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2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 702-706, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047483

RESUMO

Esta nota resulta de reflexões iniciais sobre a atual conjuntura brasileira no que tange aos desafios postos aos povos indígenas, diante de um governo declaradamente anti-indígena. Considerando a perspectiva histórica da política indigenista brasileira, observam-se elementos que nos instigam a analisar a relação do Estado com os povos originários e a capacidade que o movimento indígena brasileiro tem de articulação visando à resistência. São necessários saberes e práticas que exigem, cada vez mais, o rompimento com o pensamento autoritário e colonialista tão presente no contexto brasileiro.


This text is product of the initial attempts to think about the current Brazilian conjuncture regarding the challenges posed to indigenous peoples since they are confronted with a government who have declared to be anti-indigenous. From the historical perspective of Brazilian governmental policy towards indigenous, we observe elements that push us to analyze the relationship of the State with the indigenous peoples and the Brazilian indigenous movement' capacity for interacting to resist. Knowledge and practices that demand more and more a break with the authoritarian and colonialist thinking so present in the Brazilian context are indispensable.


Esta nota resulta de reflexiones iniciales a cerca de la coyuntura brasileña actual por lo que se refiere a los desafíos que los pueblos indígenas tienen que enfrentar frente a un Gobierno que expresa clara y determinadamente ser antiindígena. Observando la perspectiva histórica de la política indigenista brasileña, hay elementos que instigan el análisis de la relación del Estado con los pueblos indígenas y la capacidad que el movimiento indígena brasileño tiene de articularse para resistir. Son necesarios saberes y prácticas que exigen cada vez más el rompimiento con el pensamiento autoritario y colonialista tan presente en el contexto brasileño.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autoritarismo , Brasil , Ecossistema Amazônico , População Indígena , Violência Étnica , Incêndios Florestais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Política Ambiental , Cultura Indígena , Mercúrio , Mineração
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 736-753, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047532

RESUMO

Este artigo, de caráter interdisciplinar, tem como objetivo articular questões da diversidade sociocultural com o direito à comunicação e à saúde e a estratégias de reconhecimentos identitários. Para isso, propomos uma análise de conteúdo, de abordagem qualitativa, da comunicação produzida pela Equipe de Base Warmis ­ Convergências das Culturas sobre o caso que ficou conhecido como Projeto pró-cesárea no SUS ou PL 435/2019, comparando-a ainda com matérias veiculadas sobre o tema na mídia tradicional comercial e em notas e comunicados oficiais de instituições formais de classe profissional envolvidas com a questão. Como recurso teórico-metodológico, utilizamos os conceitos de interculturalismo e comunicação intercultural. Entre os principais resultados, destacamos que processos comunicacionais, quando entendidos não somente a partir de seu alcance instrumental, mas, em seu sentido de vinculação sociocultural, interação simbólica e produção subjetiva, podem ter caráter mobilizador coletivo e de reconhecimento identitário visando, muitas vezes, a transformação da realidade social, ainda que essa signifique uma coexistência sociocultural capaz de ser negociada.


This interdisciplinary article aims to articulate issues of sociocultural diversity with the right to communication and health and identity recognition strategies. For this, we propose a qualitative content analysis about the communication produced by the Warmis Base Team ­ Convergences of Cultures on the case known as the Pro-cesarean project in SUS or PL 435/2019, comparing it with articles published about the theme in the traditional commercial media and in formal professional class institutions official notes involved with the case. As a theoretical-methodological resource, we use the interculturalism concept and intercultural communication. Among the main results, we highlight that communicational processes, when understood not only from their instrumental reach, but, in their sense of sociocultural attachment, symbolic interaction and subjective production, can have collective mobilizing character and identity recognition, often aiming at the transformation of social reality, even if it means a sociocultural coexistence able of being negotiated.


