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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16874, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415427

RESUMO

To expand our prior statewide analysis of care distribution for locally advanced cervical cancer in Virginia to include 2 more states and to develop a tool for predicting quality of care. Complete treatment was defined as receiving chemotherapy (CT), brachytherapy (BT), and external beam radiotherapy.State cancer registry databases yielded a three-state cohort of 3197 women diagnosed with locally advanced cervical cancer from 2000 to 2013. A logistic regression evaluated predictors for receipt of BT, CT, and high (2-3 modalities received) versus low (0-1 modalities received) quality care. A Cox proportional hazards models determined predictors of survival. Finally, a predictive model was developed and preliminarily validated using our cohort.Only 35.3% of the cohort received complete treatment and only 57.3% received BT. Significant predictors of lower odds of receiving high quality care varied by state but included: 66+ age at diagnosis as compared to 18 to 42, 42 to 53, or 53 to 66; cancer stage IVA as compared to IIIx, IIx, or IB2; public insurance with supplement as compared to private; treatment at a low volume facility; and closer distance quintiles to a high volume treatment center as compared to the furthest quintile. Significant predictors of worse survival varied by state but included: low quality score (0-1 modalities received); 2000 to 2004 or 2005 to 2009 year of diagnosis as compared to 2010 to 2013; 66+ age at diagnosis as compared to 18 to 42, 42 to 53, or 53 to 66; cancer stage IVA as compared to IIIx, IIx, or IB2; treatment at a low volume facility; and unmarried/unknown marital status as compared to married. Our treatment quality prediction tool included age, age, treatment at high volume facility, and cancer stage and demonstrated 78.2% sensitivity and a 62.9% specificity.Only 35.3% of patients received complete guidelines-concordant treatment. Additionally, in 2/3 states it appeared that BT usage may have decreased during the study period. Our predictive model may help identify patients/regions at risk of receiving low quality care to target interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer treatment quality and survival.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Braquiterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , North Carolina , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Virginia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Plant Dis ; 103(8): 1858-1864, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242132

RESUMO

Although there has been research on managing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in spring barley, little has been published on cultivar resistance and optimal fungicide timing for FHB management in winter barley. A 3-year (2015 to 2017) field experiment was conducted to measure FHB resistance of winter barley varieties, gauge the potential benefit from a fungicide, and help determine the optimal timing for fungicide application. The split-plot experiment took place in a misted, inoculated nursery in Raleigh, North Carolina using main plots of four winter barley cultivars (Atlantic, Endeavor, Nomini, and Thoroughbred). Three fungicide treatments were applied to subplots: prothioconazole + tebuconazole at full spike emergence, the same fungicide 6 days later, or no fungicide. The late applications significantly reduced FHB index in each of 3 years and significantly reduced deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested grain in 2 of the 3 years. Applications at full spike emergence also yielded significant benefit in 1 of the 3 years for each parameter. Neither disease symptoms nor DON gave reason to prefer one of the fungicide timings over the other. Across the 3 years, DON ranked the cultivars Endeavor < Nomini = Thoroughbred < Atlantic. Combining the moderate resistance of Endeavor with a fungicide application and averaging the two timings resulted in a 75% DON reduction compared with unsprayed Atlantic. Taken together, our results indicate that barley growers concerned about minimizing DON should both plant moderately resistant varieties and apply fungicide if there is scab risk. During the same period, 16 commercial winter barley cultivars were tested in from three to seven Virginia and North Carolina environments each, and the DON results were compared after standardization across environments. The winter two-row malting barley cultivars Endeavor and Calypso displayed superior and robust DON resistance across environments.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Hordeum , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/fisiologia , Hordeum/classificação , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/microbiologia , North Carolina , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Virginia
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2681-2686, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199223

