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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5): 167-173, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539331

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Experiencing violence, especially multiple types of violence, can have a negative impact on youths' development. These experiences increase the risk for future violence and other health problems associated with the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults. METHODS: Data from the 2019 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to determine the prevalence of high school students' self-reported experiences with physical fighting, being threatened with a weapon, physical dating violence, sexual violence, and bullying. Logistic regression models adjusting for sex, grade, and race/ethnicity were used to test the strength of associations between experiencing multiple forms of violence and 16 self-reported health risk behaviors and conditions. RESULTS: Approximately one half of students (44.3%) experienced at least one type of violence; more than one in seven (15.6%) experienced two or more types during the preceding 12 months. Experiencing multiple types of violence was significantly more prevalent among females than among males and among students identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or not sure of their sexual identity than among heterosexual students. Experiencing violence was significantly associated with higher prevalence of all examined health risks and conditions. Relative to youths with no violence experiences, adjusted health risk and condition prevalence estimates were up to seven times higher among those experiencing two types of violence and up to 21 times higher among those experiencing three or more types of violence. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Many youths experience multiple types of violence, with potentially lifelong health impacts. Violence is preventable using proven approaches that address individual, family, and environmental risks. Prioritizing violence prevention is strategic to promoting adolescent and adult health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 64-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459220

RESUMO

Protection Against Violence and Abuse in Medical Institutions - Reasons, Prevalence and Implications for Practice Reported cases of (sexual) abuse in institutions as well as the results of surveys show that violence against children and adolescents, but also against adults, occurs also in medical institutions. There are still few studies on the frequency of these cases. However, the cases that have come to public attention show that medical institutions bear systemic risk factors for such assaults. On the other hand, medical institutions also play an important role in child protection, since many children and adolescents affected by maltreatment including sexual abuse come into contact with the medical system. It is necessary that medical institutions deal with this problem and develop respective institutional protection concepts. A protection concept is a system of measures that ensure better protection against assaults within an organisation. Important steps are analysis of risk factors, structural changes, the creation of plan of procedures and the development of an institutional attitude that assaults are not tolerated. Although the development of protection concepts takes time and resources, it has many advantages for institutions, such as an increased sense of security for professionals, because they know how to proceed in such situation. Now that the obligation to draw up protection concepts is anchored in the quality management guideline of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), all hospitals and practices must set out to develop appropriate concepts.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Violência/prevenção & controle , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
4.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 318-326, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351656

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate US nonlethal violent victimization rates for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) males and females aged 16 years and older and to compare disparities among LGB and straight males and females, controlling for other correlates of victimization.Methods. We used data from the 2017 and 2018 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to provide nationally representative rates of various forms of violent victimization for self-identified LGB and straight persons. Multivariable models assessed the risk for violence associated with LGB status.Results. Total violence rates were 2 to 9 times higher among LGB persons compared with heterosexuals. For some forms of violence (e.g., rape and sexual assault, violence with serious injuries, and multiple offender violence) there were notably high disparities between bisexuals and heterosexuals. With adjustment for covariates, LGB orientation was associated with odds ratios nearly 2 to 4 times those of heterosexuals.Conclusions. This is one of the first known uses of NCVS data to estimate LGB victimization, revealing substantially higher rates of violence directed at LGB individuals.Public Health Implications. Sexual orientation and gender identity questions in federal surveys such as the NCVS enable monitoring of violent victimization rates and should continue. Collecting these data can help researchers understand victimization risk and guide appropriate resources toward victim services, especially important given the high violent crime levels experienced by LGB individuals.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e046620, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Essential healthcare workers (HCW) uniquely serve as both COVID-19 healers and, potentially, as carriers of SARS-CoV-2. We assessed COVID-19-related stigma and bullying against HCW controlling for social, psychological, medical and community variables. DESIGN: We nested an analytical cross-sectional study of COVID-19-related stigma and bullying among HCW within a larger mixed-methods effort assessing COVID-19-related lived experience and impact. Adjusted OR (aOR) and 95% CIs evaluated the association between working in healthcare settings and experience of COVID-19-related bullying and stigma, controlling for confounders. Thematic qualitative analysis provided insight into lived experience of COVID-19-related bullying. SETTING: We recruited potential participants in four languages (English, Spanish, French, Italian) through Amazon Mechanical Turk's online workforce and Facebook. PARTICIPANTS: Our sample included 7411 people from 173 countries who were aged 18 years or over. FINDINGS: HCW significantly experienced more COVID-19-related bullying after controlling for the confounding effects of job-related, personal, geographic and sociocultural variables (aOR: 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). HCW more frequently believed that people gossip about others with COVID-19 (OR: 2.2; 95% CI 1.9 to 2.6) and that people with COVID-19 lose respect in the community (OR: 2.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 2.7), both which elevate bullying risk (OR: 2.7; 95% CI 2.3 to 3.2, and OR: 3.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.2, respectively). The lived experience of COVID-19-related bullying relates frequently to public identities as HCW traverse through the community, intersecting with other domains (eg, police, racism, violence). INTERPRETATION: After controlling for a range of confounding factors, HCW are significantly more likely to experience COVID-19-related stigma and bullying, often in the intersectional context of racism, violence and police involvement in community settings.