Este artículo, interdisciplinario, tiene como objetivo articular temas de diversidad sociocultural con el derecho a la comunicación y a la salud y estrategias de reconocimiento de identidad. Para esto, proponemos un análisis de contenido cualitativo de la comunicación producida por el Equipo Base de Warmis ­ Convergencias de las Culturas en el caso conocido como el Proyecto pro cesárea en SUS o PL 435/2019, comparándolos con artículos publicados sobre el tema en los medios comerciales tradicionales y con notas oficiales de instituciones formales de clase profesional involucradas en el tema. Como recurso teórico-metodológico, utilizamos los conceptos de interculturalidad y comunicación intercultural. Entre los principales resultados, destacamos que los procesos comunicacionales, cuando se entienden no solo desde su alcance instrumental, sino que, en su sentido de apego sociocultural, interacción simbólica y producción subjetiva, pueden tener un carácter movilizador colectivo y reconocimiento de identidad, con el objetivo de la transformación de la realidad social, aunque esa signifique una convivencia sociocultural capaz de ser negociada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Participação da Comunidade , Diversidade Cultural , Discurso , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Comunicação em Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Política Pública , Violência , Sistema Único de Saúde , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher , Parto Humanizado , Parto , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Emigração e Imigração , Competência Cultural
4.
5.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 471-481, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016425

RESUMO

Este artigo tem como escopo estabelecer, a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, um comparativo legal entre o aporte jurisprudencial brasileiro (Ação Direta de Inconstitucionalidade nº 4.275-DF, Supremo Tribunal Federal do Brasil, 2018) e o Projeto de Lei nº 816/2017 (Ley Integral para Personas Trans), recentemente aprovado pela Câmara dos Deputados do Uruguai, a fim de combater a discriminação e ampliar direitos para transexuais, transgêneros e travestis no Brasil, considerando-se a necessidade de se expandir a cidadania para essas pessoas: tradicionalmente marginalizados. Busca-se discutir sobre as legislações dos dois países selecionados como objeto de pesquisa (integrantes do Mercosul), a fim de verificar se estão promovendo Direitos Humanos à População T. Como resultado, evidencia-se que, ao passo que o Uruguai tem empreendido esforços na positivação de direitos e no reconhecimento do respeito à autodeterminação da identidade de gênero, o Brasil, ainda, tem caminhado timidamente na mesma construção, dependendo ­ prioritariamente ­ de jurisprudências e atos administrativos para tanto.


The purpose of this article is to establish, based on bibliographical and documentary research, a legal comparison between the Brazilian jurisprudential contribution (Direct Unconstitutionality Action nº 4,275-DF, Supreme Federal Court of Brazil, 2018) and Bill nº 816/2017 (Ley Integral para Personas Trans), recently approved by the Chamber of Deputies of Uruguay, in order to combat discrimination and expand rights for transsexuals, transgenders and transvestites in Brazil, considering the need to expand citizenship for these people: traditionally marginalized. The aim is to discuss the legislation of the two countries selected as an object of research (members of Mercosur), in order to verify if they are promoting Human Rights to Population T. As a result, it is evident that, while Uruguay has made efforts in the positivation of rights and in the recognition of respect for the self-determination of gender identity, Brazil has also walked timidly in the same construction, depending - primarily on jurisprudence and administrative acts for that purpose.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo establecer, a partir de investigación bibliográfica y documental, un comparativo legal entre el aporte jurisprudencial brasileño (Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad nº 4.275-DF, Supremo Tribunal Federal de Brasil, 2018) y el Proyecto de Ley nº 816/2017 (Ley Integral para Personas Trans), recientemente aprobado por la Cámara de Diputados de Uruguay, a fin de combatir la discriminación y ampliar derechos para transexuales, transgéneros y travestis en Brasil, considerando la necesidad de expandir la ciudadanía para esas personas: tradicionalmente marginados. Se busca discutir sobre las legislaciones de los dos países seleccionados como objeto de investigación (integrantes del Mercosur), a fin de verificar si están promoviendo Derechos Humanos a la Población T. Como resultado, se evidencia que, mientras que Uruguay ha emprendido esfuerzos en la positivación de derechos y en el reconocimiento del respeto a la autodeterminación de la identidad de género, Brasil, aún, ha caminado tímidamente en la misma construcción, dependiendo- prioritariamente - de jurisprudencias y actos administrativos para tanto.


