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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 53-60, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190649

RESUMO

Intimate partner sexual violence has countless consequences for women suffering it. This research analyse the effect of the type of sexual coercion tactic and partner dependence on both the attribution of responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. In Study 1, six scenarios for different sexual tactics were presented (coaxing, coercion, and aggression) to 5 experts in order to select those with better evidence of content validity regarding the construct evaluated. In Study 2, the three selected scenarios were presented to 304 Spanish participants from the general population, analysing the effect of the type of tactic and dependence on attributed responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. Results showed that in the sexual aggression scenario, participants assigned the highest responsibility to the aggressorand showed the strongest likelihood of leaving the relationship. Further, results revealed that in the coaxing scenario, dependence had an indirect effect on the probability of leaving the relationship through a lower responsibility attributed to the aggressor. As a conclusion, this study emphasises the importance of the sexual tactic used by aggressors in individuals' perception about sexual coercion, contributing to increasing the visibility of this unacceptable action, especially in its more subtle and normalised form


La violencia sexual en las relaciones de pareja tiene innumerables consecuencias para las mujeres que la sufren. Esta investigación analiza el efecto del tipo de táctica de coerción sexual y la dependencia de la pareja en la atribución de responsabilidad y la probabilidad de dejar la relación. En el Estudio 1 se presentaron seis escenarios sobre diferentes tácticas sexuales(persuasión, coerción y agresión) a 5 expertos con la finalidad de seleccionar a aquellos que mostraran una mayor validez de contenido con respecto al constructo evaluado. En el Estudio 2, 304 participantes leyeron los tres escenarios seleccionados y se analizó el efecto del tipo de táctica y la dependencia en la responsabilidad atribuida y en la probabilidad de dejar la relación. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes responsabilizaban más al agresor y dejarían con más probabilidad la relación en la condición de agresión sexual que en la condición de coerción sexual o persuasión sexual. Además, los resultados revelan que en el escenario más sutil (persuasión) la dependencia tiene un efecto indirecto sobre probabilidad de dejar la relación a través de una menor responsabilidad atribuida al agresor. Como conclusión, esta investigación enfatiza la importancia que tiene la táctica sexual utilizada por el agresor en la percepción de la coerción sexual, contribuyendo a aumentar la visibilidad de este acto inaceptable, especialmente en su forma más sutil y normalizada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Dependência Psicológica , Manobra Psicológica , Fatores de Risco
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 249, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172466

