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1.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(9-10): 4899-4915, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691528

RESUMO

During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments instituted a series of measures to control the spread of the virus. The measures were widely believed to increase women's risk of violent victimization, most of which is by an intimate partner. We examined help-seeking during this period in a large U.S. city and used an interrupted time series analysis to assess the effects of three government interventions on domestic violence and sexual assault hotline calls and on "911" calls regarding domestic violence, assault, and rape. Declaration of an emergency appeared to reduce victim calls to the rape crisis hotline and the few "911" calls about rape. School closure was associated with a reduction in "911" calls about assault and rape and victim calls to the domestic violence hotline. Implementation of stay-at-home orders was associated with a gradual increase in domestic violence hotline calls. Although "911" calls regarding assault fell by nearly half, calls to police for domestic violence were unchanged. In sum, there was a decrease in help-seeking for sexual assault and assault in general but not for domestic violence during the initial phases of the COVID-19 outbreak. The analysis underscores the importance of distinguishing between the violence itself, calls to police, and calls to helplines when claims are made about changes over time in violence against women. The opportunities and constraints for each can differ widely under usual circumstances, circumstances that were altered by public health interventions related to the pandemic.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , /epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Estupro/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/tendências
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 714-721, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a statewide stay-at-home (SAH) order in California beginning March 19, 2020, forcing large-scale behavioral changes and taking an emotional and economic toll. The effects of SAH orders on the trauma population remain unknown. We hypothesized an increase in rates of penetrating trauma, gunshot wounds, suicide attempts, and domestic violence in the Southern California trauma population after the SAH order. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis of all trauma patients presenting to 11 American College of Surgeons levels I and II trauma centers spanning seven counties in California was performed. Demographic data, injury characteristics, clinical data, and outcomes were collected. Patients were divided into three groups based on injury date: before SAH from January 1, 2020, to March 18, 2020 (PRE), after SAH from March 19, 2020, to June 30, 2020 (POST), and a historical control from March 19, 2019, to June 30, 2019 (CONTROL). POST was compared with both PRE and CONTROL in two separate analyses. RESULTS: Across all periods, 20,448 trauma patients were identified (CONTROL, 7,707; PRE, 6,022; POST, 6,719). POST had a significantly increased rate of penetrating trauma (13.0% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001 and 13.0% vs. 9.9%, p < 0.001) and gunshot wounds (4.5% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002 and 4.5% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.025) compared with PRE and CONTROL, respectively. POST had a suicide attempt rate of 1.9% and a domestic violence rate of 0.7%, which were similar to PRE (p = 0.478, p = 0.514) and CONTROL (p = 0.160, p = 0.618). CONCLUSION: This multicenter Southern California study demonstrated an increased rate of penetrating trauma and gunshot wounds after the COVID-19 SAH orders but no difference in attempted suicide or domestic violence rates. These findings may provide useful information regarding resource utilization and a target for societal intervention during the current or future pandemic(s). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level IV.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 152, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the global pandemic of corona virus (COVID-19) spreads across continents and communities, people are forced to respond with strict preventive measures such as staying at home and keeping social distance. In relation with these measures, particularly with the staying at home, increasing rates of domestic violence are beginning to surface. Hence, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intimate partner violence against reproductive age women in northern Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The data were collected during the period of April to May, 2020 using interviews and a self-administered standard questionnaire. The data were entered into the Epi-data manager version 4.2 and exported to SPSS 22 for analysis. The descriptive analysis such as frequency distribution, percentage, and measures of central tendency were used. This was followed by binary and multiple logistic regression analysis to infer the association between the outcome and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 682 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of intimate partner violence against women was found to stood at 24.6% with psychological violence being the most prevalent (13.3%), followed by physical (8.3%) and sexual violence (5.3%). Women were more likely to suffer from violence if they were housewives (AOR, 95% CI (18.062 (10.088, 32.342))), age less than 30 (AOR, 95% CI (23.045 (5.627, 94.377))), women with arrange marriage (AOR, 95% CI (2.535 (1.572, 4.087))) and women with husband's age being "between" 31-40 (AOR, CI 95% (2.212 (1.024, 4.777))). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the presence of a relatively high prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Thus, public reporting of any cases or concerns of abuse is critical and vital to mitigate the problem.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Reprodução , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e24361, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family violence (including intimate partner violence/domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse) is a hidden pandemic happening alongside COVID-19. The rates of family violence are rising fast, and women and children are disproportionately affected and vulnerable during this time. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a large-scale analysis of public discourse on family violence and the COVID-19 pandemic on Twitter. METHODS: We analyzed over 1 million tweets related to family violence and COVID-19 from April 12 to July 16, 2020. We used the machine learning approach Latent Dirichlet Allocation and identified salient themes, topics, and representative tweets. RESULTS: We extracted 9 themes from 1,015,874 tweets on family violence and the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) increased vulnerability: COVID-19 and family violence (eg, rising rates, increases in hotline calls, homicide); (2) types of family violence (eg, child abuse, domestic violence, sexual abuse); (3) forms of family violence (eg, physical aggression, coercive control); (4) risk factors linked to family violence (eg, alcohol abuse, financial constraints, guns, quarantine); (5) victims of family violence (eg, the LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning] community, women, women of color, children); (6) social services for family violence (eg, hotlines, social workers, confidential services, shelters, funding); (7) law enforcement response (eg, 911 calls, police arrest, protective orders, abuse reports); (8) social movements and awareness (eg, support victims, raise awareness); and (9) domestic violence-related news (eg, Tara Reade, Melissa DeRosa). CONCLUSIONS: This study overcomes limitations in the existing scholarship where data on the consequences of COVID-19 on family violence are lacking. We contribute to understanding family violence during the pandemic by providing surveillance via tweets. This is essential for identifying potentially useful policy programs that can offer targeted support for victims and survivors as we prepare for future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 386-399, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195654