Assuntos
Humanos , Uruguai , Brasil , Pessoas Transgênero , Direitos Humanos , Participação da Comunidade , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Sexismo , Ativismo Político , Identidade de Gênero
6.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 111, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of detaining people who are unable to pay for health care services they have received is widespread in many parts of the world. We aimed to determine the proportion of women and their infants detained for inability to pay for services received at a provincial hospital in the Democratic Republic of the Congo during a 6-week period in 2016. A secondary objective was to determine clinical and administrative staff attitudes and practices about payment for services and detention. METHODS: This mixed-methods descriptive case study included a cross-sectional survey and interviews with key informants. RESULTS: Over half (52%) of the 85 women who were in the maternity ward at Sendwe Hospital and eligible for discharge between August 5 and September 15, 2016 were detained for 1 to 30 days for outstanding bills of United States dollars (USD) 21 to USD 515. Women who were detained were younger, poorer, and had more obstetric complications and caesarean sections than other women. In addition, over one quarter of the infants born to these women had died during delivery or in the first three days of life. Key informant interviews normalized detention as an unfortunate but inevitable consequence of patient poverty and health system resource constraints. CONCLUSIONS: Detention of women and their infants is common at this hospital in the DRC. This represents a violation of human rights and a systemic failure to ensure that all people have access to essential health services and that they not suffer financial hardship due to the price of those services.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/normas , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/normas , Cuidados de Saúde não Remunerados/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 455-461, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278467

RESUMO

Balfe argues against enhanced interrogation. He particularly focuses on the involvement of U.S. healthcare professionals in enhanced interrogation. He identifies several empirical and normative factors and argues that they are not good reasons to morally justify enhanced interrogation. I argue that his argument can be improved by making two points. First, Balfe considers the reasoning of those healthcare professionals as utilitarian. However, careful consideration of their ideas reveals that their reasoning is consequential rather than utilitarian evaluation. Second, torture is a serious human rights abuse. When healthcare professionals become involved in enhanced interrogation, they violate not only human rights against torture but also human rights to health. Considering the consequential reasoning against human rights abuses, healthcare professionals' involvement in enhanced interrogation is not morally justified. Supplementing Balfe's position with these two points makes his argument more complete and convincing, and hence it can contribute to the way which shows that enhanced interrogation is not justified by consequential evaluation.