RESUMO

Thirteen isolates of Gram-stain-negative, motile, violet-pigmented bacteria were isolated from marshes along tidal portions of the Potomac and James rivers in Maryland and Virginia, USA, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequences and fatty acid analysis revealed a high degree of relatedness among the isolates, and genomic sequencing of two isolates, IIBBL 112-1T and IIBBL 274-1 (from the Potomac and James rivers, respectively), revealed highly similar genomic sequences, with a blast-based average nucleotide identity (ANIb) of ca. 98.7 %. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the species most highly related to IIBBL 112-1T were Chromobacterium amazonense, Chromobacterium subtsugae and Chromobacterium sphagni. However, deletion of a 25-nucleotide sequence that may have been horizontally acquired by both IIBBL 112-1T and C. amazonense resulted in a substantially different analysis; in the latter case, the species nearest IIBBL 112-1T were Chromobacterium violaceum, Chromobacterium vaccinii and Chromobacterium piscinae. Whole-genome alignments between either IIBBL 112-1T or IIBBL 274-1 and the type strains of C. vaccinii or C. violaceum resulted in ANIb values in the range of ca. 87 %, while alignment with C. amazonense CBMAI 310T resulted in an ANIb of ca. 83 %. Collectively, these data demonstrate that IIBBL 112-1T and IIBBL 274-1 represent a new taxon within the genus Chromobacterium. We propose the name Chromobacterium phragmitis sp. nov. for this taxon; the type strain is IIBBL 112-1T (=NRRL B-67132T=JCM 31884T).


Assuntos
Chromobacterium/classificação , Estuários , Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chromobacterium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Maryland , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Virginia
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 134(3): 215-222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169127

RESUMO

The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi infects the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other decapods along the Eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of the USA. Large juvenile and adult blue crabs experience high mortality during seasonal outbreaks of H. perezi, but less is known about its presence in the early life history stages of this host. We determined the prevalence of H. perezi in megalopae and early benthic juvenile crabs from multiple locations along the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. The DNA of H. perezi was not detected in any megalopae collected from several locations within the oceanic coastal bay complex in which H. perezi is found at high prevalence levels. However, prevalence levels were high in early benthic juveniles from 2 oceanic coastal embayments: South Bay and Cobb Bay. Prevalence levels were lower at locations within Chesapeake Bay, including Cherrystone Creek, Hungars Creek, and Pungoteague Creek. Sampling over different seasons and several consecutive years indicates that disease transmission occurs rapidly after megalopae settle in high-salinity bays along the Delmarva Peninsula during the late summer and fall. Infected juvenile crabs can overwinter with the parasite and, when subjected to increasing water temperatures in spring, infections progress rapidly, culminating in transmission to other crabs in late spring and early summer. In high-salinity embayments, H. perezi can reach high prevalence levels and may significantly affect recruitment of juvenile blue crabs into the adult fishery.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Baías , Golfo do México , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva , Prevalência , Virginia
6.
Public Health ; 171: 135-138, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the relationships among self-reported body mass index (BMI), weight perception, and weight intention of rural Appalachian middle school students in southwest Virginia where there are higher rates of health disparities influenced by culture, economic distress, and geographic barriers. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: Sixth and seventh grade students (n = 492) in seven, rural, southwest Appalachian Virginia middle schools participated in this study in the spring of 2015. RESULTS: A relatively high percentage of students classified as overweight/obese based on self-reported BMI (n = 196, 39.8%), yet only 29.3% (n = 144) of students believed themselves to be overweight. More boys (48.3%) than girls (29.8%) were classified based on self-reported BMI to be overweight, yet 44.9% of girls indicated the desire to lose weight. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct differences between sexes were found, where more boys were classified as overweight/obese and more girls wanted to lose weight. Previous studies have shown that perspectives of overweight/obese differ in Appalachian communities. These results emphasize the need for both region-specific and sex-specific programs for healthy body weights particularly in rural Appalachian United States.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Intenção , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Virginia/epidemiologia
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 30-43, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103877

RESUMO

Measuring risk is critical for collision avoidance. The paper aims to develop an online risk level classification algorithm for forward collision avoidance systems. Assuming risk levels are reflected by braking profiles, deceleration curves from critical evasive braking events from the Virginia "100-car" database were first extracted. The curves are then clustered into different risk levels based on spectrum clustering, using curve distance and curve changing rate as dissimilarity metrics among deceleration curves. Fuzzy logic rules of safety indicators at critical braking onset for risk classification were then extracted according to the clustered risk levels. The safety indicators include time to collision, time headway, and final relative distance under emergency braking, which characterizes three kinds of uncertain critical conditions respectively. Finally, the obtained fuzzy risk level classification algorithm was tested and compared with other Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) algorithms under Euro-NCAP testing scenarios in simulation. Results show the proposed algorithm is promising in balancing the objectives of avoiding collision and reducing interference with driver's normal driving compared with other algorithms.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Automóveis , Equipamentos de Proteção , Algoritmos , Desaceleração , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Virginia
8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100257, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929934

