110 may use NopE to optimize their symbiotic interactions by reducing phytohormone-mediated ETI-type (PmETI) responses via salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis suppression.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Nodulação/fisiologia , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Vigna/microbiologia , Sequência de Bases , Bradyrhizobium/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Bacterianos , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA de Plantas/biossíntese , RNA de Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Simbiose , Transcriptoma
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