Assuntos
Terrorismo , Tortura , Teoria Ética , Direitos Humanos , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Humanos
8.
Torture ; 29(1): 16-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the Peruvian internal armed conflict, fifteen members of the Santa Barbara community were collectively executed by state agents, and their relatives were made victims of persecution, torture, and imprisonment. The case, known as the Santa Barbara massacre, was brought to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The documentation of individual, family and community impacts for the Court became a challenge due to the need to address cultural, geographical, political and community aspects. This paper aims to discuss the complexities of forensic documentation of human rights violations using a psychosocial and communitarian background. METHOD: The assessment included seven survivors from three different families. Both qualitative and quantitative instruments were used. A participative action research framework guided the design, documentation process, and discussion of outcomes with the survivors. Results/ discussion: The report included four levels of documentation exhibited in the Istanbul Protocol framework: clinical impacts from a western perspective, emic formulations and cultural idioms of distress, communitarian perspectives, and a proposal of reparation measures for the Court. Individual analysis revealed chronic mental health sequelae of forced displacement, imprisonment and torture. Local idioms of distress (in Quechuan, "pinsamientuwan," "llaki," "ñakary," "umananay" and "iquyay") deepened the understanding of the damage faced by the survivors. The analysis of the community uncovered three main areas of collective damage: broken social and cultural identity, lack of political participation, and loss of perspective on the future. Regarding reparations, survivors highlighted the pursuit for justice, the dignified remembrance of their loved ones, social re-inclusion of displaced persons into the community, education for offspring, and measures for the preservation of their community's identity and culture. CONCLUSIONS: Psycholegal accompaniment for victims through a participatory research approach is essential for the proper documentation of the consequences of violence in complex contexts. It is also essential in guaranteeing that the forensic documentation of the impact of political violence can be proposed as reparative for the survivors in itself.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Documentação , Família , Tortura , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Medicina Legal , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Direito Internacional , Função Jurisdicional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru
9.
Torture ; 29(1): 56-69, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the 1978 Ireland v. the United Kingdom case, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) did not consider that the so called "five techniques" caused enough severity to be considered torture. The intentionality criterion, outlined in the Convention against Torture's definition of torture, was also not fully considered. The Istanbul Protocol, which is critical for evidencing torture, did not exist at that time. Although a re-opening of the case was requested in 2014 by Ireland, forensic documentation using the Istanbul Protocol was not used; in 2018, the ECtHR decided against re-opening the case. OBJECTIVE: By using the Ireland v. The United Kingdom case, this paper aims to map the origins of the five techniques, review whether applying them constitutes torture, analyze the information about the claimants available 30 years later, and explore the ramifications of the ECtHR decision not to revise its judgment. METHODOLOGY: Relevant texts were gathered from the HUDOC database, Cambridge University Press, Wiley Online Library, SCOPUS and MEDLINE /PubMed, and the Library of the ECtHR in Strasbourg. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: The five techniques, elaborated upon in the case of Ireland v. the United Kingdom, were used well before the incidents in Northern Ireland in 1971 and there is evidence that United Kingdom officials have, subsequently, used the techniques. Furthermore, there is clear evidence that the "Hooded Men" had cognitive, psychological and neurovegetative symptoms as a result of the five techniques, which had long-term effects. The ECtHR did not take this into consideration when it decided not to re-open the case and the full implications of this decision for future cases and victims remain to be seen.


Assuntos
Violações dos Direitos Humanos/classificação , Tortura/classificação , Privação de Alimentos , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Irlanda , Ruído , Postura , Privação do Sono , Reino Unido , Privação de Água
10.
Torture ; 29(1): 70-84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Istanbul Protocol (IP) principles and guidelines have served as international norms for the effective investigation and documentation of torture and ill-treatment since 1999. Given the widespread use of the IP and recent calls to update or enhance its norms, we conducted a large-scale study among stakeholders to understand current practices as well as opinions on additional IP norm setting. METHODS: Between February 20, 2017 and April 7, 2017, we conducted an online survey of IP users using a combination of criterion and chain sampling. The survey instrument included the following domains of inquiry: 1) respondent characteristics (demographics, anti-torture work, country conditions, and IP training); 2) IP use, importance and practices, and; 3) opinions on additional IP norm setting. RESULTS: The survey was distributed to 177 individuals and 250 organizational representatives with response rates of 78% and 47% respectively. The respondents came from a variety of clinical, legal, academic, and advocacy disciplines from around the world. The respondents indicated that they use the IP for a wide range of anti-torture activities: investigation and documentation, advocacy, training and capacity building, policy reform, prevention, and treatment and rehabilitation of torture survivors. The vast majority (94% of individual respondents and 84% of organizations) reported that the IP is important to their anti-torture work. A majority of individual (60%) and organizational (59%) respondents reported that updating or adding clarifications to the IP would help to address the challenges they face and provided specific suggestions. However, 41% of individuals and 21% of organizational respondents also reported concerns that additional IP norm setting could have negative consequences. DISCUSSION: The IP provides critical guidance for a wide range of torture prevention, accountability, and redress activities and can be enhanced through the development of additional updates and clarifications to respond to the current needs of torture survivors and stakeholders.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/normas , Guias como Assunto , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Tortura , Documentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Torture ; 29(1): 85-96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following resettlement in Australia, young traumatized refugees often face social challenges, including language and cultural barriers and social adjustment, which can lead to behavioral difficulties. Providing support at this vulnerable stage is therefore vital for reducing future setbacks. OBJECTIVE: The STARTTS Capoeira Angola program was developed to help traumatized adolescents successfully integrate into their school environments. As an Afro-Brazilian martial art that incorporates dance, Capoeira appeared an appropriate intervention for adolescent refugees due to its unique ethos of empowerment and group membership. METHOD: 32 refugeesfrom Middle Eastern and African countries (aged12-17) from the Intensive English Centre (IEC) department of the participant schools were assessed pre- and post- intervention using the Teacher's Strengths and Difficulties Scale (SDQ). Teachers were also asked to observe the students' functioning in a range of different situations at school. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: A significant overall decrease in behavioral problems was observed, which was associated with improvements in interpersonal skills, confidence, respect for self and others, self-discipline, and overall sense of responsibility.