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is considered a species complex that is divided into 8 genetically distinct but morphologically identical assemblages (A-H). Assemblages C-H are generally host adapted, while A and B infect both people and animals and are considered potentially zoonotic. Furthermore, within assemblage A there are four subtypes (AI, AII, AIII, and AIV) of varying zoonotic potential; human isolates belong to AI and AII, while animal isolates belong to AI, AIII and AIV. Assemblages A, B, C, D, and F have all been reported from cats. The objective of this study was to determine the assemblage(s) of G. duodenalis present in cats from Virginia using multilocus genotyping and to assess if there were any differences among the assemblage(s) found in the populations of cats surveyed (free-roaming, shelter, owned) or their geographic location within Virginia. Samples that were positive for G. duodenalis cysts by microscopy using centrifugal flotation with ZnSO4 solution and/or direct immunofluorescence assay were genotyped using PCR and sequencing targeting fragments of the SSU rRNA, gdh, bg, and tpi genes. In total, 54 cyst-positive samples were analyzed by PCR and sequencing: 43 produced amplicons, and 37 samples had interpretable sequence data at one or more loci. Assemblage F was detected in 21/37 samples, AI was detected in 12/37 samples, and in 4/37 samples both assemblages F and AI were detected. The potentially zoonotic assemblage AI was detected in cats from two widely separated animal shelters and from one free-roaming cat. These genotyping data demonstrate that potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages are present in cats in Virginia.


Assuntos
Gatos/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Virginia
9.
Plant Dis ; 103(6): 1189-1195, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964416

RESUMO

Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål) is an invasive agricultural pest that causes severe damage to many crops. To determine potential associations between H. halys feeding damage, Fusarium infection, and mycotoxin contamination in field corn, a field survey was conducted in eight counties in Virginia. Results indicated an association between H. halys feeding damage and fumonisin contamination. Subsequent field experiments in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia examined the ability of H. halys to increase Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg infection and fumonisin concentrations in corn. At the milk stage, H. halys (0 or 4 adults) and Fusarium (with or without F. verticillioides inoculum) treatments were applied to bagged ears in a two by two factorial randomized complete block design with 12 replicates. H. halys treatments increased levels of feeding damage (P < 0.0001) and Fusarium infection (P = 0.0380). Interaction between H. halys and Fusarium treatments influenced severity of infection (P = 0.0018) and fumonisin concentrations (P = 0.0360). Results suggest H. halys has the ability to increase both Fusarium infection and fumonisin concentrations in field corn. Further studies are needed to understand mechanisms by which H. halys increases fumonisin and to develop management strategies to mitigate impacts of H. halys on field corn in the region.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas , Fusarium , Hemípteros , Zea mays , Animais , Delaware , Fumonisinas/análise , Fusarium/química , Fusarium/fisiologia , Hemípteros/química , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Maryland , Virginia , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/microbiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013698

RESUMO

The use of active transportation (AT), such as walking, cycling, or even public transit, as a means of transport offers an opportunity to increase youth physical activity and improve health. Despite the well-known benefits of AT, there are environmental and social variables that converge on the AT experiences of low-income youth and youth of color (YOC) that have yet to be fully uncovered. This study uses an intersectional framework, largely focusing on the race-gender-class trinity, to examine youth AT within a context of transportation inequity. Theoretically guided by the Ecological Model of Active Transportation, focus groups were completed with two groups of girls (15 participants) and two groups of boys (nine participants) ranging between the ages of 12-15 years who lived within the Washington D.C. area. This research found race, gender, and class to be inhibitors of AT for both boys and girls, but with more pronounced negative influences on girls.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Transportes , Caminhada , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Coleta de Dados , District of Columbia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Virginia
11.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 16(2): 161-168, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a core pillar of nursing education and an expectation in clinical practice. Students struggle to conceptualize the use of EBP into actual clinical practice despite the development of EBP competencies. AIMS: This study explored perceptions of EBP education and competence in baccalaureate students using Melnyk's (Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 11, 2014 and 5) EBP competencies for practicing registered nurses as a basis for comparison. METHODS: The researchers used a sequential, mixed-methods design. A survey was developed to assess information sources and patterns of use, and semistructured interviews explored factors affecting students' understanding of EBP and information-seeking behaviors in the clinical setting. FINDINGS: There were 118 participants in the survey and 12 in follow-up interviews. A major theme was that participants had difficulties distinguishing between EBP and research. Students were able to identify experiences that fostered attainment of basic EBP competencies, such as searching for evidence, but were less able to describe higher-order activities such as integrating evidence to plan EBP changes or disseminating best practices. LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Clinical learning environments are an ideal place to apply and see EBP in action, but nurse educators cannot assume students arrive ready to apply EBP knowledge and skills to clinical practice. Nurse educators need evidence-based tools to assess student EBP competence across a variety of settings. Research examining the generalizability of the EBP competencies in varying curricular models as well as didactic and clinical settings is needed.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino , Virginia
12.
J Fish Dis ; 42(5): 739-749, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972838

