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1.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110650, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340849

RESUMO

The aim of this article was to conduct a rapid critical review of the literature about the relationship between violence against women (VAW) and the current COVID-19 pandemic. After the screening process, a total of 42 articles were considered. Our review confirmed that the "stay at home" policies to contrast the pandemic have increased the problem of VAW, creating a "shadow pandemic within the pandemic", as it was called by the United Nations. However, rigorous studies estimating the relationship between VAW and COVID-19 pandemic are scarce; most of the articles are commentaries, letters, editorials, and most of the published data derives from social media, internet, anecdotal evidence and helplines reports. Health care systems should promote further investigations into the relation between VAW and COVID-19, to identify creative solutions to provide clinical care and forensic services for victims of VAW.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Quarentena , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Linhas Diretas/tendências , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Polícia , Política Pública
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 97, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of violence during pregnancy and the association with the socioeconomic, behavioral and clinical characteristics of pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a low-risk maternity hospital in the municipality of Cariacica, Espírito Santo. A total of 330 puerperal women were interviewed from August to October 2017. Information on socioeconomic, behavioral, reproductive and clinical characteristics, as well as life experiences, was collected through a questionnaire. To identify the types of violence, the proper World Health Organization instrument was used. Gross bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed and adjusted for Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: Prevalence was 16.1% (95%CI 2.5-20.4) for psychological violence, 7.6% (95%CI 5.1-11.0) for physical violence and 2.7% (95%CI 1.4-5.2) for sexual violence. Psychological violence remained associated with age, family income, beginning of sexual life, disease in pregnancy, desire to interrupt pregnancy and number of partners. Physical violence was associated with schooling, beginning of sexual life and disease in pregnancy. Sexual violence remained associated with marital status and desire to interrupt pregnancy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological violence by an intimate partner was the most prevalent among pregnant women. Women that were younger, had lower income and less schooling, who started their sexual life before the age of 14 and who wished to interrupt pregnancy, experienced violence more frequently during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e24361, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family violence (including intimate partner violence/domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse) is a hidden pandemic happening alongside COVID-19. The rates of family violence are rising fast, and women and children are disproportionately affected and vulnerable during this time. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a large-scale analysis of public discourse on family violence and the COVID-19 pandemic on Twitter. METHODS: We analyzed over 1 million tweets related to family violence and COVID-19 from April 12 to July 16, 2020. We used the machine learning approach Latent Dirichlet Allocation and identified salient themes, topics, and representative tweets. RESULTS: We extracted 9 themes from 1,015,874 tweets on family violence and the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) increased vulnerability: COVID-19 and family violence (eg, rising rates, increases in hotline calls, homicide); (2) types of family violence (eg, child abuse, domestic violence, sexual abuse); (3) forms of family violence (eg, physical aggression, coercive control); (4) risk factors linked to family violence (eg, alcohol abuse, financial constraints, guns, quarantine); (5) victims of family violence (eg, the LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning] community, women, women of color, children); (6) social services for family violence (eg, hotlines, social workers, confidential services, shelters, funding); (7) law enforcement response (eg, 911 calls, police arrest, protective orders, abuse reports); (8) social movements and awareness (eg, support victims, raise awareness); and (9) domestic violence-related news (eg, Tara Reade, Melissa DeRosa). CONCLUSIONS: This study overcomes limitations in the existing scholarship where data on the consequences of COVID-19 on family violence are lacking. We contribute to understanding family violence during the pandemic by providing surveillance via tweets. This is essential for identifying potentially useful policy programs that can offer targeted support for victims and survivors as we prepare for future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(10): 1239-1242, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006492