Assuntos
Bullying , Pessoal de Saúde , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Racismo , Estigma Social , Violência , Adulto , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize violence against women during pregnancy and to verify its association with socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, behavioral factors, health care and diseases during pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with puerperal women whose birth took place at the Municipal Hospital of Governador Valadares, in Minas Gerais, from May 2017 to July 2018. Data collection was performed through interviews, and complementary information was obtained by analyzing the prenatal file and medical records. For data analysis, logistic regression was used. RESULTS: The total of 771 puerperal women participated in the study. Of these, 62 (8.0%) reported having suffered physical, psychological or sexual violence during pregnancy. The pregnant women most likely to have suffered violence were alcohol dependent (OR = 4.97; 95%CI 2.30-10.75; p < 0.001), those who did not perform prenatal care (OR = 3.88; 95%CI 1.00-15.09; p = 0.050), those who used health services in an emergency during pregnancy (OR = 2.47; 95%CI 1.42-4.30; p = 0.001) and who had gestational diabetes (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 1.06-6.32; p = 0.037) and sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 3.85; 95%CI 1.41-10.50; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Violence against pregnant women is associated with behavioral factors and related to health care and diseases during pregnancy. It is essential to recognize factors associated by health professionals through actions to track situations of violence against women since the beginning of prenatal care, in order to enable early intervention.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Violência , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
S Afr Med J ; 0(0): 13183, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the coronavirus pandemic, lockdown restrictions and a ban on alcohol sales were introduced in South Africa. Objectives. To investigate the impact of lockdown measures on the number of patients who visited a tertiary urban trauma centre. Methods. The period of investigation was from 1 February to 30 June 2020 and was segmented into three intervals: pre-lockdown (February and March 2020), hard lockdown (April and May 2020) and immediately post lockdown (June 2020). The electronic HECTIS health record registry was interrogated for the total number of patients that were seen per month. These were further categorised according to mechanism of injury (stab, gunshot, blunt assault and road traffic injuries). Penetrating (stab and gunshot) and blunt assault victims were collectively grouped as violent trauma. Results. The mean total number of patients seen decreased by 53% during the hard lockdown period. There was a moderate reduction (15%) in patients with gunshot injuries seen during the hard lockdown phase, but there was an 80% increase in the post-lockdown period. The proportion of patients injured in road traffic collisions pre lockdown, hard lockdown and immediate post lockdown was 16.4%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively. Patients injured in road traffic collisions decreased by 74% during the hard lockdown period and maintained a reduction of 32% during the immediate post-lockdown period. The mean total number of patients who visited the trauma unit returned to pre-lockdown levels in June. Conclusions. There was an overall trend of reduced number of patients who visited the trauma unit during the hard lockdown period; however, these numbers returned to pre-lockdown levels during the immediate post-lockdown period. The number of road traffic injury admissions remained reduced during all three phases of lockdown, while the number of gunshot victims increased substantially during the post-lockdown period.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 360-363, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030453