RESUMO

Back Bay is an oligohaline, coastal bay in southeast Virginia, USA. Since 2004, leeches have been observed in the oral cavities of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in this body of water. Leeches (Myzobdella lugubris) have previously been documented in the oral cavities of largemouth bass in the Currituck Sound, which is confluent with Back Bay on its southern border. Supplemental stocking of largemouth bass in Back Bay since 2009 has resulted in an increasing population; however, concern exists that leech infestation may be negatively affecting health of larger fish, which are still less abundant than expected. Despite the wide distribution of this leech, there is little available literature regarding its health impacts on hosts. In this study, we examine potential impacts of oral leech infestations on stress markers and haematological parameters of largemouth bass in Back Bay. No significant changes in plasma glucose or cortisol were observed between leech-infested and uninfested fish, and haematological parameters were not significantly different between the groups. Further, there was no evidence of systemic infections associated with leech infestation.


Assuntos
Bass , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Animais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Boca/parasitologia , Prevalência , Virginia/epidemiologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 215-231, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928751

RESUMO

Thermally enriched runoff from urban impervious surfaces can be harmful to aquatic life; however, only limited information is available on how to mitigate these impacts at the watershed-scale. This study evaluates the effects of retrofitting an urban watershed with thermal mitigation practices (TMPs) relative to thermal toxicity thresholds for aquatic species. The Minnesota Urban Heat Export Tool (MINUHET) and Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) models were used to evaluate TMPs that help reduce temperature and total heat loads (THL) from the Stroubles Creek watershed in Blacksburg, Virginia. We used the aquatic health criteria for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), the most sensitive species present downstream of the watershed, as a performance measure. TMPs included bioretention systems, methods for reducing the albedo of surfaces (cool surfaces), and increasing forest canopy. Performance metrics included Event Mean Temperature (EMT), and the Percentage of Time Temperature Exceeded the 21 °C Acute Toxicity Threshold [Percentage of Time above the Threshold (PTAT)] for brook trout; these metrics were used to quantify reductions in heat loads and temperatures. TMPs were evaluated during continuous simulation and selected storm events. Increased forest canopy alone produced the greatest reduction of stream temperature, as quantified by EMT and PTAT metrics during continuous and event-based simulations. In contrast, cool surfaces reduced THL more than any other individual TMP for the continuous simulation. A comprehensive mitigation plan (CMP) integrating all three TMPs reduced THL by 62.3%, and PTAT by approximately 12%, for the entire summer of 2015. The CMP was also applied to select storm events, during which streamflow EMT was reduced up to 9%, and PTAT was reduced nearly to zero. This study, which is the first to simulate watershed-scale TMPs for a large, complex urban area, demonstrates the application of appropriate strategies for restoring aquatic habitats in the thermally impacted Stroubles Creek.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Rios/química , Truta/fisiologia , Poluição da Água/análise , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Urbanização , Virginia
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 252, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919081