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV)-defined as physical, psychological, sexual, and/or economic violence typically experienced by women at home and perpetrated by their partners or expartners-is a pervasive form of violence that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem, with important negative consequences on physical and psychological health. Many reports from several countries have underlined a remarkable increase in the cases of IPV during the COVID-19 emergency. In this opinion article, we discussed the hypothesis that such an increase may be related to the restrictive measures enacted to contain the pandemic, including women's forced cohabitation with the abusive partner, as well as the exacerbation of partners' pre-existing psychological disorders during the lockdown. In addition, we retrospectively analyzed some data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral center for sexual and domestic violence (Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence [SVSeD]). These data interestingly revealed an opposite trend, that is, a decrease in the number of women who sought assistance since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Such a reduction should be interpreted as a negative consequence of the pandemic-related restrictive measures. Although necessary, these measures reduced women's possibilities of seeking help from antiviolence centers and/or emergency services. Owing to the COVID-19 outbreak, there is an urgent need for developing and implementing alternative treatment options for IPV victims (such as online and phone counseling and telemedicine), as well as training programs for health care professionals, especially those employed in emergency departments, to facilitate early detection of IPV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoimagem , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/tendências , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/tendências
6.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 152, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the global pandemic of corona virus (COVID-19) spreads across continents and communities, people are forced to respond with strict preventive measures such as staying at home and keeping social distance. In relation with these measures, particularly with the staying at home, increasing rates of domestic violence are beginning to surface. Hence, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intimate partner violence against reproductive age women in northern Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. The data were collected during the period of April to May, 2020 using interviews and a self-administered standard questionnaire. The data were entered into the Epi-data manager version 4.2 and exported to SPSS 22 for analysis. The descriptive analysis such as frequency distribution, percentage, and measures of central tendency were used. This was followed by binary and multiple logistic regression analysis to infer the association between the outcome and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 682 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of intimate partner violence against women was found to stood at 24.6% with psychological violence being the most prevalent (13.3%), followed by physical (8.3%) and sexual violence (5.3%). Women were more likely to suffer from violence if they were housewives (AOR, 95% CI (18.062 (10.088, 32.342))), age less than 30 (AOR, 95% CI (23.045 (5.627, 94.377))), women with arrange marriage (AOR, 95% CI (2.535 (1.572, 4.087))) and women with husband's age being "between" 31-40 (AOR, CI 95% (2.212 (1.024, 4.777))). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the presence of a relatively high prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Thus, public reporting of any cases or concerns of abuse is critical and vital to mitigate the problem.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Reprodução , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Violência Étnica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence against women is one of the most common forms of violence. Different research fields are trying to understand the cycle of violence, such as the psychological field, to understand how these women's relational patterns and intrapsychic conflict function in the cycle of violence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the operationalized psychodynamic diagnosis of women victims of domestic violence, exploring the severity and experience of violence, structural functions, dysfunctional interpersonal patterns, and intrapsychic conflicts. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative study using the OPD-2 Clinical Interviews, which were recorded and transcribed. The sample was composed by 56 women victims of domestic violence, mean age 30.07 (SD = ±9.65). Reliability was satisfactory for judges interviews(k>0,6). RESULTS: According to the OPD-2 evaluation, we found that the severity of the violence was associated with the intensity of women's subjective suffering. In the relational pattern, they stay in the relationship, leaving themselves vulnerable; perceive the partner as controlling, aggressive, offensive, and fear abandonment. As a defensive mechanism to relational discomfort and suffering victims anticipate the aggressor's desire, resulting in submissive behavior. The main psychic conflict was the "need for care versus self-sufficiency" (78.6%). And medium was the predominant structure level, in which they presented insecure internal objects, presenting difficulties in emotional regulation and perceiving reality in a distorted way. Hence, they do not recognize their limitations and needs. We found that 78.6% of the cases had some psychiatric disorder: MDD, PTSD. CONCLUSION: This study provides empirical evidence on clinical observations on the psychological functioning of this population and the issues that make up the maintenance of domestic violence against women. The understanding of internalized patterns, structural functions, and motivational tensions are fundamental for the prevention of re-victimization and improving coping mechanisms, as well as promoting greater adherence to treatment.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevista Psicológica , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicanálise , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872679

RESUMO

Public helping reactions are essential to reduce a victim's secondary victimization in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) cases. Because gender-related characteristics have been linked widely to IPVAW prevalence, the study aimed to examine individual attitudes and perceptions toward different forms of violence against women, as well as gender-related macrosocial ideological and structural factors, in explaining helping reactions to IPVAW across 28 European countries. We performed multilevel logistic regression analysis, taking measures from the Eurobarometer 2016 (N = 7115) and the European Institute for Gender Equality datasets. Our study revealed a greater individual perceived IPVAW prevalence, positive perception about the appropriateness of a legal response to psychological and sexual violence against women partners, and less VAW-supportive attitudes predicted helping reactions (i.e., formal, informal), but not negative reactions to IPVAW. Moreover, individuals from European countries with a greater perceived IPVAW prevalence and gender equality preferred formal reactions to IPVAW. Otherwise, in the European countries with lesser perceived IPVAW prevalence and negative perceptions about the appropriate legal response to psychological and sexual violence, people were more likely to provide informal reactions to IPVAW. Our results showed the role of gender-related characteristics influenced real reactions toward known victim of IPVAW.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Apoio Social , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMO

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicometria/métodos , Rede Social , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Internet
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1380-e1389, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stay-at-home orders (lockdowns) have been deployed globally to control COVID-19 transmission, and might impair economic conditions and mental health, and exacerbate risk of food insecurity and intimate partner violence. The effect of lockdowns in low-income and middle-income countries must be understood to ensure safe deployment of these interventions in less affluent settings. We aimed to determine the immediate impact of COVID-19 lockdown orders on women and their families in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: An interrupted time series was used to compare data collected from families in Rupganj upazila, rural Bangladesh (randomly selected from participants in a randomised controlled trial), on income, food security, and mental health a median of 1 year and 2 years before the COVID-19 pandemic to data collected during the lockdown. We also assessed women's experiences of intimate partner violence during the pandemic. RESULTS: Between May 19 and June 18, 2020, we randomly selected and invited the mothers of 3016 children to participate in the study, 2424 of whom provided consent. 2414 (99·9%, 95% CI 99·6-99·9) of 2417 mothers were aware of, and adhering to, the stay-at-home advice. 2321 (96·0%, 95·2-96·7) of 2417 mothers reported a reduction in paid work for the family. Median monthly family income fell from US$212 at baseline to $59 during lockdown, and the proportion of families earning less than $1·90 per day rose from five (0·2%, 0·0-0·5) of 2422 to 992 (47·3%, 45·2-49·5) of 2096 (p<0·0001 comparing baseline with lockdown period). Before the pandemic, 136 (5·6%, 4·7-6·6) of 2420 and 65 (2·7%, 2·1-3·4) of 2420 families experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. This increased to 881 (36·5%, 34·5-38·4) of 2417 and 371 (15·3%, 13·9-16·8) of 2417 during the lockdown; the number of families experiencing any level of food insecurity increased by 51·7% (48·1-55·4; p<0·0001). Mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms increased during the lockdown. Among women experiencing emotional or moderate physical violence, over half reported it had increased since the lockdown. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 lockdowns present significant economic, psychosocial, and physical risks to the wellbeing of women and their families across economic strata in rural Bangladesh. Beyond supporting only the most socioeconomically deprived, support is needed for all affected families. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e159, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792037

RESUMO

AIMS: This study assessed the relationships between different perpetrator-victim roles in intimate partner violence (IPV), emotion regulation (ER) and mental health problems among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS: From April to June 2019, 1233 participants were approached via gay-friendly non-governmental organisations in 15 cities across mainland China. RESULTS: Of the total, 578 eligible participants completed an anonymous online survey. All participants provided informed consent and information about their violent perpetrator-victim role and mental health status. The results revealed a high prevalence of IPV in this study sample, with 32.7% of participants reporting IPV victimisation and 32.5% of participants reporting IPV perpetration during their lifetime. A total of 81 (14.0%) participants were suicidal, 309 (53.5%) participants reported poor general mental health and 208 (36.0%) had significant depressive symptoms. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that both physical victimisation (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-9.32) and sexual victimisation (ORa = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.39-6.05) had positive associations with suicidality, and unidirectional and bidirectional psychological perpetration were associated with poor general mental health and significant depressive symptoms. Although high cognitive reappraisal showed a negative association with poor general mental health (ORa = 0.89,95% CI = 0.86-0.92), the correlation with victims of IPV was weaker than it was with non-victims. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that different perpetrator-victim roles in different IPV situations should be considered comprehensively in research, prevention and intervention. ER is not enough to buffer the effects of IPV on the mental health of MSM victims.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764776

RESUMO

Sexual minority (SM) youth are at high risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal ideation/attempts compared to their heterosexual peers. We examined whether SM identity enhanced the relationship between experiences of IPV and suicidal ideation/attempts. Weighted logistic regression models were run using the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All main effects were significant; each SM identity and both physical and sexual IPV were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The interaction between bisexual identity and physical IPV was significant for suicidal ideation; as physical IPV experiences increased, the difference between bisexual identity and heterosexual youth was non-significant. Findings suggest exploring trauma and suicidal ideation by aggregate groups and increasing support for SM youth in schools and communities.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
15.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768122