RESUMO

COVID-19 related guidelines and movement restrictions are designed to protect the public's health and reduce disease transmission; yet, COVID-19 related restrictions on movement including social distancing, isolation, quarantine, and shelter-in-place orders have an unknown effect on violence and abuse within relationships. As the pandemic has progressed, many have justifiably speculated that such restrictions may pose a danger to the safety and well-being of people experiencing such violence. Early in the pandemic, countries hard hit by COVID-19 began raising the alarm bell about the impacts of the disease on IPV occurrence. Police in China report that 90% of the causes of recent IPV cases could be attributed to the COVID-19 epidemic. Rising fears and anxiety about prolonged movement restrictions, increased economic strain and diminished health care capacity to support survivors are among the potential reasons for such dramatic effects. Under normal circumstances: low income, unemployment, economic stress, depression, emotional insecurity and social isolation are all risk factors for using violence against partners. Many of these factors may worsen in the context of COVID-19. Despite the urgency in addressing COVID-19, existing health concerns like Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) persist-and may well be worsened by the virus. We simply do not yet know the effects of COVID-19 on violence, nor do we know which interventions work best to prevent and respond to it within the context of the pandemic. The vast majority of information available about IPV and violence during the pandemic has been based on anecdotal reports. The call to action for the research community is clear. We must systematically measure the effects of COVID-19 and movement related restrictions on violence. As always when researching violence, serious consideration must be given to ethics and safety. Violence researchers must mobilize to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on violence and human health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , China , Humanos , Pesquisa/tendências
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 97, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of violence during pregnancy and the association with the socioeconomic, behavioral and clinical characteristics of pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a low-risk maternity hospital in the municipality of Cariacica, Espírito Santo. A total of 330 puerperal women were interviewed from August to October 2017. Information on socioeconomic, behavioral, reproductive and clinical characteristics, as well as life experiences, was collected through a questionnaire. To identify the types of violence, the proper World Health Organization instrument was used. Gross bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed and adjusted for Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: Prevalence was 16.1% (95%CI 2.5-20.4) for psychological violence, 7.6% (95%CI 5.1-11.0) for physical violence and 2.7% (95%CI 1.4-5.2) for sexual violence. Psychological violence remained associated with age, family income, beginning of sexual life, disease in pregnancy, desire to interrupt pregnancy and number of partners. Physical violence was associated with schooling, beginning of sexual life and disease in pregnancy. Sexual violence remained associated with marital status and desire to interrupt pregnancy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological violence by an intimate partner was the most prevalent among pregnant women. Women that were younger, had lower income and less schooling, who started their sexual life before the age of 14 and who wished to interrupt pregnancy, experienced violence more frequently during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia
4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argentina , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Logísticos , Solidão , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 996, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent in the United States and impacts the physical and mental health and social well-being of those who experience it. Healthcare settings are important intervention points for IPV screening and referral, yet there is a wide range of implementation of IPV protocols in healthcare settings in the U.S., and the evidence of the usefulness of IPV screening is mixed. This process evaluation investigates the facilitators and barriers to implementing Coordinated Care for IPV Survivors through the M Health Community Network ("M Health Network"), an intervention that aimed to standardize IPV screening and referral in a multi-specialty clinic and surgery center (CSC). Two validated IPV screens were introduced and mandated to be done by rooming staff at least once every 3 months with all clinic patients regardless of gender; the Humiliation Afraid Rape Kick (HARK) for presence of IPV and the shortened Danger Assessment (DA-5) for lethality of IPV. Upon a positive screen, the patient was offered immediate informational resources and, if willing, was referred to a social worker for care coordination with a community organization. METHODS: Semi-structured, individual and group process interviews with clinic managers and clinic staff at 8 CSC clinics (N = 24) were undertaken at 3,12, and 27 months after intervention start. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with the research team (N = 3) post-implementation. A Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) codebook was used to code data in two rounds. After each round, thick description was used to write detailed and contextual descriptions of each code. Facilitators and barriers to implementation were identified during the second round of thick description. RESULTS: Facilitators to implementation were clinic staff support, dedication, and flexibility and research team engagement. Barriers were lack of prioritization, loss of intervention champions, lack of knowledge about intervention protocol and resources, staff and patient discomfort discussing IPV, and operational issues with screen technology. CONCLUSIONS: The IPV protocol was implemented, but faced common barriers. CFIR is a complex, but comprehensive, tool to guide process evaluation for IPV screening and referral interventions in health systems in the U.S.


Assuntos
Assistência Médica , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Parceiros Sexuais , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Violência Étnica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(10): 1239-1242, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006492

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV)-defined as physical, psychological, sexual, and/or economic violence typically experienced by women at home and perpetrated by their partners or expartners-is a pervasive form of violence that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem, with important negative consequences on physical and psychological health. Many reports from several countries have underlined a remarkable increase in the cases of IPV during the COVID-19 emergency. In this opinion article, we discussed the hypothesis that such an increase may be related to the restrictive measures enacted to contain the pandemic, including women's forced cohabitation with the abusive partner, as well as the exacerbation of partners' pre-existing psychological disorders during the lockdown. In addition, we retrospectively analyzed some data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral center for sexual and domestic violence (Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence [SVSeD]). These data interestingly revealed an opposite trend, that is, a decrease in the number of women who sought assistance since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Such a reduction should be interpreted as a negative consequence of the pandemic-related restrictive measures. Although necessary, these measures reduced women's possibilities of seeking help from antiviolence centers and/or emergency services. Owing to the COVID-19 outbreak, there is an urgent need for developing and implementing alternative treatment options for IPV victims (such as online and phone counseling and telemedicine), as well as training programs for health care professionals, especially those employed in emergency departments, to facilitate early detection of IPV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoimagem , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/tendências , Distância Social , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/tendências
8.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 152, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the global pandemic of corona virus (COVID-19) spreads across continents and communities, people are forced to respond with strict preventive measures such as staying at home and keeping social distance. In relation with these measures, particularly with the staying at home, increasing rates of domestic violence are beginning to surface. Hence, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intimate partner violence against reproductive age women in northern Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The data were collected during the period of April to May, 2020 using interviews and a self-administered standard questionnaire. The data were entered into the Epi-data manager version 4.2 and exported to SPSS 22 for analysis. The descriptive analysis such as frequency distribution, percentage, and measures of central tendency were used. This was followed by binary and multiple logistic regression analysis to infer the association between the outcome and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 682 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of intimate partner violence against women was found to stood at 24.6% with psychological violence being the most prevalent (13.3%), followed by physical (8.3%) and sexual violence (5.3%). Women were more likely to suffer from violence if they were housewives (AOR, 95% CI (18.062 (10.088, 32.342))), age less than 30 (AOR, 95% CI (23.045 (5.627, 94.377))), women with arrange marriage (AOR, 95% CI (2.535 (1.572, 4.087))) and women with husband's age being "between" 31-40 (AOR, CI 95% (2.212 (1.024, 4.777))). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the presence of a relatively high prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Thus, public reporting of any cases or concerns of abuse is critical and vital to mitigate the problem.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Reprodução , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
10.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 165-174, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194493

