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1.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(4): 2173-2184, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269554

RESUMO

In recent years, ample research has focused on applying wild (especially non-Saccharomyces) yeasts in producing alcoholic beverages. Common characteristics of wild yeast strains include simultaneous high production of fruity and floral aroma compounds and low ethanol production. In this study, mead starter cultures were selected based on preliminary screening of wild yeast strains from a Brazilian culture collection (n = 63) for their ability to produce aroma-active compounds. The selected strains included one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and three non-Saccharomyces strains (Pichia jadinii, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Kluyveromyces lactis). These strains were used to ferment honey must prepared with Aroeira honey, adjusted to 24°Brix, which took 36 days to complete. Single culture fermentations and co-fermentations with S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains were carried out. The quality of the produced beverages was evaluated by sugar consumption and production of alcohols and organic acids, analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. The volatile organic compound composition was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Meads with various ethanol amounts (4.7-11.0% v/v) and residual sugar contents (70.81-160.25 g l-1) were produced. In addition, in both single-strain fermentation and co-fermentation with S. cerevisiae, meads produced with either Torulaspora delbrueckii or Kluyveromyces lactis had a roughly three-fold higher content of honey-aroma compound phenethyl acetate and a higher hedonic impression score than meads produced with only S. cerevisiae. These results demonstrated non-Saccharomyces yeasts' ability to increase aroma complexity and improve the sensory quality of low-alcoholic meads.


Assuntos
Torulaspora , Vinho , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Leveduras , Fermentação , Etanol/análise , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia
2.
Microbiologyopen ; 11(5): e1321, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314746

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing approaches, which target a taxonomically discriminant locus, allow for in-depth insight into microbial communities' compositions. Although microorganisms are historically investigated by cultivation on artificial culture media, this method presents strong limitations, since only a limited proportion of microorganisms can be grown in vitro. This pitfall appears even more limiting in enological and winemaking processes, during which a wide range of molds, yeasts, and bacteria are observed at the different stages of the fermentation course. Such an understanding of those dynamic communities and how they impact wine quality therefore stands as a major challenge for the future of enology. As of now, although high-throughput sequencing has already allowed for the investigation of fungal communities, there is no available comparative study focusing on the performance of microbial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction in enological matrixes. This study aims to provide a comparison of five selected extraction methods, assayed on both must and fermenting must, as well as on finished wine. These procedures were evaluated according to their extraction yields, the purity of their extracted DNA, and the robustness of downstream molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing of fungal communities. Altogether, two out of the five assessed microbial DNA extraction methods (DNeasy PowerSoil Pro Kit and E.Z.N.A.® Food DNA Kit) appeared suitable for robust evaluations of the microbial communities in wine samples. Consequently, this study provides robust tools for facilitated upcoming studies to further investigate microbial communities during winemaking using high-throughput sequencing.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia , Fermentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , DNA , DNA Fúngico/genética
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 381: 109907, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063684

RESUMO

Chitosan is an active highly charged polysaccharide that has initially been developed in oenology to eliminate the spoilage yeast B. bruxellensis. However, different forms of chitosan exist, some complying with EU regulation for their use in wines, others not. Moreover, with the trend in oenology of limiting SO2, more and more questions arise as to the impact of chitosan on other microorganisms of the grape and wine environment. We investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of chitosan on a large oenological microbial collection, englobing technological as well as spoilage microorganisms. Results show that most species are affected at least transiently. Furthermore, a high variability prevails within most species and sensitive, intermediate and tolerant strains can be observed. This study also highlights different efficiencies depending on the wine parameters or the winemaking stage, giving important indications on which winemaking issues can be solved using chitosan. Chitosan treatment does not seem to be appropriate to limit the musts microbial pressure and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot be stopped during alcoholic fermentation, especially in sweet wines. Likewise, acetic acid bacteria are poorly impacted by chitosan. After alcoholic fermentation, chitosan can efficiently limit non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria but special care should be given as to whether malolactic fermentation is wanted or not. Indeed, O. oeni can be severely impacted by chitosan, even months after treatment. Finally, this study highlights the crucial importance of the chitosan type used in its efficiency towards microbial stabilization. While a high molecular weight chitosan has limited antimicrobial properties, a chitosan with a much lower one, complying with EU and OIV regulation and specifications for its use in wine is much more efficient.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Vitis , Vinho , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 383: 109936, 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179497

