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1.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 33(1): 37-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518514

RESUMO

Heinous crimes and brutalities have decimated humanity throughout human history. In modern times, forensic anthropologists have helped to reconstruct the nature and mechanism, intent and purpose, manner, and circumstances of various inhumane instances of genocides and violent crimes. Anthropologists endeavor to bring closure and comfort to bereaved families by disseminating information about the location, exhumation, and identification of the remains of victims. The methodological armamentarium and scope of forensic anthropology have developed much beyond the realms of the traditional biological profiling casework to the scenarios of humanitarian concerns. Humanitarian forensics focuses on the excavation and identification of the remains of victims and facilitates the dignified burial of the deceased. This review article highlights and exemplifies the significant contributions of forensic anthropological expertise in revealing various crimes against humanity and human rights violations committed in the recent past as well as in some contemporary cases reported from around the globe. It includes cases such as Guatemalan, Cambodian, and Bosnian genocides, as well as other mass killings that illustrate the efficacy of anthropological evidence in reconstructing the nature, mechanism, and circumstances related to these incidences. Special emphasis is given to the Ajnala (India) skeletal remains excavated from an abandoned well - remains reportedly belonging to 282 Indian soldiers killed in 1857 whose corpses were dumped into the said disused well by sanitary workers - indicating the importance of forensic anthropology in authenticating the occurrence of events as mentioned in historical records. Analysis of different case histories reveals that forensic anthropologists have played a significant role in recovery and identification of the victims of the many war crimes, genocides, racial conflicts, and violent cruelties committed against mankind in modern history.


Assuntos
Autopsia/história , Vítimas de Crime/história , Crime , Antropologia Forense/história , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/história , Restos Mortais , Exumação , Ciências Forenses , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Índia
2.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 103-118, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144423

RESUMO

Resumen El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis descriptivo cuantitativo sobre el desempeño del sistema a través del cual el Gobierno Colombiano implementa su política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal y penitenciario. Este estudio no se realiza desde el punto de vista del derecho, sino desde la perspectiva de la evaluación de su efectividad, entendiendo la criminalidad como un problema social. El impacto de este artículo radica en la posibilidad de entender y abordar el fenómeno de la criminalidad desde un enfoque preventivo. Esto, al identificar un desequilibrio dinámico de los componentes del sistema que refuerza el problema, evidenciando deficiencias en la finalidad de la política criminal como política pública debería propender por la prevención del crimen y por el contrario refuerza un ciclo vicioso que incrementa impunidad. Este ciclo ha desgastado operativamente al Estado y ha generado un alto costo como resultado de los altos índices de criminalidad.


Abstract This article performs a descriptive, quantitative analysis of the performance of the system through which the Colombian Government implements its criminal public policy: judicial, criminal justice and penitentiary systems. This study is not performed from the point of view of law, but from a perspective evaluating its effectiveness, considering crime a social issue. This article impacts the possibility of understanding and facing the phenomenon of crime from a preventive approach. This, upon identifying a dynamic imbalance of the system's components, which strengthens the problem, shows deficiencies in the purpose of criminal policy as a public policy that promotes prevention and emphasizes a vicious cycle that increases impunity. This cycle has operationally worn-out the Government and has generated high costs as a result of high crime indices.


Resumo Este artigo desenvolve uma análise descritiva quantitativa sobre o desempenho do sistema por meio do qual o Governo colombiano implementa sua política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal e penitenciário. Este estudo não é realizado do ponto de vista do direito, mas da perspectiva de avaliar sua eficácia, entendendo o crime como problema social. O impacto deste artigo reside na possibilidade de compreender e abordar o fenómeno do crime a partir de uma abordagem preventiva. Isto, ao identificar um desequilíbrio dinâmico dos componentes do sistema que reforça o problema, mostra deficiências na finalidade da política criminal como política pública que visa à prevenção e acentua um ciclo vicioso que aumenta a impunidade. Este ciclo desgastou operacionalmente o Estado e gerou um custo elevado em decorrência dos altos índices de criminalidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Prisões , Crime , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Direitos Humanos
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-04-28.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52043