Assuntos
Dança , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/psicologia , Artes Marciais , Trauma Psicológico/reabilitação , Refugiados , Exposição à Guerra , Adolescente , África/etnologia , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio/etnologia , Comportamento Problema , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Campos de Refugiados , Respeito , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Autocontrole , Habilidades Sociais
12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 238: 170-177, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Abuse of vulnerable patients exists in many healthcare settings and has been recognised as an inherent risk in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Systematic reviews have been used to develop typologies of abuse and ethical issues in other settings including obstetrics. The aim was to determine the full spectrum of abuse that patients can experience when using assisted reproductive technology. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic qualitative review. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched for combinations of terms related to abuse and terms relating to ART. The last search was performed on February 12th 2018. Selection criteria were that the authors reported evidence of abuse. There were no exclusions by date, language or methodology. Papers lacking analysis of abuses in ART were excluded. For data collection and analysis, themes identified in the academic literature were coded using thematic qualitative analysis by two independent researchers. Themes were developed discursively. RESULTS: There were 381 publications of which 44 full text articles were screened. The 34 included papers detailed abuses from 4 decades and 5 continents. There were no quantitative papers measuring prevalence. The resulting coding framework was presented as a typology of abuse in assisted reproductive technology with three first order themes: exploitation of class-based vulnerabilities, excessive intervention, and failures of aftercare. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of categories of abuse was found despite the paucity of formal literature. A concerted public health approach to infertility is required, combined with an emphasis on trying conservative approaches first. More primary research is required on prevalence of abuse, and values and preferences, particularly in "egg sharing" and post-mortem reproduction.


Assuntos
Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Humanos , Procedimentos Desnecessários
13.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(1): 215-225, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239628

RESUMO

Due to global events in recent years, applications for political asylum have increased, although the number of people granted asylum in the United States and elsewhere has declined. Physicians and other health care professionals can play a crucial role in the evaluation of individuals seeking asylum, since appropriately documented objective clinical evidence of torture and other forms of persecution can increase the likelihood that survivors of human rights abuses obtain asylum. Many clinicians have the requisite expertise and skills needed to conduct forensic asylum evaluations. However, despite growing interest in this area, the demand for medical and psychiatric forensic evaluations exceeds the number of clinicians who are prepared to conduct asylum evaluations. In an effort to increase the number of qualified clinicians interested and involved in medical and psychiatric evaluations of asylum seekers, this article offers a summary of standard and best practices in the area, including recommended qualifications and competencies relevant to the practice of forensic asylum evaluations, guidance on effective approaches to the medical and psychiatric evaluation of asylum seekers, and recommendations related to medicolegal documentation and testimony. We also highlight gaps in evidence regarding best practices.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Exame Físico , Papel do Médico/psicologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Refugiados/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Anamnese , Defesa do Paciente , Refugiados/psicologia , Tortura , Estados Unidos
16.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 8(1): 26-35, jan.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-996354

RESUMO

Objective: to analyze the subject of suicide in the theoretical-normative perspective of the human rights of patients. Methodology: theoretical and documentary research on the ethical and human rights aspects of patients at risk/suicide attempt. Results: violations of the human rights of patients at health risk were observed in the health services. Conclusion: it is necessary to adopt measures to promote the alteration of the situation of violation of these rights.