RESUMO

Winemaking is a complex process in which numerous microorganisms, mainly yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), play important roles. After alcoholic fermentation (AF), most wines undergo malolactic fermentation (MLF) to improve their organoleptic properties and microbiological stability. Oenococcus oeni is mainly responsible for this crucial process where L-malic acid (MA) in wine converts to softer L-lactic acid. The bacterium is better adapted to the limiting conditions imposed by the wine matrix and performs MLF under regular winemaking conditions, especially in wines with a pH below 3.5. Traditionally, this process has been conducted by the natural microbiota present within the winery. However, the start, duration and qualitative impact of spontaneous MLF are unpredictable, which prompts winemakers to use pure starter cultures of selected bacteria to promote a more reliable, simple, fast and efficient fermentation. Yet, their use does not always ensure a problem-free fermentation. Spontaneous initiation of the process may prove very difficult or does not occur at all. Such difficulties arise from a combination of factors found in some wines upon the completion of AF (high ethanol concentration, low temperature and pH, low nutrient concentrations, presence of free and bound SO2). Alongside these well documented facts, research has also provided evidence that negative interactions between O. oeni and other biological entities such as yeasts may also impact MLF. Another insufficiently described, but highly significant factor inhibiting bacterial growth is connected to the presence of bacteriophages of O. oeni which are frequently associated to musts and wines. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the phage life cycles and possible impacts on the trajectory of the microbiota during winemaking.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Vinho , Vinho/microbiologia , Fermentação , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Etanol , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 556, 2022 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964278

RESUMO

The 'Kyoho' grape (Vitaceae, Plantae) has large ears, plenty of flesh, and rich nutrition and is planted across a large area in China. There are few reports on this variety in winemaking, especially on the dynamic changes of fungi in the wine fermentation broth. In this study, we used the 'Kyoho' grapes as raw materials and adopted a high throughput to analyze dynamic changes in fungal species composition of the natural fermentation broth at four time points: day 1 (D1P), day 3 (D3P), day 5 (D5P), and day 15 (D15P). Changes in fungal metabolic pathways and dominant yeasts were also analyzed. A total of 78 families, 110 genera, and 137 species were detected, in the natural fermentation broth samples. Forty-nine families, 60 genera, and 72 species were found in the control check (CK). A total of 66 differential metabolic pathways were enriched; of those, 41 were up-regulated compared to CK, such as CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I (PWY 5667), chitin degradation to ethanol (PWY 7118), and the super pathway of phosphatidate biosynthesis (PWY 7411). Changes in fungal metabolic pathways were in line with the dynamic changes of dominant yeast species in the whole process of fermentation. Pichia kluyveri, P. membranifaciens, and Citeromyces matritensis are the dominant species in the later stages of natural fermentation. These yeast species may play vital roles in the 'Kyoho' wine industry in the future.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Fermentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras
6.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 22(1)2022 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862862

RESUMO

Wine fermentations are dominated by Saccharomyces yeast. However, dozens of non-Saccharomyces yeast genera can be found in grape musts and in the early and intermediate stages of wine fermentation, where they co-exist with S. cerevisiae. The diversity of non-Saccharomyces species is determinant for the sensorial attributes of the resulting wines, both directly (by producing aroma impact compounds) and indirectly (modulating the performance of Saccharomyces). Many research groups worldwide are exploring the great diversity of wine yeasts to exploit their metabolic potential to improve wine flavor or to prevent wine spoilage. In this work, we share a new data set from a wide ITS amplicon survey of 272 wine samples, and we perform a preliminary exploration to build a catalogue of 242 fungal and yeast genera detectable in wine samples, estimating global figures of their prevalence and relative abundance patterns across wine samples. Thus, our mycobiome survey provides a broad measure of the yeast diversity potentially found in wine fermentations; we hope that the wine yeast research community finds it useful, and we also want to encourage further discussion on the advantages and limitations that meta-taxonomic studies may have in wine research and industry.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces , Vitis , Vinho , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo
7.
Pol J Microbiol ; 71(2): 279-292, 2022 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716166