RESUMO

Estuaries are dynamic transition zones linking freshwater and oceanic habitats. These productive ecosystems are threatened by a variety of stressors including human modification of coastal watersheds. In this study, we examined potential linkages between estuarine condition and the watershed using multimodel inference. We examined attributes at the watershed scale as well as those associated with riparian areas but found that they were highly correlated. We also examined whether attributes closer to the estuary were more strongly related to benthic invertebrate condition and found that this was not generally true. In contrast, variability within the estuary strongly impacted model results and suggests that future modeling should incorporate estuarine variability or focus on the individual stations within the estuary. Modeling estuarine condition indicated that inherent landscape structure (e.g., estuarine area, watershed area, watershed:estuary ratio) is important to predicting benthic invertebrate condition and needs to be considered in the context of watershed/ estuary planning and restoration.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Invertebrados , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Habitação , Humanos , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oceanos e Mares , Virginia , Água
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 226, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887248

RESUMO

Scientists and policymakers increasingly recognize that headwater regions contain numerous temporary streams that expand and contract in length, but accurately mapping and modeling dynamic stream networks remain a challenge. Flow intermittency sensors offer a relatively new approach to characterize wet stream length dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolutions. We installed 51 flow intermittency sensors at an average spacing of 40 m along the stream network of a high-relief, headwater catchment (33 ha) in the Valley and Ridge of southwest Virginia. The sensors recorded the presence or absence of water every 15 min for 10 months. Calculations of the wet network proportion from sensor data aligned with those from field measurements, confirming the efficacy of flow intermittency sensors. The fine temporal scale of the sensor data showed hysteresis in wet stream length: the wet network proportion was up to 50% greater on the rising limb of storm events than on the falling limb for dry antecedent conditions, at times with a delay of several hours between the maximum wet proportion and peak runoff at the catchment outlet. Less stream length hysteresis was evident for larger storms with higher event and antecedent precipitation that resulted in peak runoff > 15 mm/day. To assess spatial controls on stream wetting and drying, we performed a correlation analysis between flow duration at the sensor locations and common topographic metrics used in stream network modeling. Topography did not fully explain spatial variation in flow duration along the stream network. However, entrenched valleys had longer periods of flow on the rising limbs of events than unconfined reaches. In addition, large upslope contributing areas corresponded to higher flow duration on falling limbs. Future applications that explore the magnitude and drivers of stream length variability may provide further insights into solute and runoff generation processes in headwater regions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Movimentos da Água , Virginia , Poluentes da Água
16.
Pediatr Dent ; 41(1): 40-46, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803476

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of and factors that contribute to sibling-recurrent dental general anesthesia (DGA) at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va., USA. Methods: Subjects were recruited from July 25, 2017 to March 15, 2018. The guardian of patients with siblings who attended a university pediatric dental clinic were provided a questionnaire to assess the prevalence and factors associated with recurrent DGA. A provider survey was completed to ensure inclusion/exclusion criteria were met. Results: A total of 40 families with a child presenting for general anesthesia (GA) and who had at least one sibling were included in the study. Of these, 45 percent had sibling-recurrent GA treatment; 20 percent of patients had one sibling; and 25 percent had two or more sibling-recurrent DGA (P<.05). Additionally, 13 percent of the children currently presenting for GA had already been treated under GA, and 15 percent of the siblings previously treated with GA had recurrent caries after GA. Conclusions: Sibling-recurrent general anesthesia is high at Virginia Commonwealth University's Pediatric Dentistry Clinic. This increased prevalence could be due to parental acceptance and positive experiences with DGA. Dental providers should be proactive with prevention of recurrent DGA.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Irmãos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Virginia/epidemiologia
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(4): 1105-1111, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731020

RESUMO

Gabapentin, a GABA analogue, is a nonopioid prescribed for seizure control and neuralgic pain. Its abuse for recreational purposes has been increasing in recent years as the number of prescriptions also increases. In our series, we review 104 cases of decedents who tested positive for gabapentin in postmortem blood samples and an additional 53 nonfatal cases of motor vehicle drivers suspected of driving under the influence. In 47.1% of the fatality cases, gabapentin was directly involved in death. Most gabapentin fatalities had several other intoxicants present (opioids, over-the-counter medications, antianxiety, and antidepressant medications). In cases in which gabapentin was determined to be a cause of death, the blood concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 134.0 mg/L. Persons who died of a gabapentin-related drug death were prescribed the drug legitimately 91.4% of the time, with 84.2% of those also having a known prior history of abuse or misuse of prescription medications.