RESUMO

La violencia filio-parental (VFP) es un tipo de violencia intrafamiliar que ha cobrado visibilidad social y científica en los últimos años. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar distintas formas de VFP y su relación con dos grupos de variables. Por un lado, el género, la edad, la estructura familiar, el curso, el rendimiento académico, el consumo de drogas, la frecuencia de dicho consumo y el diagnóstico de psicopatología. Por otro lado, la exposición a la violencia, el calor parental, el autoconcepto, el sexismo, el narcisismo y la psicopatía. Los participantes fueron 225 estudiantes de instituto, de 14 a 20 años, el 54.7% chicas. Las tasas de VFP fueron inferiores a las de estudios españoles previos pero semejantes a las de otros países. La mayoría de los participantes realizaron una sola conducta, insultar, y la conducta de pegar nunca apareció sola, sino en combinación con al menos otras dos conductas. El análisis de los datos mostró que la capacidad de las variables estudiadas para predecir la VFP varía para cada conducta específica. Los resultados se discuten proponiendo que los estudios futuros consideren la VFP como un problema social que trasciende la relación padres-hijos


Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is a type of domestic violence that has gained social and scientific visibility in recent years. The objective of this study is to analyze different forms of CPV and their relationship with two groups of variables. The first group includes gender, age, family structure, school year, academic performance, drug use, frequency of drug use and diagnosis of psychopathology. The second analyzes exposure to violence, parental warmth, self-concept, sexism, narcissism and psychopathy. The participants were 225 high school students from 14 to 20 years old, 54.7% of them girls. The CPV rates were lower than those of previous Spanish studies but similar to those in other countries. Most participants engaged in only one behavior, insulting, and hitting never appeared alone, but in combination with at least two other behaviors. The analysis of the data showed that the ability of the variables under study to predict CPV varies for each specific behavior. The results are discussed by proposing that future studies consider CPV as a social problem that goes beyond parent-child relations


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Autorrelato , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores de Referência , Desejabilidade Social , Comportamento Perigoso , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 408-417, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195656

RESUMO

La violencia filio-parental (VFP) ha suscitado un enorme interés académico. Pese a ello, pocos estudios comparan los factores de riesgo de chicos y chicas implicados en estas agresiones a sus progenitores. El presente trabajo compara 56 chicos y 35 chicas agresores evaluados con la Guía para la Valoración del Riesgo de Violencia Filio-Parental (RVFP). Las chicas provenían de forma significativa de contextos más problemáticos (con bidireccionalidad de la violencia, violencia entre los progenitores, problemas de convivencia y problemas en los progenitores) y tenían significativamente menos autoestima. Los chicos presentaron significativamente más historial de problemas de abusos de sustancias y mayor escalada en la violencia. En conjunto, ambos sexos presentaban prevalencias similares en la mayoría de las variables, su violencia era comparable (aunque las lesiones a los padres fueron exclusivas de los chicos) y las familias eran más problemáticas en ellas. La predicción de las lesiones a la madre con la puntuación del RVFP fue significativa en el caso de los varones (AUC = ,842) pero no en el caso de ellas (AUC = ,660). Los resultados justifican el uso de tratamientos y herramientas comunes en chicos y chicas implicados en VFP, aunque se discuten desarrollos aún necesarios en la materia


Child-to-parent violence (CPV) has attracted enormous academic interest. Despite this, few studies compare the risk factors between female and male perpetrators of this abuse toward parents. This paper compares 56 male and 35 female CPV offenders, evaluated with the Child-to-Parent Violence Risk assessment tool (CPVR). Results show that girls came from significantly more problematic contexts (with bidirectionality of violence, violence between parents, cohabitation problems and personal problems of parents, and had significantly lower self-esteem. Boys had significantly more histories of substance abuse issues and greater rates of escalation of violence. Overall, both sexes had similar prevalence rates for most variables, the type of violence committed was comparable (although injuries toward fathers were only perpetrated by boys), and female perpetrators had more problematic families than their male counterparts. CPVR scores significantly predicted injuries toward the mother for male offenders (AUC = .842), but not for female offenders (AUC = .660). These results support the use of common treatments and tools for female and male CPV offenders. Future steps and developments in the field are also discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Relações Pais-Filho , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Curva ROC , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Global Health ; 16(1): 84, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957999