RESUMO

Oenococcus oeni is an important microorganism in wine-making-related engineering, and it improves wine quality and stability through malolactic fermentation. Although the genomes of more than 200 O. oeni strains have been sequenced, only a few include completed genome maps. Here, the genome sequence of O. oeni SD-2a, isolated from Shandong, China, has been determined. It is a fully assembled genome sequence of this strain. The complete genome is 1,989,703 bp with a G+C content of 37.8% without a plasmid. The genome includes almost all the essential genes involved in central metabolic pathways and the stress genes reported in other O. oeni strains. Some natural competence-related genes, like comEA, comEC, comFA, comG operon, and comFC, suggest that O. oeni SD-2a may have natural transformation potential. A comparative genomics analysis revealed 730 gene clusters in O. oeni SD-2a homologous to those in four other lactic acid bacteria species (O. oeni PSU-1, O. oeni CRBO-11381, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum UNQLp11, and Pediococcus pentosaceus KCCM40703). A collinearity analysis showed poor collinearity between O. oeni SD-2a and O. oeni PSU-1, indicating great differences in their evolutionary histories. The results provide general knowledge of O. oeni SD-2a and lay the foundation for specific gene function analyses.


Assuntos
Oenococcus , Vinho , Fermentação , Genômica , Oenococcus/genética , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia
8.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111165, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651031

RESUMO

Rainfall particularly under continental climates with monsoonal tendency impacts the vineyard microbial niches during grapevine growth. With microbial community shifts, vine traits (grape flavor and yield) cultivated/protected under rain-shelter may ultimately be altered. Such cultivation may influence microflora dynamics via meteorological parameter variations, however this is unclear yet. Here, we used Cabernet Sauvignon, a prevalent red cultivar among wine growing regions, to evaluate the effects of the rain-shelter cultivation on the microorganism diversity. We found that average air temperature under rain-shelter conditions was 2-3 °C higher than the non-covered group, while air humidity the maximum reduction was 5.79% (p < 0.05). After grape setting stage, similar trends were observed on soil temperature (increased) and humidity (lowered) under the treatments (p < 0.05). UV and precipitation of rain-shelter treatment were less by a total of 72% and 96%, respectively (p < 0.05). The rain-shelter management presented lower fungal and bacterial OTUs. The fungal alpha diversity on leaves and branches under rain-shelter was lower (p < 0.05) than the control as the grape ripeness, with Ascomycota, Mycosphaerella and Cladosporium as the principal fungi. Our results revealed that the fungal microbiota patterns were differentiated by the cultivations from setting stage to the entire véraison and then tended to be similar at harvesting. Only branch fungal patterns were observed asymmetrically at all stages. Meanwhile, bacterial diversity and distribution varied on colonization locations where Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the primary bacteria phyla. Bacterial community structures overlapped at harvest, while the differences were observed between two cultivations at other stages, excluding grape berry. The rain-shelter cultivation reduced the abundance of Alternaria and Colletotrichum that may adversely affect grapevine health. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the effect of vineyard microclimate on microbiota distribution and succession were influenced by cultivation modes and grapevine developmental stages. This research provides evidence to address the dynamics of microbial ecology from vineyard to grape under rain-shelter cultivation, and its benefits as a sustainable vineyard management.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Chuva , Vitis , Vinho , Bactérias/classificação , China , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Vitis/química , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia
9.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 86(9): 1318-1326, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749464

RESUMO

Proline is a predominant amino acid in grape must, but it is poorly utilized by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wine-making processes. This sometimes leads to a nitrogen deficiency during fermentation and proline accumulation in wine. In this study, we clarified that a glucose response is involved in an inhibitory mechanism of proline utilization in yeast. Our genetic screen showed that strains with a loss-of-function mutation on the CDC25 gene can utilize proline even under fermentation conditions. Cdc25 is a regulator of the glucose response consisting of the Ras/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Moreover, we found that activation of the Ras/PKA pathway is necessary for the inhibitory mechanism of proline utilization. The present data revealed that crosstalk exists between the carbon and proline metabolisms. Our study could hold promise for the development of wine yeast strains that can efficiently assimilate proline during the fermentation processes.