RESUMO

Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) have generally focused on only one partner. Although this has allowed advances in scientific knowledge on the causes of IPV, currently recent literature is demanding the need to study both members of the couple. Methodologically, the study of dyads requires the use of appropriate statistical techniques to avoid possible systematic biases (for example, type I error due to dependence of observations). We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to study aggression and victimization in 361 heterosexual couples of young adults. The results indicated, on the one hand, that self-reported mutual aggression was found in more than 50% of the couples. On the other hand, we found that participants' victimization was largely predicted by their own aggressive behavior towards the other member of the couple. While this result suggests the existence of a victim-offender overlap, it may also hide an upwards victimization scores bias: when participants are aggressive toward their partners, they may bias their victimization scores upwards to justify their levels of aggression ("I was aggressive because I felt victimized")


Los estudios sobre la violencia de pareja (en inglés IPV) generalmente han centrado sus análisis sólo en uno de los miembros. Aunque esto ha permitido avanzar en el conocimiento de las causas de la IPV, la literatura reciente ha señalado la necesidad de estudiar a los dos miembros de la pareja. Metodológicamente el estudio de las parejas requiere el uso de técnicas estadísticas apropiadas para evitar posibles sesgos sistemáticos (por ejemplo, error tipo I debido a la dependencia de las observaciones). En este estudio utilizamos el modelo de interdependencia actor-pareja para el estudio de la agresión y la victimización en 361 parejas jóvenes heterosexuales de jóvenes adultos. Los resultados indicaban, por una parte, que había agresión mutua autoinformada en más de la mitad de las parejas. Por otro lado, encontramos que el principal predictor de la victimización de los participantes fue su propio comportamiento agresivo hacia el otro miembro de la pareja. Este resultado sugiere que la víctima y el agresor son la misma persona. Sin embargo, también puede ocultar un posible sesgo al alza de las puntuaciones de victimización: cuando los participantes son agresivos con sus parejas, pueden sesgar al alza sus puntuaciones de victimización para justificar sus niveles de agresión ("Fui agresivo porque me sentí victimizado")


Assuntos
Humanos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Autorrelato , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Análise de Variância
11.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 175-190, sept. 2020. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194494

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that the inclusion of motivational strategies in interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders could increase their effectiveness. This review evaluated the effectiveness of interventions for IPV offenders that includes motivational strategies to reduce physical and psychological IPV, treatment dropout, official recidivism to IPV offending, and to increase intervention attendance dose. The present systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using PRISMA guidelines. The following databases were searched from 1983 to 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for IPV offenders that incorporated motivational strategies for adult participants that included men and included IPV behaviors as outcomes: Cochrane Collaboration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. A total 1,134 studies were identified, 12 RCTs were included in the narrative review and 7 in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that IPV interventions that incorporated motivational strategies were significantly more effective in increasing the intervention dose and reducing dropout than interventions without motivational strategies. IPV offenders receiving interventions with motivational strategies were 1.73 times less likely to intervention dropout compared to those in interventions without such strategies. For physical and psychological IPV and official recidivism (e.g., rearrests, police record), evidence favored interventions with motivational strategies, although not significantly. These findings have important practical implications, especially considering the high dropout rates in IPV offender programs and the link between dropout and higher rates of recidivism