Objetivo: analizar la temática del suicidio en la perspectiva teórico-normativa de los derechos humanos de los pacientes. Metodología: se realizó una investigación teórica y documental sobre los aspectos éticos y de derechos humanos de los pacientes en riesgo / intento de suicidio. Resultados: se observaron violaciones a los derechos humanos de los pacientes en riesgo de salud, en los servicios de salud. Conclusión: es necesaria la adopción de medidas para promover la alteración de la situación de violación de tales derechos.


Objetivo: analisar a temática do suicídio na perspectiva teórico-normativa dos direitos humanos dos pacientes. Metodologia: foi realizada pesquisa teórica e documental sobre os aspectos éticos e de direitos humanos dos pacientes em risco/tentativa de suicídio. Resultados: foram observadas violações aos direitos humanos dos pacientes em risco de saúde, nos serviços de saúde. Conclusão: é necessária a adoção de medidas para promover a alteração da situação de violação de tais direitos.


Assuntos
Defesa do Paciente , Suicídio , Brasil , Má Conduta Profissional , Violações dos Direitos Humanos
17.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 107-126, jan.-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-999341

RESUMO

Este artigo coloca em discussão as relações no cotidiano de trabalho da prática intersetorial do Núcleo Intersetorial Regional Técnico (NIR-T) de uma das regionais de Belo Horizonte, tendo como objetivo discutir conjuntamente os casos de violação social. Esse estudo tem a pesquisa-intervenção como metodologia e as ideias de Deleuze e Guattari como marco teórico. A partir das assembleias, das entrevistas semiestruturadas e das restituições realizadas com as equipes, analisamos as linhas que compõe a prática intersetorial no NIR-T que se fazem na troca entre os setores e os profissionais, nos efeitos dos abalos subjetivos na lida com a vulnerabilidade, nas dificuldades de encaminhamentos e seguimento dos casos, nos limites das próprias políticas públicas e na importância da sustentação do coletivo. Concluímos que a intersetorialidade, mesmo sendo necessária, ainda apresenta muitos desafios.(AU)


This article discusses the relationships in the daily work of intersectorial practice in the Technical Regional Intersectorial Nucleus (NIR-T), in one of the Belo Horizonte's regional area,and aims to discuss cases of social violation. This study has the intervention research as methodology and the work of Deleuze and Guattari as theoretical framework. Considering the assemblies, the semi-structured interviews and the refunds made with the teams, we analyze the lines that make up the intersectorial practice in the NIR-T that are made in the exchange between the sectors and the professionals, in the effects of the subjective shocks in the handle with the vulnerability, in the difficulties of referrals and follow-up of the cases, in the limits of the public policies and in the importance of the collective. We conclude that intersectoriality, although necessary, still presents many challenges.(AU)


Este artículo pone en discusión las relaciones en el cotidiano de trabajo de la práctica intersectorial en el Núcleo Intersectorial Regional Técnico (NIR-T) de una de las regionales de Belo Horizonte, que tiene como objetivo discutir conjuntamente los casos de violación social. Este estudio tiene la investigación-intervención como metodología y las ideas de Deleuze y Guattari como marco teórico. A partir de las asambleas, de las entrevistas semiestructuradas y de las restituciones realizadas con los equipos, analizamos las líneas que componen la práctica intersectorial en el NIR-T que se hacen en el intercambio entre los sectores y los profesionales, en los efectos de los impactos subjetivos en la relación con la vulnerabilidad, en las dificultades de encaminamientos y seguimiento de los casos, en los límites de las propias políticas públicas y en la importancia de la sustentación del colectivo. Concluimos que la intersectorialidad, aun siendo necesaria, todavía presenta muchos desafíos.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicologia Social , Política Pública , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pesquisa , Vulnerabilidade Social , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/psicologia
20.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 35(1): 42-52, mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-981542