Assuntos
Prolina , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vinho , ras-GRF1 , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Prolina/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Vinho/microbiologia , ras-GRF1/genética
10.
J Appl Microbiol ; 133(3): 1461-1478, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656986

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study was to explore the potential of fermentation as a biovalorization strategy for spent tea leaves (STL), a major agrifood waste generated from the tea extraction industry. Fermentation by wine yeasts or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has shown promising results in previous studies across various substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Konacha (green tea) STL slurries were inoculated with single strains of wine yeasts or LAB respectively. After a 48-h fermentation, changes in selected nonvolatile and volatile compositions were evaluated. Fermentation by LAB increased organic acid content by 5- to 7-fold (except Lactobacillus fermentum) and modulated the composition of major tea catechins, whereas wine yeast fermentation resulted in a 30% increase in amino acid content. Strain-specific production of specific volatile compounds was also observed such as butanoic acid (L. fermentum), isoamyl acetate (Pichia kluyveri) and 4-ethylphenol (L. plantarum). CONCLUSIONS: Both volatile and nonvolatile compound compositions of Konacha STL were successfully modified via wine yeast and LAB fermentation. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: Our findings indicate that Konacha STL is a suitable medium for biovalorization by wine yeasts or LAB via the generation of commercially useful volatile and nonvolatile compounds. Future optimizations could further render fermentation an economically viable strategy for the upcycling of STL.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Vinho , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Chá , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo
11.
Int Microbiol ; 25(4): 733-744, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727473

RESUMO

Prospection of yeasts from oenological environments can provide knowledge of new native strains that are capable of fermenting must and positively influence the composition and sensory characteristics of the wine. This work addressed the biotechnological characterization of indigenous yeasts of Tannat must, an emblematic and widespread vineyard of Uruguay. Fifty-three yeast isolates were morphologically characterized and further identified by amplification and sequencing of ITS and D1-D2 regions, grouping into a total of fifteen species. One isolate of each species was randomly chosen and evaluated for its technological traits. In presence of ethanol (6 to 16% v/v) and sulfur dioxide (40 mg/L), native Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3FS presented the best growth rates and minor lag phase. Regarding non-Saccharomyces strains, Starmerella bacillaris 3MS stood out for its behavior in vinification conditions, more closely related to S. cerevisiae strains. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3FS, Starmerella bacillaris 3MS, and Saturnispora diversa 1FS conducted a successful fermentation process reaching a final ethanol concentration ≥ 10% v/v and presenting a killer and resistant phenotype, suggesting that they could be used as pure starter cultures, as well as in mixed culture fermentations. This preliminary screening and oenological characterization of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts might be a useful tool to identify some strains as potential candidates for wine vinification.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Etanol , Fazendas , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomycetales , Dióxido de Enxofre , Uruguai , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia , Leveduras/genética
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2399: 395-454, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604565

RESUMO

Wine fermentation is an ancient biotechnological process mediated by different microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria. Understanding of the metabolic and physiological phenomena taking place during this process can be now attained at a genome scale with the help of metabolic models. In this chapter, we present a detailed protocol for modeling wine fermentation using genome-scale metabolic models. In particular, we illustrate how metabolic fluxes can be computed, optimized and interpreted, for both yeast and bacteria under winemaking conditions. We also show how nutritional requirements can be determined and simulated using these models in relevant test cases. This chapter introduces fundamental concepts and practical steps for applying flux balance analysis in wine fermentation, and as such, it is intended for a broad microbiology audience as well as for practitioners in the metabolic modeling field.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Modelos Genéticos , Vinho , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação/genética , Fermentação/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 1118-1124, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543067

RESUMO

To reveal the formation mechanism of fungal community and diversity during the production of Shaoxing Huangjiu, we examined fungal communities in the samples of Linfanjiumu, Maiqu and fermentation mash based on Illumina MiSeq PE300 high-throughput sequencing platform. A total of 136000, 215283, 166150, and 143624 sequences were obtained from the samples of Linfanjiumu, Maiqu, initial mash and mature mash, respectively. After clustering, 32, 133, 107 and 84 OUT (operational taxonomic units) were obtained, respectively. The diversity and richness of fungi were in order of Maiqu > initial mash > mature mash > Linfanjiumu. At the level of phylum, Ascomycota were dominant in all samples. At genus level, Saccharomyces was dominant in Linfanjiumu, Aspergillus was dominant in Maiqu, and Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were the dominant fungi in the initial and mature mash. With the extension of the fermentation time, the proportion of Saccharomyces gradually increased in the mash, while other fungal groups including Aspergillus showed a decreasing trend. According to the results of PCoA analysis and similarity cluster analysis, the structure of fungi community in Linfanjiumu, initial mash and mature mash was much similar, while the fungal resources in Maiqu were quite different from other samples. The analysis of fungal community characteristics in the initial mash showed that the Linfanjiumu and Maiqu affected fungal diversity in Shaoxing Huangjiu. The dominant species of saccharification and fermentation starter (Linfanjiumu and Maiqu) played a leading role in driving community assembly of fermentation fungi.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Micobioma , Vinho , Fermentação , Fungos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Vinho/microbiologia
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 375: 109726, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635990