RESUMO

El abuso sexual, que abarca la agresión sexual o la violación, de niños y adolescentes es un grave problema de salud pública en todo el mundo y una violación de los derechos humanos que tiene muchas consecuencias para la salud a corto y a largo plazo. Las consecuencias físicas, sexuales, para la salud reproductiva y la salud mental de ese abuso son de amplio alcance y deben abordarse. Los datos recabados en diferentes entornos indican que los niños y adolescentes están representados desproporcionadamente entre los casos de abuso sexual que se llevan a la atención de los prestadores de atención de salud. En esta directriz se formulan recomendaciones dirigidas en especial a los prestadores de atención de salud que se encuentran en la primera línea de acción (por ejemplo, médicos generales, enfermeras, pediatras, ginecólogos), que atienden a niños y adolescentes hasta la edad de 18 años, que han sufrido, o podrían haber sufrido algún tipo de abuso sexual, como la agresión sexual o la violación. También puede ser útil para otros cuadros de prestadores especializados de atención de salud que tienen probabilidad de atender a niños o adolescentes. En la directriz, aunque es de alcance mundial, se asigna particular importancia a su aplicación en entornos de atención de salud de los países de ingresos bajos y medianos, teniendo en cuenta que allí los recursos de atención de salud son más limitados. Por consiguiente, en la redacción se tuvo en cuenta la factibilidad de poner en práctica las recomendaciones en entornos de escasos recursos... La directriz se formuló según las normas y los requisitos especificados en el manual de la OMS para la elaboración de directrices, segunda edición. El proceso incluyó: a) la determinación de las preguntas de investigación fundamentales y sus resultados; b) la recuperación de la evidencia, lo que incluyó la ejecución de revisiones sistemáticas; c) la síntesis de la evidencia; d) la evaluación de la calidad, efectuada por un Grupo de Elaboración de las Directrices (GED); y e) la formulación de recomendaciones con el GED y aportes de un Grupo de Revisión Externa. No se detectaron conflictos de intereses importantes para el GED ni el Grupo de Revisión Externa. El documento también comprende principios generales que sustentan la práctica clínica y que se derivan de normas internacionales éticas y de derechos humanos. Incluye enunciados de prácticas adecuadas que se basan tanto en los principios orientadores como en los valores y las preferencias de las personas sobrevivientes, sus cuidadores y los prestadores de atención de salud. Las recomendaciones se fundamentan en las recomendaciones vigentes de la OMS, así como en el nuevo contenido elaborado como parte de este proceso de formulación de directrices. A continuación, se resumen los principios orientadores, las recomendaciones y los enunciados de las prácticas adecuadas.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Violência de Gênero , Exposição à Violência , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Direitos Humanos , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde da Criança
8.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 69: 101886, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056803

RESUMO

In countries emerging from authoritarian rule, a major challenge is ending often widespread and systematic torture and ill-treatment practices. Between 2011 and 2019, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), in collaboration with the Open Society Foundation (OSF), the Open Society Justice Initiative (OSJI) and regional and local partners, worked to establish effective torture investigation and documentation practices in the Central Asian countries of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. Our approach consisted of activities in three sequential phases - (1) assessment, (2) capacity building, and (3) policy reform. In this paper, we briefly describe activities during each phase and identify key lessons learned from these experiences and resulting policy and program reforms as a model for future efforts in other settings.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/normas , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Tortura , Ásia , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Documentação/normas , Humanos , Política Pública , Participação dos Interessados , Nações Unidas
12.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 32: e189039, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1101338

RESUMO

Resumo Este estudo possui o objetivo de analisar as interfaces entre a implantação da hidrelétrica de Itá em Santa Catarina e a violação dos Direitos Humanos de agricultores atingidos pela obra que permaneceram residindo no entorno reservatório após a finalização do empreendimento. O estudo, de cunho qualitativo, fundamentou-se na pesquisa participante. A coleta de dados iniciou em fevereiro de 2016 e foi concluída em dezembro do mesmo ano. Foram entrevistadas 12 pessoas atingidas pela construção da barragem de Itá, além de observações participantes periódicas em toda região rural do entorno do reservatório. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados da pesquisa apontam que, os participantes do estudo tiveram violados os direitos à saúde, educação, emprego e infraestrutura, perdendo também projetos de vidas. Portanto, é necessário atentar para o atual formato de implantação de barragens construindo políticas públicas que garantam os direitos das populações atingidas por estes empreendimentos.


Resumen El objetivo del estudio es analizar las relaciones entre la implantación de la hidroeléctrica de Itá, en Santa Catarina, y la violación de derechos humanos de agricultores que permanecieron viviendo en el entorno del embalse tras su finalización y que fueron afectados por él. El estudio, de tipo cualitativo, se fundamentó en la investigación participativa. La recolección de datos empezó en febrero de 2016 y concluyó en diciembre del mismo año. Se entrevistaron a 12 personas afectadas por la construcción de dicha represa, además de la realización de periódicas observaciones participantes en su entorno rural. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos al análisis de contenido. Los resultados demostraron que los entrevistados sufrieron violación de derechos a salud, educación, empleo e infraestructura, perdiendo, incluso, proyectos de vida. Así, es necesario examinar las actuales formas de implantación de represas a través de políticas públicas que garanticen los derechos de las poblaciones afectadas.