RESUMO

La Medicina Legal tiene entre sus misiones el diagnóstico de la tortura como forma de contribución a las investigaciones judiciales y a la reparación de las víctimas. En Uruguay se desarrollan numerosos procedimientos administrativos y criminales referidos al período del terrorismo de Estado (entre el 27 de junio de 1973 y el 28 de febrero de 1985). Si bien el delito de tortura es un delito de lesa humanidad imprescriptible, se tipificó en la Ley Nº 18.026 de 26 de setiembre de 2006. La jurisprudencia nacional ha desestimado su tipificación en los casos del período del terrorismo de Estado en base al principio de no irretroactividad de la ley penal. Paralelamente, la Fiscalía Especializada en Crímenes de Lesa Humanidad ha requerido numerosos informes respecto de la posibilidad de que los métodos de tortura aplicados por el terrorismo de Estado en Uruguay pudieran causar lesiones graves o gravísimas. Objetivo general: contribuir al conocimiento de los crímenes del terrorismo de Estado en Uruguay, aportando así a la realización de los estándares internacionales de verdad, justicia, memoria y reparación. Objetivos específicos: 1. Describir los métodos de tortura empleados. 2. Determinar su idoneidad para producir lesiones graves o gravísimas. Metodología: el estudio se basó en las investigaciones históricas nacionales sobre el terrorismo de Estado, así como en la jurisprudencia en la materia, la revisión de la bibliografía internacional, la fisiopatología de situaciones análogas y los actuales consensos nacionales sobre los supuestos fácticos incluidos en los tipos penales de lesiones graves y gravísimas. Resultados: en el período del terrorismo de Estado en Uruguay ha sido característica la aplicación de torturas a gran escala y en forma sistemática. Los métodos más habitualmente aplicados fueron el encapuchamiento, la privación de agua, alimentos y reposo, la exposición al frío, las golpizas, incluido el teléfono, el plantón, el colgamiento, el caballete, el submarino húmedo y seco, la picana eléctrica y las agresiones sexuales. Los distintos métodos de tortura física incluyen un sufrimiento psíquico. A través de mecanismos específicos, todos resultan idóneos para ocasionar daños que encuadran en diversos supuestos de los delitos de lesiones graves y gravísimas. En las mujeres embarazadas, todos estos métodos de tortura son eficaces para provocar el aborto o adelantar el parto. Conclusiones: existió un patrón en los métodos de tortura sistemática empleados por el terrorismo de Estado que incluyó métodos omisivos, posicionales, traumáticos, eléctricos, asfícticos y sexuales. Todos ellos pueden determinar uno o más de los supuestos comprendidos en los delitos de lesiones graves y gravísimas. El peligro de vida y las secuelas psicológicas son inherentes a la tortura. En las mujeres embarazadas, todos los métodos de tortura reseñados son eficaces para provocar el aborto o el adelantamiento del parto. (AU)


Among other missions, Legal Medicine aims to diagnose torture, as a means of contributing to judicial investigations and repair victims. In Uruguay, several administrative and criminal procedures are developed in connection to the times of state terrorism (between June 27, 1973 and February 28, 1985). Despite torture being an indescribable crime against humanity, it was typified in Act 18,026 of September 26, 2006. National jurisprudence has dismissed its classification in the cases that occurred during the times of state terrorism, based on the non-retroactivity principle of criminal law. Simultaneously, the Prosecutor's Office Specialized in Crimes Against Humanity has requested several reports in connection with the possibility that torture methods applied by State terrorism in Uruguay may have caused severe or very severe lesions. General objective: To contribute to learning about state terrorist crimes in Uruguay, thus contributing to the creation of international standards for truth, justice, memory and repair. Specific objectives: 1. To describe the torture methods applied. 2. To determine their ability to cause severe or very severe lesions. Method: The study was based on national history investigations, as well as jurisprudence in the field, review of international bibliography, pathophysiology of similar situtaions and current national consensus on fact assumptions included in the criminal classification of severe and very severe lesions. Results: The times of state terrorism in Uruguay have been characterized by the application of large scale torture in a systematic way. The most frequently used methods were hooding, restriction of water, food and rest, exposure to the cold, beating up, including "the phone", sitting in, hanging, vaults, wet and dry submarine, electric shock baton and sexual assaults. The different methods of physical torture include psychological suffering. By means of specific mechanisms, they are all useful to cause harm that lie within several assumptions of severe and very severe harm crimes. I pregnant women, all of these methods of torture are effective to interrupt pregnancy or anticipate delivery. Conclusions: There is a pattern in the systematic methods of torture used by state terrorism, which included methods involving omissions, positions, trauma, and electrical shocks and, suffocating. All of them may result in one or more of the assumptions included in the severe or very severe lesions crimes. Risk of life and psychological consequences inherent to torture. In pregnant women, all the methods of torture described are effective to interrupt the pregnancy or anticipate delivery.


