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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2033484, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394004

RESUMO

Importance: Violence is a significant public health problem that has become entwined with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: To describe individuals' concerns regarding violence in the context of the pandemic, experiences of pandemic-related unfair treatment, prevalence of and reasons for firearm acquisition, and changes in firearm storage practices due to the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used data from the 2020 California Safety and Well-being Survey, a probability-based internet survey of California adults conducted from July 14 to 27, 2020. Respondents came from the Ipsos KnowledgePanel, an online research panel with members selected using address-based sampling methods. Responses were weighted to be representative of the adult population of California. Main Outcomes and Measures: Topics included worry about violence for oneself before and during the pandemic; concern about violence for someone else due to a pandemic-related loss; experiences of unfair treatment attributed to the pandemic; firearm and ammunition acquisition due to the pandemic; and changes in firearm storage practices due to the pandemic. Results: Of 5018 invited panel members, 2870 completed the survey (completion rate, 57%). Among respondents (52.3% [95% CI, 49.5%-55.0%] women; mean [SD] age, 47.9 [16.9] years; 41.9% [95% CI, 39.3%-44.6%] White individuals), self-reported worry about violence for oneself was significantly higher during the pandemic for all violence types except mass shootings, ranging from a 2.8 percentage point increase for robbery (from 65.5% [95% CI, 62.8%-68.0%] to 68.2% [95% CI, 65.6%-70.7%]; P = .008) to a 5.6 percentage point increase for stray bullet shootings (from 44.5% [95% CI, 41.7%-47.3%] to 50.0% [47.3%-52.8%]; P < .001). The percentage of respondents concerned that someone they know might intentionally harm themselves was 13.1% (95% CI, 11.5%-15.3%). Of those, 7.5% (95% CI, 4.5%-12.2%) said it was because the other person had experienced a pandemic-related loss. An estimated 110 000 individuals (2.4% [95% CI, 1.1%-5.0%] of firearm owners in the state) acquired a firearm due to the pandemic, including 47 000 new owners (43.0% [95% CI, 14.8%-76.6%] of those who had acquired a firearm). Of owners who stored at least 1 firearm in the least secure way, 6.7% (95% CI, 2.7%-15.6%) said they had adopted this unsecure storage practice in response to the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of findings from the 2020 California Safety and Well-being Survey, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increases in self-reported worry about violence for oneself and others, increased firearm acquisition, and changes in firearm storage practices. Given the impulsive nature of many types of violence, short-term crisis interventions may be critical for reducing violence-related harm.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Americanos Asiáticos , California/epidemiologia , Comércio , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Polícia , Segurança , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMO

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Atitude , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Psicometria
4.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(10): E898-903, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103654

RESUMO

The disproportionate negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Native communities is a result of transgenerational traumas-mental and physical-which have been ongoing and developing for centuries. This article considers 19th-century American visual and narrative representations of Native experiences of and responses to transgenerational trauma. This article also suggests ethical implications for Native American health of interpreting those representations and suggests an obligation to look on 19th-century White American artists' romanticizations of Native experiences with humility.


Assuntos
Arte , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Trauma Histórico/complicações , Historiografia , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Saúde da População , Violência , Arte/história , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Trauma Histórico/etnologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Narração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos , Violência/ética , Violência/história , Violência/psicologia
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 360-363, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030453

RESUMO

The establishment of the United Nations after World War II raised hopes of a new era of peace. This was over-optimistic. Between 1945 and 1992, there were 149 major wars, killing more than 23 million people. Recent developments in warfare have significantly heightened the dangers for children. During the last decade child war victims have included: 2 million killed; 4-5 million disabled; 12 million left homeless; more than 1 million orphaned or separated from their parents; some 10 million psychologically traumatized. Researches indicate that children do develop PTSD after experiencing very stressful, life-threatening events such as happen in war. Wars of 21st century are often guerrilla-type civil wars in which women and children are not only the main victims, but are deliberately targeted. Thousands are displaced both internally and across borders. Wars at the end of nineties of 20th century in the region of ex Yugoslavian countries brought all the cruelty of war vivid again on European ground. Population were exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995 there were about 100 000 people killed (20% woman and 3.5% children) and about 18 000 children were orphaned because of war. Children are not capable to regulate their emotions and hyper-arousal on their own. It depends of the way how their parents (caretaker) regulate her/his own emotions. During the war weak child's ego is paralyzed with intensive stimuli and floating anxiety, it does not manage to make constructive solution for traumatic experiences in such a short time. Mothers with small children are especially vulnerable group during the war time: they are supposed to take care about children and feel happiness, what is almost impossible Severe war experiences could cause depressive symptoms in mothers, what reduce their emotional disposability and could lead in different form of the child's neglecting. PTSD symptoms were lasting longer in children if their mothers have had functioning problems. Traumatization of mothers is connected with different behavior problems in their children. Wars are continuing all over the world and there is a continuity of researches about their consequences on children. Any programs that intend to mitigate the psychological effects of such trauma need to adopt a public health approach aimed at reaching many thousands.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Guerra/psicologia , Guerra/estatística & dados numéricos , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/epidemiologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045018