RESUMO

The establishment of the United Nations after World War II raised hopes of a new era of peace. This was over-optimistic. Between 1945 and 1992, there were 149 major wars, killing more than 23 million people. Recent developments in warfare have significantly heightened the dangers for children. During the last decade child war victims have included: 2 million killed; 4-5 million disabled; 12 million left homeless; more than 1 million orphaned or separated from their parents; some 10 million psychologically traumatized. Researches indicate that children do develop PTSD after experiencing very stressful, life-threatening events such as happen in war. Wars of 21st century are often guerrilla-type civil wars in which women and children are not only the main victims, but are deliberately targeted. Thousands are displaced both internally and across borders. Wars at the end of nineties of 20th century in the region of ex Yugoslavian countries brought all the cruelty of war vivid again on European ground. Population were exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995 there were about 100 000 people killed (20% woman and 3.5% children) and about 18 000 children were orphaned because of war. Children are not capable to regulate their emotions and hyper-arousal on their own. It depends of the way how their parents (caretaker) regulate her/his own emotions. During the war weak child's ego is paralyzed with intensive stimuli and floating anxiety, it does not manage to make constructive solution for traumatic experiences in such a short time. Mothers with small children are especially vulnerable group during the war time: they are supposed to take care about children and feel happiness, what is almost impossible Severe war experiences could cause depressive symptoms in mothers, what reduce their emotional disposability and could lead in different form of the child's neglecting. PTSD symptoms were lasting longer in children if their mothers have had functioning problems. Traumatization of mothers is connected with different behavior problems in their children. Wars are continuing all over the world and there is a continuity of researches about their consequences on children. Any programs that intend to mitigate the psychological effects of such trauma need to adopt a public health approach aimed at reaching many thousands.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Guerra/psicologia , Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/epidemiologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/psicologia
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 371-377, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The problem of peer violence is increasingly discussed. It is noticeable that it is not sufficiently researched and there is no sufficient information about its prevalence, forms, prevention methods, repression and coping with the problem and its consequences. It seems that it gets discussed more intensively only in case of a traumatic incident whose consequences cannot be denied and if they make a large impact on the entire society. To show the prevalence and manifestation of peer violence as well as problems in the prevention and addressing consequences of peer violence. METHODS: Data are collected from several studies on peer violence conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina and worldwide. RESULTS: Collected data indicate that the peer violence ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the development of the country where research is conducted. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to identify peer violence on time and respond in a timely manner. Any claim of a child needs to be taken seriously, because timely response prevents the child who experienced some form of violence to revenge or become violent. It is important to start raising awareness among children from their early age and train them on techniques of non-violent communication, forms of violence, the ways of expressing violence and its effects on victims and observers of violence and why it is important to talk about it. They need to know where to report violence and what the duties of relevant institutions are. In addition to children, it is important to raise awareness among parents, teachers, politicians as well as mental health professionals. The entire society needs to be involved in the prevention of peer violence.


Assuntos
Agressão , Grupo Associado , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Prevalência
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Violência Étnica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neurology ; 95(19): e2605-e2609, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asylum seekers experience a high burden of physical and psychological trauma, yet there is a scarcity of literature regarding the epidemiology and sequelae of head injury (HI) in asylum seekers. We examined HI prevalence and association with neuropsychiatric comorbidities in asylum seekers. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through review of 139 medical affidavits from an affidavit database. Affidavits written from 2010 to 2018 were included. Demographic and case-related data were collected and classified based on the presence of HI. For neuropsychiatric sequelae, the primary study outcome was headache and the secondary outcomes were depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the association between HI and neuropsychiatric sequelae, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 139 medical affidavits of asylum seekers were included. The mean age was 27.4 ± 12.1 years, 56.8% were female, and 38.8% were <19 years. Almost half (42.5%) explicitly self-reported history of HI. Compared to clients who did not report HI, clients with HI were older and more likely to report a history of headache, physical abuse, physical trauma, concussion, and loss of consciousness. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, clients with HI had greater odds for neuropsychological sequelae such as headache (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-8.7) and depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HI in asylum seekers. Comprehensive screening for HI and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is encouraged when evaluating asylum seekers.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , El Salvador/etnologia , Feminino , Guatemala/etnologia , Haiti/etnologia , Cefaleia/psicologia , Honduras/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , México/etnologia , Nicarágua/etnologia , Razão de Chances , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Prevalência , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inconsciência/epidemiologia , Inconsciência/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sociodemographic, school, nutritional, and behavioral factors and body perception associated with being bullied in Brazilian students aged 13 to 17 years old. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on data from sample 2 of the 2015 Brazilian School Health Survey. The sample for this study was composed of 10,699 teenagers from schools in each of the largest regions of Brazil. RESULTS: The prevalence of being bullied was 6.2%, with the highest chance of in teens who bully others (OR = 1.91 95%CI 1.48 - 2.45), who are 13 years old (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.04 - 2.97), who consider themselves fat (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.06 - 1.98) and who are not treated well by their schoolmates (OR = 2.78, 95%CI 2.17 - 3.45). CONCLUSION: Preventive efforts that include programs to encourage greater social support among students, as well as the implementation of practices that encourage respect for students' differences and singularities can contribute to reducing bullying practices.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911485