Assuntos
Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Gabapentina/análise , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Acidentes/mortalidade , Cromatografia Líquida , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Estudos Retrospectivos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/sangue , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Virginia/epidemiologia , Corpo Vítreo/química
18.
Zootaxa ; 4554(2): 532-560, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790976

RESUMO

Due to Virginia's geographic location, topographic variability, and diversity of physiographic provinces, the state ranks as one of the most biodiverse areas in the US. Virginia's myrmecofauna, however, has been insufficiently studied and is not well known. Here we present the first comprehensive list of the ants of Virginia and provide county-level distributions for all taxa. With taxonomic updates taken into account, review of published records revealed that 130 species have been reported from the state. We add another 34 species based on newly collected materials, review of museum and personal collections, and online databases. At present, 164 species and morphospecies, including 15 ant exotics, are known to occur in the state. Another 12 species are provisionally excluded from the list as they represent distribution anomalies, or are based on erroneous records. The work presented here is an initial step towards a more complete treatment of the identification, taxonomy, and natural history of the ant fauna of Virginia.


Assuntos
Formigas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Virginia
19.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(3): 374-384, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724482

RESUMO

This study evaluated potential effects of mercury (Hg) on benthic macroinvertebrates in the South River, Virginia, USA. The study used a multiple lines of evidence approach, including spatially and temporally matched sediment chemistry, biological, and toxicological information (Sediment Quality Triad), exposure and effect analysis in bulk and interstitial sediment and interstitial water, and critical body residue analysis. Ten-day Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca toxicity tests established site-specific no-effect concentrations (NOEC) at 18.9 µg/g total Hg (THg) and 102 ng/g methylmercury (MeHg). However, the benthic community at these locations was impaired, with lower mayfly and caddisfly composition. Few locations had concentrations of THg and MeHg that exceeded the NOEC in bulk or interstitial sediment. The THg concentrations in interstitial water were far below concentrations expected to reduce survival in benthic invertebrates, and only a low percentage of samples exceeded sublethal (growth) low-effect concentrations (LOEC) for THg or MeHg. The THg concentrations in invertebrate tissue did not exceed the NOEC or LOEC in the South River, and MeHg concentrations exceeded the LOEC at all locations, including those with no evidence of benthic impairment, illustrating the uncertainty associated with this line of evidence. Finally, statistical modeling that evaluated diversity of sensitive invertebrate species as a function of Hg exposure, geomorphological parameters, and physicochemical variables indicated that physicochemical and geomorphological parameters were most predictive of benthic community; where Hg was indicated, we were unable to distinguish between models with or without interstitial water Hg. Overall, the lines of evidence indicate that Hg, while clearly toxic to invertebrates at sufficiently high exposure concentrations, is not negatively impacting invertebrate communities in the South River. This study illustrates the difficulty of assessing risks to invertebrates using traditional tools of risk assessment and identifies critical gaps in knowledge that complicate the management of Hg risk. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;00:000-000. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Virginia
20.
Chemosphere ; 222: 445-452, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716547

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides provide crop protection via water solubility and systemicity, yet these chemical characteristics, combined with high toxicity to non-target invertebrates (e.g., honeybees), elicit concern of environmental transport. Neonicotinoids have been detected in soil and surface water throughout North America; however, no investigation has defined a direct connection to planted seed dressings. We quantified the physical transport of thiamethoxam (TMX), a neonicotinoid, under field conditions. We planted TMX-coated corn seeds and maintained plots with and without viable crops (n = 3 plots per treatment) to determine plant influence on pesticide transport. TMX concentrations were measured in soil and drainage throughout the growing season. Storm-generated runoff was the dominant transport mechanism (maximum TMX concentration 1.72 ±â€¯0.605 µg L-1; no viable plants), followed by shallow (<72 cm) lateral drainage (0.570 ±â€¯0.170 µg L-1; no viable plants), and deep (110 cm) drainage (0.170 ±â€¯0.265 µg L-1; viable plants). Soil samples confirmed vertical and lateral movement within 23 and 36 days of planting, respectively. Plants facilitated downward migration of TMX in soil but restricted TMX drainage. Altogether, these study results revealed that neonicotinoids can be transported from seed coatings both above and through the soil profile, which may enable migration into surrounding ecosystems.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tiametoxam/análise , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Ecossistema , Neonicotinoides/análise , Chuva , Solo , Virginia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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