RESUMO

Violence-free family ties, non-violent peers or attachment to society have been pointed out as protective factors against different types of extremism and violent radicalization by international literature. However, more detail needs to be provided about which specific aspects within these realms (friendship/family/community) are effective in challenging violence and how they operate in practice. Recent research conducted under the framework of the PROTON project (Horizon 2020) has analyzed the social and ethical impacts of counter-terrorism and organized crime policies in six European countries. In this article we discuss some identified common features among practices that, developed by organized actors operating at the local level (e.g.: grassroots-based associations, educational institutions, other type of organized networks for prevention, NGOs), are contributing to preventing youth violent radicalization, a phenomenon of growing concern in Europe and beyond. Standing on a solid rejection to violence, these shared features are the following: a bottom-up approach in setting allies with key stakeholders from the community or/and family members to intervene; the promotion of trustworthy and healthy friendship relationships; debunking the lure surrounding violent subjects ("false heroes") and violence in the different contexts, especially in the socioeducational one.


Assuntos
Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Meio Social , Participação dos Interessados , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877440

RESUMO

In eyewitness research the frequent use of video playback presented on a computer screen (i.e., 2D videos) in laboratory-based research is problematic due to the low realism of this method when presenting, for example, threatening (and non-threatening) first-person (and third-person) scenarios. However, in contrast to 2D videos, 360-degree videos presented in virtual reality (VR) presents the opportunity of achieving more realistic and immersive scenarios that might be better suited to mimic real-life incidents, as for example, in the case of a threatening first-person robbery. In the present study, we asked 37 participants to watch eight pre-recorded threatening or non-threatening 2D and VR videos, viewed from either a first- or third-person perspective. After each video, participants assessed the observed target's appearance and were then presented with either a target present (TP) or target absent (TA) six-person photograph line-up. We expected that VR would result in higher degrees of accuracy in both TP and TA line-ups compared with 2D and that the differences between manipulations would be more pronounced within VR compared with 2D. We found that TP (but not TA) accuracy was higher in 2D compared with VR videos (91 vs. 66%), that there was no main effect of perspective, and that threatening scenes increased TP (but not TA) accuracy compared to non-threatening scenes (86 vs. 70%). Furthermore, in VR (but not in 2D), threatening scenes increased TP (but not TA) accuracy compared with non-threatening scenes (85 vs. 40%). The results go against the expected increased accuracy in VR (vs. 2D) videos but support the notion that threatening (vs. non-threatening) scenes can increase identification accuracy in VR but not necessarily in 2D.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Violência/psicologia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates in India are among the highest in the world, equating to over 200,000 suicide deaths annually. Crime reports of suicide incidents routinely feature in the Indian mass media, with minimal coverage of suicide as a broader public health issue. To supplement our recently published content analysis study, we undertook qualitative interviews to examine media professionals' perspectives and experiences in relation to media reporting of suicide-related news in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2017-18, semi-structured qualitative interviews with twenty-eight print media and television media professionals with experience reporting on suicide-related news were undertaken across north (New Delhi and Chandigarh) and south (Chennai) India. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to initiate discussions around; 1) perspectives on why suicide incidents are regularly reported on by mass media in India, 2) a description of experiences and processes of covering suicide incidents on the crime beat; and 3) perspectives on the emergence of health reporter coverage of suicide. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed. A deductive and inductive thematic analytic approach was used, supported by the use of NVivo. RESULTS: Suicides were typically seen as being highly newsworthy and of interest to the audience, particularly the suicides of high-status people and those who somewhat matched the middle-class profile of the core audience. Socio-cultural factors played a major role in determining the newsworthiness of a particular incident. The capacity to link a suicide incident to compelling social narratives, potentially detrimental social/policy issues, and placing the suicide as a form of protest/martyrdom increased newsworthiness. Reporters on the crime beat worked in close partnership with police to produce routine and simplified incident report-style coverage of suicide incidents, with the process influenced by: informal police contacts supporting the crime beat, the speed of breaking news, extremely tight word limits and a deeply fraught engagement with bereaved family members. It was articulated that a public health and/or mental health framing of suicide was an emerging perspective, which sought to focus more on broader trends and suicide prevention programs rather than individual incidents. Important challenges were identified around the complexity of adopting a mental health framing of suicide, given the perceived pervasive influence of socioeconomic and cultural issues (rather than individual psychopathology) on suicide in India. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings delve into the complexity of reporting on suicide in India and can be used to support constructive partnerships between media professionals and suicide prevention experts in India. Policymakers need to acknowledge the socio-cultural context of suicide reporting in India when adapting international guidelines for the Indian media.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Suicídio , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/psicologia , Vigilância da População , Distribuição por Sexo , Violência/psicologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911485