Abstract This study aims to analyze the interfaces between the implementation of Itá hydroelectric power plant in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina and the violation of human rights of the farmers who remained living in the reservoir's surrounding area after the project was finished and who were affected by it. The qualitative study was based on participant research. Data collection began in February 2016 and was completed in December of the same year. Twelve people affected by the construction of Itá dam were interviewed, and there were periodic participant observations in all rural areas surrounding the reservoir. Data were submitted to content analysis. Research results indicated that the research participants had their rights to health, education, employment and infrastructure violated, losing also their life projects. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on the current model for dam implantation by developing public policies that ensure the rights of populations affected by these enterprises.


Assuntos
Centrais Elétricas , Barragens , Vida , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Direitos Humanos , Política Pública , Meio Ambiente , Infraestrutura
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 520, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abuse against women in labor starts with subtle forms of discrimination that can turn into overt violence. Therefore it is crucial to work towards prevention and elimination of disrespect and ill-treatment in medical facility perinatal care in which staff allows such abuse. The aim of the study was to analyze the experiences of women related to perinatal care. Special emphasis was put on experiences that had traits indicating disrespectful and offensive care during childbirth in medical facilities providing perinatal care. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire was prepared for respondents who gave birth in medical facilities. Information about the study was posted on the website of a non-governmental foundation dealing with projects aimed at improving perinatal care. The respondents gave online consent for processing the submitted data. 8378 questionnaires were submitted. The study was carried out between February 06 and March 20, 2018. The results were analyzed using the Chi-square independence test. The analysis was carried out at the significance level of 0.05 in Excel, R and SPSS. RESULTS: During their hospital stay, 81% of women in the study experienced violence or abuse from medical staff on at least one occasion. The most common abuse was having medical procedures without prior consent. Inappropriate comments made by staff related to their own or a woman's situation were reported in 25% of situations, whilst 20% of women experienced nonchalant treatment. In the study 19.3% of women reported that the staff did not properly care for their intimacy and 1.7% of the respondents said that the worst treatment was related to feeling anonymous in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that during Polish perinatal care women experience disrespectful and abusive care. Most abuse and disrespect involved violation of the right to privacy, the right to information, the right to equal treatment, and the right to freedom from violence. The low awareness of abuses and complaints reported in the study may result from women's ignorance about relevant laws related to human rights.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Trabalho de Parto , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Parto , Direitos do Paciente , Privacidade , Violência , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Abuso Físico , Polônia , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Respeito , Discriminação Social , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(12): 97, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853658

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to review the literature regarding the impact of Donald Trump's candidacy and presidency on the health of immigrants in America. RECENT FINDINGS: The increase in detentions of alleged undocumented immigrants under the Trump presidency, especially his administration's attempts to detain children apart from their families, have placed thousands into conditions that can have long-lasting physical and mental health effects. Similarly, the Trump administration's efforts to increase deportations and restrict legal immigration has lead to immigrants' seeking fewer health-care resources for fear of jeopardizing their or their loved ones' chances of remaining in this country. The rhetoric used and policies pursued by Donald Trump have had a measurable adverse impact on the health of documented and undocumented immigrants in America.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Governo Federal , Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Política Pública , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Saúde/tendências , História do Século XXI , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/tendências , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Política Pública/tendências , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos
15.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 702-706, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047483

RESUMO

Esta nota resulta de reflexões iniciais sobre a atual conjuntura brasileira no que tange aos desafios postos aos povos indígenas, diante de um governo declaradamente anti-indígena. Considerando a perspectiva histórica da política indigenista brasileira, observam-se elementos que nos instigam a analisar a relação do Estado com os povos originários e a capacidade que o movimento indígena brasileiro tem de articulação visando à resistência. São necessários saberes e práticas que exigem, cada vez mais, o rompimento com o pensamento autoritário e colonialista tão presente no contexto brasileiro.


This text is product of the initial attempts to think about the current Brazilian conjuncture regarding the challenges posed to indigenous peoples since they are confronted with a government who have declared to be anti-indigenous. From the historical perspective of Brazilian governmental policy towards indigenous, we observe elements that push us to analyze the relationship of the State with the indigenous peoples and the Brazilian indigenous movement' capacity for interacting to resist. Knowledge and practices that demand more and more a break with the authoritarian and colonialist thinking so present in the Brazilian context are indispensable.


Esta nota resulta de reflexiones iniciales a cerca de la coyuntura brasileña actual por lo que se refiere a los desafíos que los pueblos indígenas tienen que enfrentar frente a un Gobierno que expresa clara y determinadamente ser antiindígena. Observando la perspectiva histórica de la política indigenista brasileña, hay elementos que instigan el análisis de la relación del Estado con los pueblos indígenas y la capacidad que el movimiento indígena brasileño tiene de articularse para resistir. Son necesarios saberes y prácticas que exigen cada vez más el rompimiento con el pensamiento autoritario y colonialista tan presente en el contexto brasileño.