RESUMO

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global pandemic and many have been victims of it long before Covid-19. International organizations have documented an increase in IPV reports during the current pandemic, raising awareness of the potential causes for such an increase. Reflecting on risk factors associated with IPV, and the underlying need of the perpetrators to exert control over the victims, it becomes increasingly important to understand how the current policies of social distancing, self-isolation, and lockdown can precipitate episodes of IPV. Furthermore, access to specialized services and health care can be compromised, and health care professionals face new challenges and demands imposed by the pandemic while managing IPV cases. This article begins by examining the main risk factors more commonly associated with IPV in the literature. It proceeds by reflecting on how these risk factors may be exacerbated during the Covid-19 pandemic, which can explain the increased number of reports. Finally, it emphasizes the new challenges faced by health care professionals, while assisting IPV victims during the pandemic and provides possible recommendations on actions to implement during and beyond the Covid-19 pandemic to prevent such cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722708

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a social problem in Bangladesh with adverse effects on maternal healthcare. This study analyzed the sociodemographic factors responsible for intimate partner violence and its overall association with reproductive healthcare-specifically miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions (MSA)-using Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2007, which contains the latest available intimate partner violence data till date, with the hypothesis that intimate partner violence is associated with miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions. The generalized linear regression model was fitted to 3,920 women adjusting survey weights and cluster/strata variations. The study concluded that 1 out of every 4 women who reported experiencing intimate partner violence also reported having one or more of miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions. The results revealed that intimate partner violence and miscarriages, stillbirths and induced abortions were significantly associated with the age of the women, residence, age of the women at their first birth, sex of household head and the household's financial condition. Furthermore, the odds of having one or more miscarriages, stillbirths and abortions was increased by 35% for women who were victims to intimate partner violence, establishing a significant association between miscarriages, stillbirths and abortions and intimate partner violence. There appeared to be a need to address the issue in both paradigms, particularly for the poor rural women in Bangladeshi patriarchal society. These findings demand a combined intervention effort in the vulnerable cohorts, especially if Bangladesh intends to attain the goals 3.1 and 5.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) by 2030.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Espontâneo , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto , Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Aborto Espontâneo/psicologia , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1097, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of puberty and menarche is a potentially vulnerable time for girls. Educational and psychosocial competencies are regarded as essential tools that empower them to successfully navigate the adolescent years. The aim of this study is to evaluate to what extent school going girls are equipped with these key competencies, and how they vary across a given grade cohort. METHODS: Data was collected in Kilifi County, Kenya, from 140 public primary schools from grade 7, across three sub-counties. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to compare competency outcomes by age groups comprising 10-14 years and 15 year and above. Generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors was used where outcomes were measured as binary outcomes, and linear regression for continuous outcomes. Clustering was factored in at the school level and stratification at the subcounty level. Wilcoxon Rank sum test incorporating clustering effects was used where continuous outcomes were not normally distributed. RESULTS: A total of 3489 adolescent girls were interviewed with a mean age of 14 years (SD:1.5; min:10, max:21). Compared to the lower age group, girls in the higher age group were less likely to have ambitions of furthering their education beyond secondary school (odds ratio (OR):0.63 (95%CI:0.53, 0.74)), more likely to report not feeling confident enough to answer questions in class (OR:1.18 (95%CI:1.02, 1.36) and scored lower on their cognitive, math and literacy tests. They also displayed less positive gender norms (coefficient (coeff):-0.091 (95%CI:-0.16, - 0.022)) and were more likely to agree with intimate-partner violence in marriage (coeff:1.17 (95%CI:1.00, 1.37)). They however scored higher on the decision-making scale (coeff:0.36 (95%CI:0.13, 0.60)) and were more likely to be able to spontaneously name a method of modern contraception (OR:1.56 (95%CI:1.36, 1.80)). CONCLUSION: Large variability in age exits within a grade. Compared to older girls, younger girls were more likely to perform better on their educational and social competencies. In countries with large age ranges per grade, identifying the presence of educational and psychosocial competency variabilities will allow informed decisions to be made on how school-based interventions should be adapted to address the varying needs within a grade. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN10894523 , date of registration: 22/08/2017. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Quênia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
N C Med J ; 81(4): 228-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Research on intimate partner homicide (IPH), when someone is killed by a current or former intimate partner, in North Carolina is limited, making it difficult to understand the magnitude of IPHs and identify strategies for prevention.METHOD We used North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System (NC-VDRS) data to assess IPHs among North Carolina residents between 2011 and 2015. Homicides were considered IPHs if intimate partner violence was identified and the victim was the suspect's current or former intimate partner. Proportions and rates of demographic characteristics and circumstances were assessed.RESULTS Of the 2,299 homicides that occurred between 2011 and 2015, 350 were IPHs (0.9 per 100,000 person-years). Most (72.3%) IPH victims were female (n = 253). Among all female homicides almost half (48.2%) were IPHs, while only 5.4% of all male homicides were IPHs. The highest rate of IPH occurred among women aged 20-44 (2.1 per 100,000 person-years). Most victims were non-Hispanic (NH) white (54.0%, n = 189), although rates for NH American Indians and NH blacks were 1.8 and 2.0 times those among NH whites respectively. Most victims, 86.6% male and 82.6% female, were the suspect's current partner. Firearms were the most common weapon used (62.6%, n = 219).LIMITATIONS NC-VDRS data are not representative of all IPHs in the United States. Circumstance data were sometimes incomplete and categories of circumstance variables restrictive, limiting available information on IPHs.CONCLUSION Future interventions focused on women aged 20-44, NH American Indian and NH Black communities, and firearm access could be effective in preventing IPHs in North Carolina.


