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Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600


Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered

La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Violência contra a Mulher , Conflito (Psicologia) , Homicídio/psicologia
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1849-1857, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656467


Background: Emergency nurses' understanding and interpretation of intimate partner violence influence the care they provide to women exposed to intimate partner violence. Objectives: The aim of this study was to uncover discourses that may help understand emergency nurses' responses towards women exposed to intimate partner violence. Materials and methods: This study used a qualitative design to explore emergency nurses' discourses. Purposive sampling was used to select 15 participants working at an emergency unit in a public hospital in South Africa. Data were collected through three focus group discussions comprised of five emergency nurses each. Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. Results: Four themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) strong women subject themselves to societal expectations and endure intimate partner violence, (2) women are vulnerable and powerless against intimate partner violence, (3) intimate partner violence is a private and secret phenomenon, and (4) emergency nurses have limited scope to intervene when they encounter women exposed to intimate partner violence. Conclusion: Emergency nurses are in a position to intervene in intimate partner violence through portraying a non-judgmental approach that lay the foundation for disclosure, supporting women to change their intimate partner violence (IPV) situations, documentation, referral and safety planning.

Enfermagem em Emergência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1648-1657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535257


OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children (WIC), available to low income pregnant women, may provide an opportunity to identify victims of IPV and refer them to services. This cross-sectional study aims to determine whether WIC participants are more likely than non-WIC participants to have reported IPV before or during pregnancy in the United States. METHODS: The 2004-2011 National Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey (n = 319,689) was analyzed in 2015. Self-reported WIC participation, pre-pregnancy IPV, and IPV during pregnancy were examined. The associations between IPV and WIC participation were analyzed using multiple logistic regression and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Subpopulation analysis was conducted, stratified by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Nearly half of the study sample received WIC (48.1%), approximately 4% of women reported physical abuse 12 months before their most recent pregnancy, and 3% reported abuse during pregnancy. After adjusting for confounders, women who reported IPV before and during pregnancy had significantly higher odds of WIC utilization compared to women who did not report IPV. However, when stratified by race, the association was only significant for non-Hispanic White women (pre-pregnancy AOR 1.47, 95% CI [1.17, 1.85]; during pregnancy AOR 1.47, 95% CI [1.14, 1.88]). CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: There is an association between IPV before and during pregnancy and utilization of WIC. Public health professionals and policy makers should be aware of this association and use this opportunity to screen and address the needs of WIC recipients.

Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 19(3): 171-180, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184963


Background/Objective: The outcome of a treatment program for a large sample of male perpetrators on probation for intimate partner violence (IPV) was evaluated with particular reference to the differential impact on family only (FO) versus generally violent (GV) perpetrators. Method: Official rates of recidivism for three years post termination of treatment and probation were examined for 456 perpetrators after they were classified as FO and GV. Results: Both treatment completion and type of perpetrator were predictive of IPV recidivism and time to recidivism. However, analyses conducted separately for the two groups indicated that participation in the intervention predicted both recidivism and time to recidivism for the GV but not FO perpetrators who participated in treatment. Specifically, GV men were responsive to treatment whereas FO men were not. Results were somewhat different depending on who was included in the no treatment comparison group. Conclusions: Implications of these findings for one size fits all interventions in IPV are discussed with specific reference to the need to develop different interventions for GV and FO perpetrators

Antecedentes/Objetivo: El resultado de un programa de intervención para una muestra de agresores masculinos en libertad condicional por violencia contra su pareja intima (VPI) fue evaluado con particular referencia al impacto diferencial en agresores de familia solamente (AF) y agresores generalmente violentos (GV). Mètodo: Las tasas oficiales de reincidencia durante tres años después de la terminación del tratamiento y de la libertad condicional fueron examinadas en 456 agresores después de ser clasificados como AF y GV. Resultados: Tanto completar la intervencion como el tipo de agresor fueron predictores de la reincidencia de la VPI y del tiempo para reincidir. Sin embargo, el análisis de los dos grupos por separado mostró que la intervención predijo tanto la reincidencia como el tiempo para reincidir en los agresores GV pero no para los agresores AF que participaron en el tratamiento. Específicamente, los hombres GV fueron receptivos al tratamiento mientras que los hombres AF no lo fueron. Los resultados fueron algo diferentes dependiendo de quién fue incluido en el grupo de contraste. Conclusiones: Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados para intervenciones de una misma talla en VPI con especial atención a la necesidad de desarrollar diferentes intervenciones para los agresores GV y los AF

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Agressão , Reincidência , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1131, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420028


BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with poor maternal healthcare utilisation and poor pregnancy outcomes. IPV can be seen both as the cause and result of low socioeconomic status and lack of maternal autonomy that can limit women's access to resources and motivation necessary for seeking healthcare during pregnancy. This paper aims to study the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services in Nigeria. METHODS: We applied propensity score matching (PSM) approach to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the utilisation of facility delivery services. PSM is a popular strategy for reducing sampling bias through balancing sample characteristics, a technique that mimics randomization on cross-sectional data. Data were collected from Nigeria DHS surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. IPV was the main explanatory variable of interest for delivery at health facility which was defined as delivering at any health institution including health clinics. RESULTS: PSM generated 20,446 cases distributed into two equal groups i.e. those who delivered at health facility versus those who did not. The prevalence of facility delivery in 2013 was 56.8% (95%CI 55.0-58.6) indicating a moderate increase from its 2008 level of 43.2% (41.4-45.0%). Lifetime prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse was respectively 21.5%(95%CI 20.6, 22.4), 14.9% (14.2, 15.7) and 5.0% (4.6-5.4). In the multivariable analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, ever experiencing emotional abuse was associated increased odds of not delivering at a health facility. (AOR = 1.228, 95%CI, 1.095-1.679). CONCLUSION: Women experiencing emotional violence are less likely to use institutional delivery services, and hence are susceptible to increased risk of reproductive complications. IPV is a complex issue that needs to be tackled by introducing evidence based strategies contextually relevant to local sociocultural environment. Further studies are required to understand the roots of IPV and the pathways through which it hindrances healthcare utilisation among women.

Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Pontuação de Propensão , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1108, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412825


BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is pervasive throughout the world, with profound consequences for women's health. While women's 'economic empowerment' is touted as a potential means to reduce IPV, evidence is mixed as to the role of different economic factors in determining women's risk. This paper explores associations and potential pathways between women's income and experience of IPV, in Mwanza city, Tanzania. METHODS: We use data from married/cohabiting women (N = 740) enrolled in the MAISHA study, a cluster randomised trial of an IPV prevention intervention. Women were interviewed at baseline and 29-months later. We use logistic regression to model cross-sectional (baseline) and longitudinal associations between: a woman's monthly income (quartiles) and her past year risk of physical IPV, sexual IPV and economic abuse; and a woman's relative financial contribution to the household (same/less than partner; more than partner) and past year physical IPV and sexual IPV. RESULTS: At baseline, 96% of respondents reported earning an income and 28% contributed more financially to the household than their partner did. Higher income was associated with lower past-year physical IPV risk at baseline and longitudinally, and lower sexual IPV at baseline only. No clear associations were seen between income and economic abuse. Higher relative financial contribution was associated with increased physical IPV and sexual IPV among all women at baseline, though only among control women longitudinally. Higher income was associated with several potential pathways to reduced IPV, including reduced household hardship, fewer arguments over the partner's inability to provide for the family, improved relationship dynamics, and increased relationship dissolution. Those contributing more than their partner tended to come from more disadvantaged households, argue more over their partner's inability to provide, and have worse relationship dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: While women's income was protective against IPV, women who contributed more financially than their partners had greater IPV risk. Poverty and tensions over men's inability to provide emerge as potentially important drivers of this association. Interventions to empower women should not only broaden women's access to economic resources and opportunities, but also work with women and men to address men's livelihoods, male gender roles and masculinity norms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: #NCT02592252 , registered retrospectively (13/08/2015).

Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 479, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299953


BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with adverse health effects and increased healthcare utilization. Systems-level interventions have been shown to be effective in identifying and referring survivors but little is known about how these strategies impact future utilization. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of a systems-level response on healthcare utilization among patients screening positive for IPV from November 2016 to February 2019 in a large multi-specialty outpatient health system in the Midwest. METHODS: Using electronic health record (EHR) data, we identified patients who screened positive for IPV (N = 756) and categorized their response as accepted printed material (N = 116), accepted direct referrals (N = 85), declined both (N = 271), or missing (N = 255). We used negative binomial models to model post-period utilization as a function of decision group, pre-period utilization, and clinical and demographic factors. RESULTS: After controlling for demographic characteristics and baseline utilization, the printed materials and direct referral groups had higher utilization rates than those who declined printed materials and direct referral during the post-period for every type of service. However, these differences were only statistically significant for outpatient, behavioral health, and social work services. Specifically, the visit rate for patients receiving printed materials was two times higher (rate ratio: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.94) for behavioral health services and three times higher (rate ratio: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.3, 8.52) for social work services compared to those who refused printed material and direct referral. For those opting for a direct referral, the visit rate was two times higher for outpatient services (rate ratio: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.42) compared to those who refused. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving printed materials or direct referrals had more social work and behavioral health visits, highlighting an important outcome of the protocol. However, higher utilization rates among outpatient services and a trend toward higher utilization of other services, including the emergency department, suggest greater health service utilization is not diminished by the systems level response-at least not within a two-year time frame.

Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 9: [20], jul. 15, 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1024670


Objetivo: identificar nos registros de ocorrência de uma Delegacia Especializada no Atendimento à Mulher (DEAM), as situações de violência perpetradas por parceiro íntimo em abuso de álcool contra mulheres no climatério. Método: pesquisa qualitativa descritiva, realizada na DEAM de um município do interior baiano. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se o sistema de notificação de ocorrências da DEAM e na análise dos dados foi empregada a análise de conteúdo. Resultados: a violência praticada por parceiro íntimo torna-se frequente com o uso abusivo de álcool, sob a forma de violência física, psicológica e sexual e na fase do climatério as agressões foram constantes. Considerações finais: ressalta-se a importância da discussão sobre violência contra as mulheres entre profissionais que atuam na atenção primária à saúde para identificar a violência, realizar atendimento integral e implementar estratégias de prevenção e redução da violência, visando à articulação com os serviços da rede de atenção.

Objective: To identify, in the records of a Women's Police Station (Delegacia Especializada no Atendimento à Mulher, DEAM), violence perpetrated by intoxicated intimate partners against women in the climacteric period. Method: A descriptive qualitative research carried out in the DEAM of a municipality in the inland of Bahia. For data collection and analysis, the DEAM's notification system was used and its content was analyzed. Results: Intimate partner violence and alcohol abuse are frequently related; it happens in the form of physical, psychological and sexual violence. During the climacteric period the aggressions were constant. Final considerations: The importance to discuss violence against women among professionals working in primary health care is highlighted to identify violence, provide integral care and implement strategies to prevent and reduce violence, in order to articulate with the services of primary health care.

Objetivo: identificar, en los registros de ocurrencia, de una Delegacia Especializada no Atendimento à Mulher (DEAM), las situaciones de violencia perpetradas por compañeros íntimos en abuso de alcohol contra mujeres en el climaterio. Método: investigación cualitativa, descriptiva, realizada en la DEAM, de un municipio del interior bahiano. Para la recolección de los datos se utilizó el sistema de notificación de ocurrencias de la DEAM y el análisis de los datos se basó en el análisis de contenido. Resultados: la violencia practicada por los compañeros íntimos ocurre frecuentemente con el uso abusivo del alcohol, por la forma de violencia física, psicológica y sexual, en la fase del climaterio las agresiones son constantes. Consideraciones finales: se resalta la importancia de la discusión sobre la violencia contra las mujeres entre profesionales, que actúan en la atención primaria a la salud, para identificar la violencia, realizar atendimiento integral e implementar estrategias de prevención y reducción de la violencia, para la articulación de los servicios de la red de atención.

Humanos , Climatério , Alcoolismo , Violência contra a Mulher , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo
Womens Health Issues ; 29 Suppl 1: S74-S82, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253246


PURPOSE: Trauma has been associated with risky sexual behavior in diverse populations. However, little is known about this association among men and women veterans. This study hypothesized that 1) a history of trauma would be associated with risky sexual behavior among men and women veterans, 2) interpersonal trauma would predict risky sexual behavior among women, whereas noninterpersonal trauma would predict risky sexual behavior among men, and 3) military-related trauma would constitute additional risk. Using data from 567 women and 524 men veterans enrolled at the Veterans Health Administration, this study investigated the association between trauma-related experiences and risky sexual behavior in the last 12 months. Risk and protective factors that have been frequently associated with sexual behavior in previous research were also included in the model. METHODS: This study was drawn from the Women Veterans Cohort Study, a national survey of veterans. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed after multiple imputation for missing data. RESULTS: Predictive factors associated with risky sexual behavior differed between men and women veterans. Among women, childhood sexual victimization and intimate partner violence were associated with risky sexual behavior. Among men, binge drinking was the single significant risk factor. Military exposures were not significantly associated with risky sexual behavior in either men or women. CONCLUSIONS: This study lays the groundwork for theory-generating research into the psychological underpinnings of noted associations and underscores the importance of integrated health services to address the range of issues affecting sexual behavior and related health outcomes.

Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bullying , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Saúde dos Veteranos
N Engl J Med ; 380(24): e47, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189055
N Engl J Med ; 380(24): e47, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189056
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 692, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164113


BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence can have a devastating impact on victims' psychological and physical health and ability to maintain and preserve interpersonal relationships. The aim of the current study is to empirically test the effectiveness of Strong Through Every Mile (STEM), a 10-week structured running (exercise) program designed to increase psychological, social, and physical well-being among survivors of intimate partner violence. To the authors' knowledge, STEM is the only community-based structured running program designed to improve the quality of life of survivors of intimate partner violence. This paper will describe the STEM program and present the theoretical basis of the program and the program evaluation design. METHODS: The current study will utilize an interdisciplinary lens to evaluate a community-based intervention aimed at decreasing the negative effects of intimate partner violence on women's lives. The study will use a mixed method approach (qualitative and quantitative), including a pre- and post-test evaluation of the STEM running program. Primary data will be collected using paper and pencil surveys which assess women's psychological, social, and physical well-being prior to participation in the program and following the completion of the program. Qualitative data from focus groups will also be collected and allow for a more rich understanding of the changes that women experience over the course of the program and specific mechanisms underlying these changes. DISCUSSION: The current study will employ an interdisciplinary lens to examine the extent to which a structured exercise program, specifically running, impacts the psychological, social and physical well-being of women survivors of intimate partner violence. Findings of this study can influence the development and implementation of similar programs for survivors of intimate partner violence and other types of trauma by identifying mechanisms central in achieving positive outcomes for participants.

Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Corrida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4717485, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179324


Background: Exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of adverse reproductive health outcomes. However, detailed knowledge on the association between specific types of exposure to partner violence and postpartum depression is limited. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between exposure to emotional violence, physical violence, and sexual violence during pregnancy and postpartum depression among women in northern Vietnam. Methods: The study was designed as a longitudinal study, which included a total of 1,337 women. The study participants were recruited from 24 communes in Dong Anh District, Hanoi, Vietnam, and interviewed four times: (a) at enrolment (which took place no later than week 24 of the pregnancy); (b) at a gestational age of 30-34 weeks; (c) at delivery; and d) 4-12 weeks after delivery. Emotional, physical, and sexual violence exerted by the intimate partner were measured using a modified version of the questionnaire initially developed by the World Health Organization, and signs of depression were measured by the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. Results: More than one-third of the women (35.3%) experienced at least one type of violence during their pregnancy and 8.2% of the women reported postpartum depression. The results of multivariate analyses showed that both physical and sexual violence were statistically significantly associated with postpartum depression (AOR=2.75, 95%CI: 1.19-6.35 and AOR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.01-3.73, respectively). Conclusions: The results showed strong and statistically significant associations between partner violence and postpartum depression. These findings clearly demonstrate a crucial need for relevant health professionals to identify women who are exposed to partner violence and screen for postpartum depression in order to mitigate the negative mental health outcomes among Vietnamese women.

Depressão Pós-Parto/complicações , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(7): 1418-1432, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183605


Adolescent dating violence is a persistent public health concern, impacting many youths during their initial and formative relationships during middle school. Despite theoretical and empirical studies highlighting the essential role of family relationship dynamics and parenting practices in relation to youth violence, substantially less research has focused on associations between these factors and rates of adolescent dating violence. The current study examined aspects of the family context in relation to dating violence outcomes among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of middle school students from economically disadvantaged communities, a group of adolescents at a high risk for exposure to risk factors for dating violence. Participants included 495 adolescents (66% male; 63% African American). Data were collected at the beginning of sixth grade and three subsequent spring waves through eighth grade. The current study identified patterns of family factors using a latent class analysis and examined these classes in relation to dating violence and dating violence norms. Three classes emerged: a positive family context with mixed messages about parental support for fighting and nonviolence (42%), an average family context with consistent parental support for nonviolent responses to conflict (24%), and a poor family context with parental support for fighting (34%). The classes with average and positive family contexts showed the lowest levels of dating violence and dating violence norms. These findings support the development and integration of family context factors into adolescent dating violence prevention programs, especially within high-burden contexts where families may be more likely to endorse mixed messages about how to handle conflict and youth may be at a higher risk for dating violence outcomes.

Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino
J Can Dent Assoc ; 84: j5, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199729


BACKGROUND: Early childhood dental decay or caries (ECC) is common, often painful and costly to the health care system, yet it is largely preventable. A public health approach is needed, especially as socially vulnerable children most at risk for ECC are less likely to access conventional treatment. Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family represents an important social vulnerability for children, yet little is known about ECC in this context. We explored the relation between ECC and exposure to IPV as well as opportunities for community-based early interventions to prevent ECC. METHODS: We searched 5 electronic databases. All primary research and reviews that focused on childhood decay and exposure to IPV or that referred to community settings (specifically women's shelters) for oral health service delivery were included. RESULTS: Of 198 unique documents identified, 12 were included in the analysis. Although limited, our findings suggest a positive relation between exposure to IPV and ECC, the mechanisms of which are not well studied. Women's-shelter-based prevention programs may hold promise in terms of detecting and addressing ECC. Over the time frame of the literature reviewed, we observed a subtle shift in emphasis away from individual behaviours and biological models toward upstream societal structures. CONCLUSIONS: The available literature suggests that the issue of ECC and IPV may be poised to embrace a public health approach to early intervention, characterized by community collaboration, interprofessional cooperation between dentistry and social work and an equitable approach to ECC in a socially vulnerable group.

Cárie Dentária , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Pública