RESUMO

Climate change is generating several problems in wine technology. One of the main ones is lack of acidity and difficulties performing malolactic fermentation to stabilize wines before bottling. Among the different available acidity management technologies, such as direct acid addition, ion exchange resins, electro-membrane treatments, or vineyard management, the microbiological option is reliable and deeply studied. The main approach is the increase in malic acid content because of the metabolism of specific Saccharomyces strains and to increase lactic acid because of the metabolism of Lachancea genus. Other non-Saccharomyces yeasts, such as Starmerella bacillaris or Candida stellata can also acidify significantly because of the production of pyruvic or succinic acid. Wine industry needs the removal of malic acid in most red wines before bottling to achieve wine stability. Oenococus oeni performs the malolactic fermentation of red wines on most conditions because of the metabolization of malic acid into lactic acid. However, modern oenology challenges such as high ethanol concentrations, high pH or low levels of malic acid have made researchers to look for other options to reduce potential risks of deviation. Other wine-related microorganisms able to de-acidify malic acid have appeared as interesting alternatives for specific difficult scenarios. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Schizosaccharomyces genus make up nowadays the main studied alternatives.


Assuntos
Oenococcus , Schizosaccharomyces , Vinho , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 367: 109592, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240437

RESUMO

A complex consortium of yeasts is the principal responsible of wine fermentation, being Saccharomyces cerevisiae the main driver. The use of selected yeast, beginning with Saccharomyces strains, is one of the main achievements in microbiological control in the wine industry. However, the use of single strain starters of S. cerevisiae and the limited variability of strains has increased the objections to its use due to the production of wines with a homogeneous profile. New tendencies in winemaking have emphasized the microbiological terroir and challenged the use of selected starters from different areas, including Non-Saccharomyces yeast or multi-strain starters in order to add complexity to the biochemical composition of wines. Nevertheless, these strategies also harbor their own challenges. In the present mini-review, we focus on the alternatives to current commercial yeast starters mainly based on the local multispecies starters or controlled spontaneous fermentations, considering the advantages and limitations of each strategy. Also, we present an ancestral technique based on the use of pre-fermented must (Pied-de-Cuve) because it provides certain microbial control to the alcoholic fermentation while allows the development of autochthonous microorganisms that might confer microbial typicity to the produced wines. Nevertheless, the latest strategy needs further research to establish a scientific background for the selection of the best Pied-de-Cuve development. Finally, the tendencies in winemaking should find a commitment between microbial control to guarantee alcoholic fermentation fulfillment and the production of wines reflecting microbial typicity to respond to consumer demands, without forgetting the scaling up in the cellars.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces , Vitis , Vinho , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 369: 109617, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290839

RESUMO

Oenococcus oeni is the most resistant lactic acid bacteria species to the environmental stresses encountered in wine, particularly the acidity, presence of ethanol and phenolic compounds. Indigenous strains develop spontaneously following the yeast-driven alcoholic fermentation and may perform the malolactic fermentation whereby improving taste, aroma, and the microbial stability of wine. However, spontaneous fermentation is sometimes delayed, prolonged or incomplete. In order to better control its timing and quality, O. oeni strains are selected and developed to be used as malolactic starters. They are prepared under proprietary manufacturing processes to survive direct inoculation and are predominantly provided as freeze-dried preparations. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and molecular alterations occurring in O. oeni cells prepared by an industrial process that consists of preconditioning protocols and freeze-drying, and compared them to the same strain grown in a grape juice medium. We found that compared to cultured cells, the industrial production process improved survival under extreme conditions, i. e. at low pH or high tannin concentrations. In contrast, cultured cells resumed active growth more quickly and strongly than freeze-dried preparations in standard pH wines. A proteomic analysis showed that during the industrial production most non-essential metabolic processes are shut down and components of the general and the stringent stress response are upregulated. The presence of major components of the stress response facilitates protein homeostasis and physiological changes that further ensure the integrity of cells.