Assuntos
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23 Suppl 1: e200007.SUPL.1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze notifications of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on IPV against women (≥ 15 years old) registered in Brazilian Notification Disease Information System (Sinan) from 2011 to 2017, analyzed using the chi-square test (χ2) and Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate proportion ratios (PR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: A total 454,984 cases of violence perpetrated by men against women were reported, of which 62.4% were IPV. The most reported types of violence were physical (86.6%), psychological (53.1%) and sexual (4.8%) abuse. IPV was positively associated with women aged 20-39 years (PR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.68; 1.71), pregnant women (PR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.06; 1.08), marital partnership (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.54; 1.56), occurrence at home (PR = 1.80; 95%CI 1.79; 1.81), recurrence of violence (PR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.76; 1.78) and alcohol intake by the aggressor (PR = 1.12; 95%CI 1.12; 1.13). Physical violence was associated with the 20-39 age group (PR = 1.03; 95%CI 1.02; 1.03). Psychological violence predominated among women ≥ 40 years old (PR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.31; 1.35). Sexual violence was reported in greater proportion among pregnant women (PR = 2.71; 95%CI 2.59; 2.83) and women with disabilities or disorder (PR = 2.30; 95%CI 2.17; 2.44). CONCLUSION: Most reports of violence against women recorded in health services were perpetrated by an intimate partner, especially physical, psychological and sexual violence. It was possible to identify factors associated with IPV such as age, education, pregnancy, occurrence at home, recurrence and alcohol consumption by the aggressor.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628738

RESUMO

The Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) scale is a self-report instrument that uses a 10-item Likert-type scale to measure IPV victims' cognitive and affective experience of battering. This study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the WEB scale using gender-neutral questions, Experience of Battering Scale (Chinese) (EBS-C), to assess the psychological vulnerability of victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The study adopted a range of methods, including translation and back translation, expert reviews, cognitive debriefing, and test-retest reliability assessment. The EBS-C was validated in a purposive convenience sample of 718 Chinese-speaking participants (male = 362; female = 356) aged 18-24 (mean age = 21.4) in Hong Kong. The results of CFA showed a good model fit: CFI = .97, TLI = .96, RMSEA = .05, SRMR = .03. The EBS-C was also found to be significantly associated with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2; r = .13-.17, p < .01), depression (BDI-II: r = .15, p < .01), anxiety (GAD-7: r = .17, p < .01), interpersonal support (ISEL-12: r = -.27, p < .01), relationship satisfaction (RAS: r = -.36, p < .01), and self-esteem (RSES: r = -.22, p < .01). The study demonstrated the EBS-C to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing the psychological vulnerability of IPV victims. It is thus useful for identifying the risks such individuals face by assessing their experience of fear, danger, and disempowerment in the intimate relationship relative to abusive incident-based measures alone. The EBS-C will also be useful for developing effective treatments to address the psychological vulnerability resulting from IPV and will facilitate cross-cultural comparative research aimed at enriching our knowledge of IPV victimization.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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