La investigación previa sugiere que la inclusión de estrategias motivacionales en las intervenciones con agresores de pareja podría incrementar la efectividad de estas intervenciones. Esta revisión evaluó la eficacia de las intervenciones en agresores de pareja, que incluye las estrategias motivacionales para reducir la violencia física y psicológica contra la pareja, el abandono de la intervención y la reincidencia oficial, así como para aumentar la dosis de asistencia a las intervenciones. Tanto la revisión sistemática como el meta-análisis se llevaron a cabo siguiendo las recomendaciones PRISMA. Se examinaron las siguientes bases de datos desde 1983 hasta 2018, con objeto de localizar ensayos controlados aleatorizados (ECA) de intervenciones para agresores de pareja que incluyeran estrategias motivacionales, en las que los participantes fueran hombres mayores de edad y que incluyeran como variables de resultado conductas de violencia contra la pareja: Cochrane Collaboration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO y CINAHL. Se identificaron 1,134 estudios, incluyéndose 12 ECAs en la revisión narrativa y 7 en el meta-análisis. Los resultados indicaron que las intervenciones para agresores de pareja que incorporan estrategias motivacionales eran significativamente más efectivas en incrementar la dosis de intervención y reducir el abandono de la intervención que las que no incluían estrategias motivacionales. Los agresores que participaron en intervenciones con estrategias motivacionales tenían 1.73 veces menor probabilidad de abandonar el tratamiento, en comparación con aquellos que participaron en intervenciones sin tales estrategias. En cuanto a la violencia física y psicológica contra la pareja y la reincidencia oficial (e.g., arrestos reiterados, denuncias policiales), la evidencia, aunque no es significativa, favorece las intervenciones con estrategias motivacionales. Estos resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, especialmente si se tiene en cuenta las altas tasas de abandono de la intervención que se producen en los programas de intervención con agresores de pareja y la relación existente entre abandono de la intervención y mayores tasas de reincidencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação/fisiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , 25783 , Assunção de Riscos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872328

RESUMO

In psychological consultations with women who survive Intimate Partner Violence, it is essential to work on elaboration of the trauma as a complex trauma within the context of a relationship. We consider dreams to be a symbolic-representative process, which requires the right psychic, relational and contextual conditions to occur, and that is hindered when trauma is present. The objective of the present study is to investigate the meanings that psychologists working at anti-violence centers attribute to the clinical intervention with women victims of IPV, with a focus on the area of sleep and dreaming in a traumatic experience, and in the clinical work on the trauma. Twelve female psychologists were interviewed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis methodology. From the analysis of the interviews, three main themes emerged: (1) Day and night, neither awake nor asleep, (2) Anti Violence Centers: setting as a container of emotion? and (3) dreaming undreamt dreams. The study highlights the importance of dreams as an indicator not only of psychic and mental functioning but also of the psychological relationship within a specific context.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , Itália , Violência
14.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3341, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify and analyze the perceptions and practices of health professionals and of the third sector regarding adolescence and violence between intimate adolescent partners. METHOD: an exploratory and descriptive study. Data was collected in two sessions of a Critical-Emancipatory Work Workshop carried out with 55 professionals who work in Primary Health Care services and services related to the third sector. Data was submitted to content analysis with the support of the WebQDA software. The categories of analysis used were gender and generation. RESULTS: the perceptions and practices in the face of violence between intimate adolescent partners are based on common sense and subjugate female adolescents in particular. In the health services, violence is perceived during consultations for other demands, under the biomedical paradigm. Third sector professionals understand the confrontation of violence as a responsibility of the health area. CONCLUSION: negative and stereotyped conceptions of violence between intimate adolescent partners are marked by gender and generation biases. The study highlights the need to promote networking actions in the professional practices that consider the historical and social understanding of adolescence to cope with the problem.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Violência
15.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(2): 180-187, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, incipient data have revealed an increase in violence against women (VAW). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the existing scientific literature on strategies and recommendations to respond to VAW during the implementation of social distancing measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. SEARCH STRATEGY: An integrative review was conducted based on articles published between December 2019 and June 2020. Suitable articles were identified from the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases, using relevant terms. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies included opinion and primary research articles describing the dynamics of VAW during quarantine and in the context of the restrictive measures taken during the COVID-19 pandemic and proposing recommendations to respond to this issue. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted from eligible publications and qualitative synthesis was used. MAIN RESULTS: The 38 articles included in the study showed that some factors increasing women's vulnerabilities to violence were exacerbated during the social distancing and lockdown period. Health professionals are essential for screening and responding to VAW during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies must include integrated actions aiming to prevent and respond to violence during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. These must be designed based on lessons learned from previous public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872679

RESUMO

Public helping reactions are essential to reduce a victim's secondary victimization in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) cases. Because gender-related characteristics have been linked widely to IPVAW prevalence, the study aimed to examine individual attitudes and perceptions toward different forms of violence against women, as well as gender-related macrosocial ideological and structural factors, in explaining helping reactions to IPVAW across 28 European countries. We performed multilevel logistic regression analysis, taking measures from the Eurobarometer 2016 (N = 7115) and the European Institute for Gender Equality datasets. Our study revealed a greater individual perceived IPVAW prevalence, positive perception about the appropriateness of a legal response to psychological and sexual violence against women partners, and less VAW-supportive attitudes predicted helping reactions (i.e., formal, informal), but not negative reactions to IPVAW. Moreover, individuals from European countries with a greater perceived IPVAW prevalence and gender equality preferred formal reactions to IPVAW. Otherwise, in the European countries with lesser perceived IPVAW prevalence and negative perceptions about the appropriate legal response to psychological and sexual violence, people were more likely to provide informal reactions to IPVAW. Our results showed the role of gender-related characteristics influenced real reactions toward known victim of IPVAW.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Apoio Social , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759637