Assuntos
Humanos , Autoritarismo , Brasil , Ecossistema Amazônico , Grupos Populacionais , Violência Étnica , Incêndios Florestais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Política Ambiental , Cultura Indígena , Mercúrio , Mineração
16.
Int J Public Health ; 64(9): 1291-1299, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare providers' perspectives of disrespect and abuse in maternity care and the impact on women's health and well-being. METHODS: Qualitative interpretive approach using in-depth semi-structured interviews with sixteen healthcare providers in two public health facilities in Nigeria. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Healthcare providers' accounts revealed awareness of what respectful maternity care encompassed in accordance with the existing guidelines. They considered disrespectful and abusive practices perpetrated or witnessed as violation of human rights, while highlighting women's expectations of care as the basis for subjectivity of experiences. They perceived some practices as well-intended to ensure safety of mother and baby. Views reflected underlying gender-related notions and societal perceptions of women being considered weaker than men. There was recognition about adverse effects of disrespect and abuse including its impact on women, babies, and providers' job satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers need training on how to incorporate elements of respectful maternity care into practice including skills for rapport building and counselling. Women and family members should be educated about right to respectful care empowering them to report disrespectful practices.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/ética , Mães/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Respeito , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Torture ; 29(2): 28-55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670703

RESUMO

This Protocol originates from a joint project regarding documentation of psychological torture initiated by the Public Committee against Torture in Israel (PCATI), REDRESS and DIGNITY - Danish Institute Against Torture (DIGNITY) in 2015 after the Copenhagen Conference on Psychological Torture. The project is a vehicle to establish a common understanding between health and legal professions as to how to best ensure the most accurate documentation of torture. Historically, sleep deprivation has been used for different objectives but, primarily, to cause stress and duress for the purpose of extracting information and confessions. Detention centers with poor conditions is another context in which sleep deprivation, as a consequence of sleep disruption, takes place. This is often due to overcrowding, insufficient or no mattresses, and poor conditions of transportation between the courts and detention facilities. The aim of the Protocol is to improve documentation of sleep deprivation used in such settings (most often during interrogation) and therefore to clarify the facts of the case so that stronger legal claims can subsequently be submitted to local and international complaints mechanisms. The Protocol has been developed based on a methodology involving: compilation and review of legal and health knowledge on sleep deprivation, also in non-torture contexts; drafting by first author; discussion in the group of international experts; pilot- testing by PCATI; and evaluation by the three organizations and the group of experts. Despite generic elements of sleep deprivation, the context in a specific country will determine many aspects of the factual situation. Each context differs and as such this Protocol could serve as a guideline or a checklist of elements to be considered in a specific context. We hope that this Protocol will assist in the discussions between the various stakeholders and provide guidance on what can be documented and how to document sleep deprivation.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Tortura/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Tortura/psicologia
18.
Torture ; 29(2): 103-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670709

RESUMO

In her discussion of the court's dismissal of the IP, she says there "is a legal system that discredits the IP's potential while digging deeper into its own conception of torture.'' Shir has helped show that this is true more broadly of torture, beyond the IP. Indeed, I suspect the court may not view the IP as a "strange creature" causing "suspicion of the unfamiliar." Instead, it may be by now a very familiar creature that threatens torture's impunity in Israel, and what Shir shows is that the court has developed a systematic strategy to counter it. Torture is possible in Israel because the government and courts are complicit in deliberately creating a legal and institutional black hole where boundaries are ill-defined and obscure, and no light can shine.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Institucionalização/organização & administração , Tortura/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Israel
19.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 43(4): 613-635, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729688

RESUMO

This paper explores the ways in which mental health workers think through the ethics of working with traditional and faith healers in Ghana. Despite reforms along the lines advocated by global mental health, including rights-based legislation and the expansion of community-based mental health care, such healers remain popular resources for treatment and mechanical restraint and other forms of coercion commonplace. As recommended in global mental health policy, mental health workers are urged to form collaborations with healers to prevent human rights abuses and promote psychiatric alternatives for treatment. However, precisely how such collaborations might be established is seldom described. This paper draws on ethnographic research to investigate how mental health workers approach working with healers and the moral imagination which informs their relationship. Through an analysis of trainee mental health workers' encounters with a Prophet and his patients, the paper reveals how mental health workers attempt to negotiate the tensions between their professional duty of care, their Christian faith, and the authority of healers. I argue that, rather than enforcing legal prohibitions, mental health workers seek to avoid confrontation and manouver within existing hierarchies, thereby preserving sentiments of obligation and reciprocity within a shared moral landscape and established forms of sociality.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Cura pela Fé , Pessoal de Saúde , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/prevenção & controle , Colaboração Intersetorial , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Religião e Medicina , Adulto , Gana , Humanos
20.
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