Entre as missões da Medicina Legal se inclui o diagnóstico da tortura como forma de contribuição às investigações judiciais e a reparação das vítimas. No Uruguai foram desenvolvidos numerosos procedimentos administrativos e criminais referidos ao período do terrorismo de Estado (entre 27 de junho de 1973 e 28 de fevereiro de 1985). Embora o delito de tortura seja um delito de lesa humanidade imprescritível, este foi tipificado na Lei Nº 18.026 de 26 de setembro de 2006. A jurisprudência nacional rejeitou sua tipificação nos casos do período do terrorismo de Estado baseados no principio de não retroatividade da lei penal. Paralelamente, a Procuradoria Especializada em Crimes de Lesa Humanidade solicitou numerosos relatórios sobre a possibilidade de que os métodos de tortura aplicados pelo terrorismo de Estado no Uruguai pudessem ter causado lesões graves ou gravíssimas. Objetivo general: Contribuir ao conhecimento dos crimes do terrorismo de Estado no Uruguai, ajudando dessa forma o estabelecimento de padrões internacionais de verdade, justiça, memoria e reparação. Objetivos específicos: 1. Descrever os métodos de tortura empregados. 2. Determinar sua idoneidade para produzir lesões graves ou gravíssimas. Metodologia: O estudo foi realizado utilizando informação de pesquisas históricas nacionais sobre o terrorismo de Estado, bem como a jurisprudência na matéria, a revisão da bibliografia internacional, a fisiopatologia de situações análogas e os atuais consensos nacionais sobre os supostos fáticos incluídos nos tipos penais de lesões graves e gravíssimas. Resultados: No período do terrorismo de Estado no Uruguai foi característica a aplicação de torturas a grande escala e de maneira sistemática. Os métodos habitualmente mais aplicados foram o "encapuchamiento" (uso permanente de capuz ou venda nos olhos), a privação de água, alimentos e repouso, a exposição ao frio (geladeira), agressões físicas incluindo o "telefone", "plantón" (ficar em pé por períodos prolongados), pendurar pelos membros, "caballete" (montar sobre uma superficie afiada), afogamento úmido e seco, choque elétrico e as agressões sexuais. Os distintos métodos de tortura física incluem sofrimento psíquico. Através de mecanismos específicos, todos resultam idôneos para ocasionar danos que enquadram em diversos supostos dos delitos de lesões graves e gravíssimas. Nas mulheres grávidas, todos estes métodos de tortura são eficazes para interromper a gravidez ou adiantar o parto. Conclusões: Existiu um padrão nos métodos de tortura sistemática utilizados pelo terrorismo de Estado, que incluía métodos omissivos, posicionais, traumáticos, elétricos, asfixiantes e sexuais. Todos podem determinar um ou mais dos supostos compreendidos nos delitos de lesões graves e gravíssimas. O perigo de vida e as sequelas psicológicas são inerentes à tortura. Nas mulheres grávidas, todos os métodos de tortura descritos são eficazes para interromper a gravidez ou adiantar o parto.


Assuntos
Tortura , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Uruguai , Medicina Legal
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