RESUMO

Physical, technological, and social networks are often at risk of intentional attack. Despite the wide-spanning importance of network vulnerability, very little is known about how criminal networks respond to attacks or whether intentional attacks affect criminal activity in the long-run. To assess criminal network responsiveness, we designed an empirically-grounded agent-based simulation using population-level network data on 16,847 illicit drug exchanges between 7,295 users of an active darknet drug market and statistical methods for simulation analysis. We consider three attack strategies: targeted attacks that delete structurally integral vertices, weak link attacks that delete large numbers of weakly connected vertices, and signal attacks that saturate the network with noisy signals. Results reveal that, while targeted attacks are effective when conducted at a large-scale, weak link and signal attacks deter more potential drug transactions and buyers when only a small portion of the network is attacked. We also find that intentional attacks affect network behavior. When networks are attacked, actors grow more cautious about forging ties, connecting less frequently and only to trustworthy alters. Operating in tandem, these two processes undermine long-term network robustness and increase network vulnerability to future attacks.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tráfico de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribução , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Social , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Intenção , Violência/psicologia
10.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 153-164, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194492

RESUMO

The inconsistency in the results both internally and between of previous meta-analyses on batterer intervention program efficacy, and the publication of new batterer interventions underscored the need for an up-to-date meta-analyticalreview. A total of 25 primary studies were found from literature search, obtaining 62 effect sizes, and a total sample of 20,860 intervened batterers. The results of a global meta-analysis showed a positive, significant, and of a mediummagnitude effect size for batterer interventions, but not generalizable. Nevertheless, the results exhibited a significantly higher rate of recidivism measured in couple reports (CRs) than in official records (ORs). As a consequence, intervention efficacy measuring in CRs was null, whilst in ORs was positive and significant. As for the intervention model, positive andsignificant effects were observed under the Duluth Model and cognitive-behavioural treatment programs (CBTPs), but a higher effect size was obtained with CBTPs in comparison to the Duluth Model (under this model, interventions may have negative effects, i.e., an increase in recidivism rate). In relation to intervention length, short interventions failed to reduce recidivism in ORs and may have negative effects, while long interventions were effective in reducing recidivism rate in ORs without negative effects. Efficacy evaluations in short follow-ups were invalid as artificially boosted recidivismreduction rate. Limitations of ORs and short follow-ups as measures of the intervention efficacy and implications of results for batterer intervention are discussed