RESUMO

Physical, technological, and social networks are often at risk of intentional attack. Despite the wide-spanning importance of network vulnerability, very little is known about how criminal networks respond to attacks or whether intentional attacks affect criminal activity in the long-run. To assess criminal network responsiveness, we designed an empirically-grounded agent-based simulation using population-level network data on 16,847 illicit drug exchanges between 7,295 users of an active darknet drug market and statistical methods for simulation analysis. We consider three attack strategies: targeted attacks that delete structurally integral vertices, weak link attacks that delete large numbers of weakly connected vertices, and signal attacks that saturate the network with noisy signals. Results reveal that, while targeted attacks are effective when conducted at a large-scale, weak link and signal attacks deter more potential drug transactions and buyers when only a small portion of the network is attacked. We also find that intentional attacks affect network behavior. When networks are attacked, actors grow more cautious about forging ties, connecting less frequently and only to trustworthy alters. Operating in tandem, these two processes undermine long-term network robustness and increase network vulnerability to future attacks.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tráfico de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribução , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Social , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Intenção , Violência/psicologia
19.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 24-30, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733656

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, the burden of interpersonal violence and its significant impact on mortality, morbidity and disability makes it a major public health problem which necessitates intervention. This article examines characteristics of victims of interpersonal violence and violent events in Malawi. The focus is on a population that has been traditionally neglected in literature. Methods: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) maintains a trauma registry with data that is prospectively collected. Patients offered trauma care after interpersonal violence from May 2013 to May 2015 were evaluated. Results: There were 1431 patients with violent events recorded at the Adult Emergency Trauma Centre (AETC) with a male predominance of 79.5%. The dominant age group was young adults between 25-29 years old (22%). Most attacks occurred during cold and dry season (46.9%) and most common location was on the road (37.2%). Alcohol use by victims was recorded in 10.5% of cases. Soft tissue injuries were the most common injuries sustained (74.1%). Most patients were treated as outpatients (80.9%). There were two deaths. At multivariate analysis, women had a lower risk of interpersonal violence as compared to men, (OR 0.82 [0.69-0.98]). Victims' use of alcohol was associated with increased risk of assault (OR 1.63 [1.27-2.10]). As compared to other places, odds of being assaulted were higher at home (OR 1.62 [1.27-2.06]) but lower at work (OR 0.68 [0.52-0.89) and on the road (OR 0.82 [0.65-1.03]). Odds of being assaulted were higher in the cold and dry season as compared to hot and dry season, (OR 1.26 [1.08-1.47]). Conclusion: Young males were most involved in interpersonal violence. Location of injury and seasonal variation were significant factors associated with interpersonal violence and most commonly sustained injuries were soft tissue injuries. These findings will help in identifying targeted interventions for interpersonal violence in Malawi and other low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs).


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Violência/classificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841262

RESUMO

Although there is a wide array of evidence showing the beneficial effect of religiosity on violence among adolescents, nationwide studies in the general population are scarce. This study aims to explore whether religiosity is associated or not with diminishing violence in a Brazilian population-based representative sample. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012 using face-to-face interviews and included 4,608 individuals 14 years and older. The survey included measures of religiosity (religious affiliation and importance of religion), violence (involvement in fights, domestic violence and police detention), depression, social support and alcohol dependence. We used logistic regression models and mediation analyses. In the total sample analyses, after adjustments, having a religious affiliation was inversely associated with lower involvement in fights (OR = 0.60,CI95%:0.37-0.98) and less police detention (OR = 0.37,CI95%:0.20-0.70), whereas the importance of religion was only associated with less fights (OR = 0.60,CI95%:0.36-0.99). Subanalyses revealed different associations depending on the age group evaluated. Mediation tests showed that the association of religious affiliation on violence outcomes was mediated by alcohol use. In conclusion, religiosity seems to be an important factor associated with lower levels of violence in this nationwide representative survey and alcohol dependence seems to mediate this relationship. Health professionals should be aware of these findings in their clinical practice.


Assuntos
Religião , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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