Assuntos
Oenococcus , Vinho , Fermentação , Malatos/metabolismo , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Proteômica , Vinho/microbiologia
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(2): 19, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989896

RESUMO

Winemaking is a complex process involving two successive fermentations: alcoholic fermentation, by yeasts, and malolactic fermentation (MLF), by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). During MLF, LAB can contribute positively to wine flavor through decarboxylation of malic acid with acidity reduction and other numerous enzymatic reactions. However, some microorganisms can have a negative impact on the quality of the wine through processes such as biogenic amine production. For these reasons, monitoring the bacterial community profiles during MLF can predict and control the quality of the final product. In addition, the selection of LAB from a wine-producing area is necessary for the formulation of native malolactic starter cultures well adapted to local winemaking practices and able to enhance the regional wine typicality. In this sense, molecular biology techniques are fundamental tools to decipher the native microbiome involved in MLF and to select bacterial strains with potential to function as starter cultures, given their enological and technological characteristics. In this context, this work reviews the different molecular tools (both culture-dependent and -independent) that can be applied to the study of MLF, either in bacterial isolates or in the microbial community of wine, and of its dynamics during the process.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Lactobacillales , Microbiota/genética , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Vinho/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Lactobacillales/classificação , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Técnicas Microbiológicas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Leveduras
18.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262353, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986204

RESUMO

Huangjiu is a national alcoholic beverage in China. Millet has congenital advantages in development and utilization of nutrient. Brewing Huangjiu with millet can increase the value of millet. Microbial community plays crucial roles in millet Huangjiu fermentation. Flavor compounds reflect the quality and health function of Huangjiu. The flavor compounds of Huangjiu are complex and their formation is closely associated with microorganisms, but the relationship between them during fermentation has been unknown. In this research, this relationship during millet Huangjiu fermentation were deeply investigated. Totally 86 volatile compounds were detected. Bacillus, Weissella, Paenibacillus, Klebsiella, Prevotella was investigated as the dominant microbes through high-throughput sequencing. 537 correlations between major flavor compounds and microbes were established to reflect the dynamic change during millet Huangjiu fermentation. The top five dominant genus of flavor producing microbes were Chryseobacterium, Sporolactobacillus, Psychrobacter, Sphingobium and Anoxybacillus. The content of malic acid and citric acid was gradually improved all through the millet Huangjiu fermentation. Malic acid and citric acid generated from millet Huangjiu fermentation shows healthy properties as liver protection and eliminating fatigue. Our research provides essential information on microbial community succession and the flavor formation during millet Huangjiu fermentation, and beneficial for development of Huangjiu products.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Milhetes/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , China , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Paladar/fisiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
19.
Can J Microbiol ; 68(5): 341-352, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050808

RESUMO

This study aimed to elucidate the fungal diversity of Changli vineyard soil in China. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the diversity and composition of soil fungi in five vineyards from different geographical locations in Changli. Although the five vineyards had similar fungal communities, the diversity, composition, and distribution of the high-abundance species differed. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota were dominant phyla. Among the 14 high-abundance genera of fungi, Odiodendron, Pleotrichocladium, and Plectosephalella have rarely been reported in other vineyards and are unique to the Changli region. In addition, Solicoccozyma aeria and Solicoccozyma terrea were the dominant species in the five vineyards and have rarely been reported in domestic vineyards. Additionally, Rhizophagus, Wardomyces, Mortierella, Volutella, and Cryptococcus were significantly different among the five vineyard soils. Among these species, Mortierella was highly abundant in each vineyard, but its contents were significantly different across vineyards. These findings enrich the information on the composition and diversity of soil fungi in the vineyard of the Changli region, which helps to explore the regional or distinctive sensorial attributes of wine from the perspective of microbial biogeography.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Micobioma , Vitis , Vinho , China , Fazendas , Fungos/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia
20.
Int Microbiol ; 25(3): 417-426, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811604

RESUMO

Issatchenkia orientalis (I. orientalis) is tolerant to various environmental stresses especially acetic acid stress in wine making. However, limited literature is available on the transcriptome profile of I. orientalis under acetic acid stress. RNA-sequence was used to investigate the metabolic changes due to underlying I. orientalis 166 (Io 166) tolerant to acetic acid. Transcriptomic analyses showed that genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis are differentially expressed under acetic acid stress. Genes associated with ribosome function were downregulated, while energy metabolism-related genes were upregulated. Moreover, Hsp70/Hsp90 and related molecular chaperones were upregulated to recognize and degrade misfolded proteins. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcriptomic changes of Io 166 showed many similarities under acetic acid stress. There were significant upregulation of genes in ergosterol biosynthesis and for the application of wine production.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Vinho , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Pichia , RNA/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vinho/microbiologia
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