La inconsistencia interna y entre las revisiones metaanalíticas en los resultados sobre la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores, así como la publicación de nuevos estudios, pone de manifiesto la necesidad de llevar a cabo una revisión metaanalítica actualizada. Se encontró un total de 25 estudios primarios, de los que se obtuvieron 62 tamaños del efecto para una muestra total de 20,860 maltratadores intervenidos. Los resultados del metaanálisis global mostraron un tamaño del efecto promedio positivo, significativo y de una magnitud moderada para la intervención con maltratadores, pero no generalizable. Sin embargo, los resultados revelaron una tasa de reincidencia mayor medida en los informes de las parejas (IPs) que en los registros oficiales (ROs). Como consecuencia, la eficacia de la intervención medida en los IPs resultó nula, mientras que en los ROs fue positiva y significativa. En relación al modelo de intervención, se encontraron tamaños del efecto positivos y significativos con el Modelo Duluth y los programas de tratamiento cognitivo-conductuales (PTC-Cs), pero el tamaño del efecto obtenido con los PTC-Cs era significativamente mayor que con el Modelo Duluth (con este modelo las intervenciones pueden tener efectos negativos, es decir, unincremento en la tasa de reincidencia). En relación a la longitud de la intervención, las intervenciones breves fallaron en la reducción de la reincidencia en los ROs y pueden tener efectos negativos, en tanto que las intervenciones largas fueron eficaces en la reducción de la tasa de reincidencia en los ROs y no dan lugar a efectos negativos. Las evaluacionesde la eficacia de la intervención en períodos cortos de seguimiento resultaron no válidas al incrementar artificialmente la tasa de reducción de la reincidencia. Se discuten las limitaciones de la medida de la eficacia de la intervención en los ROs y en períodos cortos de seguimiento, así como las implicaciones para la intervención con maltratadores


Assuntos
Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Modelos Psicológicos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia
11.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 220-231, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192058

RESUMO

La violencia filio-parental es un fenómeno de marcada prevalencia con consecuencias negativas a nivel individual, familiar y social. El objetivo de este estudio de alcance fue identificar los factores explicativos y la fundamentación teórica del fenómeno. Se revisaron estudios en inglés y español desde el año 2000, de las bases: Web of Science, Scopus, PsycIN-FO, ERIC y Dialnet Plus, identificando 57 estudios relevantes. Se encontraron como factores explicativos recurrentes: la monoparentalidad, la cohesión, el estrés y disciplina familiar, el historial de violencia, problemas escolares, trastornos clínicos y la relación con iguales violentos. Se destaca la concurrencia con la violencia escolar, entre hermanos y en las relaciones de noviazgo. Los fundamentos teóricos utilizados se pueden clasificar en psicológicos, comunicacionales, criminológicos, sociológicos y modelos integrativos más amplios (Ecosistémicos, Fenomenológicos y Constructivistas). La revisión realizada no arrojó datos sobre patrones de interacción, estrategias de afrontamiento y percepciones sociales alrededor de la VFP que puedan influir en las familias implicadas en estas situaciones


Child-to-parent violence is a phenomenon with a fairly high prevalence rate and negative consequences at an individual, family and so-cial level. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the theoretical frameworks and explanatory factors for this phenomenon. The review comprised studies written in English and Spanish since the year 2000, from the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, ERIC and Dialnet Plus. A total of 57 relevant studies were identified. The recurrent explanatory factors were: single parenthood, cohesion, stress, family discipline, history of violence, problems at school, clinical disorders and violent peer relationships. The concurrence of school, sibling and dating violence was particularly noteworthy. The theoretical frameworks referred to can be grouped into psychological, communicational, criminological, sociological and broader integrative models (Ecosystemic, Phenomenological and Constructivist). No data was found on interaction patterns, coping strategies or social perceptions of CPV which may influence families immersed in these kinds of situations


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Pai-Filho , Violência/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adaptação Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Agressão/psicologia
12.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 228-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post-incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category. AIMS: To test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions. METHOD: Post-incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression. RESULTS: A logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait-based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co-variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Our study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post-incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in-prison programmes as required.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Voluntários
13.
Rehabil Psychol ; 65(3): 199-205, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804531

RESUMO

Objective/Purpose: The objective of this article is to provide information about the ways in which the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect the ongoing public health issue of violence against people with disabilities and how rehabilitation psychologists and other providers can address these concerns in their practice. METHOD: This article reviews the literature on violence against people with disabilities as well as emerging literature on the COVID-19 pandemic and its social and medical consequences. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic magnifies existing issues and barriers facing people with disabilities who are experiencing interpersonal violence. These issues include reliance on the perpetrator for care and assistance, barriers to reporting abuse and seeking help, fear of retaliation and other negative consequences if abuse is reported, emotional abuse related to disability, and exacerbation of secondary physical and mental health sequalae of abuse. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences enhance the already increased risk for abuse among people with disabilities. Providers who work with individuals with disabilities should address these issues at both the individual client and systems levels. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20474-20482, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778580