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide public health problem. Here, a bibliometric analysis is performed to evaluate the publications in the Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) field from 2000 to 2019 based on the Science Citation Index (SCI) Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. This work presents a detailed overview of IPV from aspects of types of articles, citations, h-indices, languages, years, journals, institutions, countries, and author keywords. The results show that the USA takes the leading position in this research field, followed by Canada and the U.K. The University of North Carolina has the most publications and Harvard University has the first place in terms of h-index. The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine leads the list of average citations per paper. The Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Journal of Family Violence and Violence Against Women are the top three most productive journals in this field, and Psychology is the most frequently used subject category. Keywords analysis indicates that, in recent years, most research focuses on the research fields of "child abuse", "pregnancy", "HIV", "dating violence", "gender-based violence" and "adolescents".


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751828

RESUMO

Gender-based violence (GBV) perpetration is a global public health problem due to its detrimental effect on health and education. This study aims to determine the prevalence of gender-based violence perpetration by male students in eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia in December 2018. A total of 1064 male students were involved in the study. Data were collected using an adaptation of the WHO Multi-Country Study self-administered questionnaire on the Women Health and Life Event. Descriptive statistics were calculated using STATA version 14. The prevalence of gender-based violence committed by a male in the last 12 months was 55.83% (95% CI: 52.84-58.82%). The prevalence of emotional abuse against an intimate or non-partner was 45.86% (95% CI: 42.87-48.86%), physical abuse was 45.77% (95% CI: 42.77-48.77%), and sexual abuse was 31.11% (95% CI: 28.32-33.90%). The perpetration of multiple types of gender-based violence (emotional, physical, and sexual) was 47.15% (95% CI: 43.15-51.25%), with 17.72% (95% CI: 14.75-21.03%) reporting emotionally and physically violent acts, 14.21% (95% CI: 11.51-17.27%) reporting emotionally violent acts only, and 12.88% (95% CI: 10.29-15.82%) reporting physically violent acts only. There were statistically significant differences between the age of participants who committed acts of all forms of GBV in the "ever" timeframe and the past 12 months (p < 0.001). Effective prevention and intervention strategies should be developed at the school level to reduce gender-based violence perpetration.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751890

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been declared a global epidemic by the World Health Organization. Although the attention paid to both the perpetrators and victims of gender-based violence has increased, scientific research is still lacking in regard to the representations of operators involved in interventions and management. Therefore, the following study explores how the representations of operators affect how gender violence can be managed and combatted through an ecological approach to this phenomenon, in addition to highlighting the roles of organizational-level services and their cultural and symbolic substrates. In total, 35 health and social professionals were interviewed and textual materials were analyzed by thematic analysis. The evidence suggests that services contrasting gender-based violence utilize different representations and management approaches. The authors hope that these differences can become a resource, rather than a limitation, when combatting gender-based violence through the construction of more integrated networks and a greater dialogue among different services, in order to make interventions designed to combat gender-based violence more effective.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Pessoal de Saúde , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Serviço Social , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Violência
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781565

RESUMO

Infidelity and romantic jealousy (RJ) are commonly cited relational level drivers of intimate partner violence (IPV) but remain undertheorized and underutilized in IPV research and prevention. This global systematic review aims to characterize the existing research on real or suspected infidelity and RJ in relation to IPV and inform future research and programming. We systematically searched 11 databases for peer-reviewed research, published between April 2009 and 2019, that provided data on the prevalence or a measure of association (quantitative), or pathway (qualitative), between real or suspected infidelity or RJ, and IPV. Fifty-one papers from 28 countries were included and the evidence showed a consistent association between real or suspected infidelity, RJ and IPV. Our findings identify three overarching mechanisms and six pathways between infidelity, RJ and IPV. These provide support for prominent theories in the field related to patriarchal culture, threatened masculinities and femininities and a lack of emotional regulation and conflict resolution skills, but not evolutionary theories. Our findings suggest that researchers should use standardized measurement tools that make the distinction between RJ and suspected, confirmed and accusations of infidelity. Policy and programming should aim to transform traditional gender roles, accounting for infidelity and RJ and improving couple's communication and trust.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Ciúme , Casamento , Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maus-Tratos Conjugais
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