RESUMO

Nepal, a South Asian country, was in nationwide lockdown for nearly three months in 2020 with partial restrictions still in place. Much worryingly, COVID-19 induced restrictions have confined women and young girls in their home, increasing the risk of domestic violence. The available support system to respond to violence against women and girls (VAWG) has also been disrupted during this period. The figures of violence against women, and child sexual abuse are increasingly being reported during the lockdown and thereafter. To mitigate this, a response against VAWG should not be a missing agenda. This commentary focuses on the situation of VAWG during COVID-19 induced restrictions in Nepal and offers a way forward for addressing the issue.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
15.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 24-30, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733656

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, the burden of interpersonal violence and its significant impact on mortality, morbidity and disability makes it a major public health problem which necessitates intervention. This article examines characteristics of victims of interpersonal violence and violent events in Malawi. The focus is on a population that has been traditionally neglected in literature. Methods: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) maintains a trauma registry with data that is prospectively collected. Patients offered trauma care after interpersonal violence from May 2013 to May 2015 were evaluated. Results: There were 1431 patients with violent events recorded at the Adult Emergency Trauma Centre (AETC) with a male predominance of 79.5%. The dominant age group was young adults between 25-29 years old (22%). Most attacks occurred during cold and dry season (46.9%) and most common location was on the road (37.2%). Alcohol use by victims was recorded in 10.5% of cases. Soft tissue injuries were the most common injuries sustained (74.1%). Most patients were treated as outpatients (80.9%). There were two deaths. At multivariate analysis, women had a lower risk of interpersonal violence as compared to men, (OR 0.82 [0.69-0.98]). Victims' use of alcohol was associated with increased risk of assault (OR 1.63 [1.27-2.10]). As compared to other places, odds of being assaulted were higher at home (OR 1.62 [1.27-2.06]) but lower at work (OR 0.68 [0.52-0.89) and on the road (OR 0.82 [0.65-1.03]). Odds of being assaulted were higher in the cold and dry season as compared to hot and dry season, (OR 1.26 [1.08-1.47]). Conclusion: Young males were most involved in interpersonal violence. Location of injury and seasonal variation were significant factors associated with interpersonal violence and most commonly sustained injuries were soft tissue injuries. These findings will help in identifying targeted interventions for interpersonal violence in Malawi and other low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs).


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Violência/classificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520952285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assisting patients who are experiencing family violence is an important issue for health services. Rates of screening for family violence in general hospital settings in Australia are unclear. This study was conducted to obtain data on hospital family violence screening rates and health service users' perceptions of the screening process, in a large metropolitan hospital in Australia. METHODS: Clients from the clinical caseloads of social work and psychology staff were invited to participate in a tablet administered, online survey of their family violence screening experiences, within the health service. RESULTS: A total of 59 surveys were completed by hospital users, who had been treated in areas including the emergency department, acute inpatient wards, sub-acute and rehabilitation units, and outpatient clinics. Less than half the sample reported being screened for family violence at the health service. One-quarter of the respondents reported disclosing family violence concerns, with one-fifth wanting to disclose, but not feeling comfortable to do so. The majority of respondents who disclosed family violence felt supported by the response of the staff member and were provided with information they found helpful. However, further work could be done to improve screening rates, environmental and organizational factors to promote users feeling comfortable to disclose, and staff responses to disclosures. CONCLUSION: The results of the survey will be used to inform the development of a hospital-wide family violence training initiative aimed to improve staff knowledge, confidence, rates of screening, and clinical responses to family violence.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Revelação , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Br J Psychiatry ; 217(4): 543-546, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654678

RESUMO

This study explored patterns of abuse, self-harm and thoughts of suicide/self-harm in the UK during the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic using data from the COVID-19 Social Study (n=44 775), a non-probability sample weighted to population proportions. The reported frequency of abuse, self-harm and thoughts of suicide/self-harm was higher among women, Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups and people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, unemployment, disability, chronic physical illnesses, mental disorders and COVID-19 diagnosis. Psychiatric medications were the most common type of support being used, but fewer than half of those affected were accessing formal or informal support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência Doméstica , Transtornos Mentais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/virologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Women Health ; 60(10): 1079-1082, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669049

RESUMO

The global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 has transformed health care around the world. Physicians and health-care providers face a great challenge regarding medical management notably women going through the perimenopause or those who are postmenopausal, some of them with medical comorbidities. Cancer care and screening have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 which may have direct effects on oncological treatments. Furthermore, a major concern during the periods of social isolation involves the relationship between couples. Our attention on health and health care during this unprecedented crisis should reflect this reality, and I believe we can learn extraordinary lessons.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Menopausa , Perimenopausa , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
20.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678797

RESUMO

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Apoio Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia
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