RESUMO

How likely is it that someone would approve of using a nuclear weapon to kill millions of enemy civilians in the hope of ending a ground war that threatens thousands of American troops? Ask them how they feel about prosecuting immigrants, banning abortion, supporting the death penalty, and protecting gun rights and you will know. This is the finding from two national surveys of Democrats and Republicans that measured support for punitive regulations and policies across these four seemingly unrelated issues, and a fifth, using nuclear weapons against enemy civilians (in survey 1) or approving of disproportionate killing with conventional weapons (in survey 2). Those who support these various policies that threaten harm to many people tend to believe that the victims are blameworthy and it is ethical to take actions or policies that might harm them. This lends support to the provocative notion of "virtuous violence" put forth by Fiske and Rai [A. P. Fiske, T. S. Rai, Virtuous Violence: Hurting and Killing to Create, Sustain, End, and Honor Social Relationships (2014)], who assert that people commit violence because they believe it is the morally right thing to do. The common thread of punitiveness underlying and connecting these issues needs to be recognized, understood, and confronted by any society that professes to value fundamental human rights and wishes to prevent important decisions from being affected by irrelevant and harmful sociocultural and political biases.


Assuntos
Guerra Nuclear/psicologia , Política , Punição/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pena de Morte , Desumanização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Armas Nucleares , Adulto Jovem
16.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 240-255, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715530

RESUMO

Most studies of prisoners, the nature of their offending and any related characteristics have been conducted in rich Western countries. In Nigeria, prison conditions differ in many important respects, key among them that prisoners share large communal spaces much of the time-up to 50 men sleeping in the same space as well as spending the day together. Our aim was to compare levels of impulsivity, aggression and suicide-related behaviours between prisoners in one prison in Nigeria who had committed a homicide and those who had not, allowing for socio-demographic factors. A case-control study design was employed with 102 homicide and an equal number of non-homicide offenders. Each participant was interviewed using the Abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for impulsivity, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale for aggression, the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Module C) for suicide-related behaviours, and a questionnaire for ascertaining socio-demographic characteristics. On bivariate analysis, motor impulsivity was higher among homicide offenders (p = .014) while non-planning was higher among non-homicide offenders (p = .006), but this relationship was affected by demographic variables. Physical aggression levels did not distinguish the two groups, but homicide offenders were less likely to record property-directed and auto-aggressive behaviours (p < .05). By contrast, on average, scores for suicide-related behaviours were lower among the homicide offenders (p = .001), with non-homicide offenders showing a mean score in the high-risk category (13.25; SD, 1.25). As motor impulsivity significantly differentiated the groups, this may be an important measure to add to any risk assessment battery when there are concerns about homicidal behaviours. In this sample, history of interpersonal aggression did not distinguish the groups. People with indications of self-harm or suicide-related behaviours may be at less risk of violence to others, but care should be taken in interpreting this finding as it is not entirely consistent with other findings.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19072-19079, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719127

RESUMO

People may be sympathetic to violent extremism when it serves their own interests. Such support may manifest itself via biased recognition of hate crimes. Psychological surveys were conducted in the wakes of mass shootings in the United States, New Zealand, and the Netherlands (total n = 2,332), to test whether factors that typically predict endorsement of violent extremism also predict biased hate crime perceptions. Path analyses indicated a consistent pattern of motivated judgment: hate crime perceptions were directly biased by prejudicial attitudes and indirectly biased by an aggrieved sense of disempowerment and White/Christian nationalism. After the shooting at a synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, disempowerment-fueled anti-Semitism predicted lower perceptions that the gunman was motivated by hatred and prejudice (study 1). After the shootings that occurred at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, disempowerment-fueled Islamoprejudice similarly predicted lower hate crime perceptions (study 2a). Conversely, after the tram shooting in Utrecht, Netherlands (which was perpetrated by a Turkish-born immigrant), disempowerment-fueled Islamoprejudice predicted higher hate crime perceptions (study 2b). Finally, after the Walmart shooting in El Paso, Texas, hate crime perceptions were specifically biased by an ethnonationalist view of Hispanic immigrants as a symbolic (rather than realistic) threat to America; that is, disempowered individuals deemphasized likely hate crimes due to symbolic concerns about cultural supremacy rather than material concerns about jobs or crime (study 3). Altogether, biased hate crime perceptions can be purposive and reveal supremacist sympathies.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Emoções , Percepção Social , Atitude , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Ódio , Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Relações Raciais , Violência/psicologia
18.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 145-153, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intersection of violence exposure and mental health problems is a public health crisis for South African (SA) adolescents. Understanding the impact of community violence on adolescent mental health can inform future interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess pathways between community violence exposure and internalising and externalising problems in SA adolescents receiving mental healthcare, and the roles of parent and peer relationships in these associations. METHODS: Participants (N=120 parent-adolescent pairs) were recruited from four mental health clinics in Western Cape Province to participate in a pilot test of a family-based HIV prevention study. Adolescents reported on their exposure to community violence, parental attachment, peer support of risk behaviour, and mental health. Parents reported on adolescents' internalising and externalising mental health problems. Participants received transport money (ZAR30 = USD3) and a shopping voucher or cash (ZAR50 = USD5) for their time. RESULTS: Adolescents were 12 - 18 years old (mean (standard deviation) 14.39 (1.82) years), 53% were male, and 67% and 33% reported black African and mixed-race ethnicity, respectively. Parents were 94% female and reported an average monthly income of ZAR3 973 (USD397). Boys reported significantly higher rates of witnessing community violence than girls. Among boys, significant paths emerged from community violence and low parent attachment to externalising symptoms and from community violence to peer support of risky behaviour. For girls, the only significant path was from low parent attachment to peer support of risky behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study sheds new light on the possible pathways from witnessing community violence to mental health problems among SA adolescents. Identifying factors that drive and mitigate psychological distress in the context of persistent community violence is critical to SA's future and can inform the selection and delivery of appropriate and targeted evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Projetos Piloto , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664458

RESUMO

Gender violence is generally conceived as a phenomenon concerning only adults. Nonetheless, it is also perpetrated within teenagers' relationships, as many empirical studies have shown. We therefore have focused our attention on a non-probabilistic sample consisting of 400 adolescents living in Naples (Italy), to study the association between sexism and the justification of violent attitudes. Generally, sexism is recognised as a discriminatory attitude towards people, based on their biological sex. However, it is conventional to talk about sexism as a prejudice against women. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) for adolescents was used to evaluate the two dimensions of ambivalent sexism, i.e., hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS). Moreover, the questionnaire regarding attitudes towards diversity and violence (CADV) was administered to assess participants' attitudes towards violence. A Partial Least Square-Second Order Path Model reveals that girls' ambivalent sexism is affected more by benevolent sexism than hostile sexism. On the contrary, among boys, hostile sexism has a higher impact. Finally, benevolent sexist girls justify domestic violence more than boys do.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Hostilidade , Sexismo , Violência , Adolescente , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Violência/psicologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664533

RESUMO

We examined how risk level of video games, measured by maturity and violence level, was associated with behavioral health, social impacts, and online social interactions. School-based surveys in two different cohorts assessed self-reported gaming behaviors, health, and social media use. For Study 1, our 700 participants were 52% female and 48% White (mean age 12.7). Middle school students who played the high-risk games reported higher depressive symptoms and problematic internet behaviors, less sleep, more time spent playing games, and higher frequency of checking social media than non-gaming students. Those who played high-risk games were less likely to play alone and to play with strangers than those who played minimal-risk games. For Study 2, our 772 participants were 50% female and 57% White (mean age 12.6). Similar to Study 1, we found that those who played the high-risk games spent significantly more time playing games, were more interactive with other players, and had poorer sleep outcomes than non-high-risk gamers. Additionally, playing high-risk games had significantly different social impacts of gaming compared to less-risky gaming, including spending more money on games, spending less time on homework and with family or skipping meals due to gaming. Mature and violent content of video games and amount of online social interaction associated with gaming play a strong role in behavioral health and social impacts within families. These results can inform guidelines to intervene when problematic behaviors emerge.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
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