Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 37.308
Filtrar
1.
J Exp Med ; 220(1)2023 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315050

RESUMO

Inflammasomes integrate cytosolic evidence of infection or damage to mount inflammatory responses. The inflammasome sensor NLRP1 is expressed in human keratinocytes and coordinates inflammation in the skin. We found that diverse stress signals induce human NLRP1 inflammasome assembly by activating MAP kinase p38: While the ribotoxic stress response to UV and microbial molecules exclusively activates p38 through MAP3K ZAKα, infection with arthropod-borne alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest and Chikungunya virus, activates p38 through ZAKα and potentially other MAP3K. We demonstrate that p38 directly phosphorylates NLRP1 and that serine 107 in the linker region is critical for activation. NLRP1 phosphorylation is followed by ubiquitination of NLRP1PYD, N-terminal degradation of NLRP1, and nucleation of inflammasomes by NLRP1UPA-CARD. In contrast, activation of NLRP1 by nanobody-mediated ubiquitination, viral proteases, or inhibition of DPP9 was independent of p38 activity. Taken together, we define p38 activation as a unifying signaling hub that controls NLRP1 inflammasome activation by integrating a variety of cellular stress signals relevant to the skin.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Viroses , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno , Humanos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
2.
Neuropharmacology ; 222: 109310, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341806

RESUMO

Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of acquired epilepsy and can arise due to multiple inciting events, including central nervous system (CNS) infection. CNS infection with the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in male C57Bl/6J mice leads to acute, drug-resistant handling-induced seizures. Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CH24H) is a brain-specific enzyme that converts cholesterol into 24S-hydroxycholesterol; the primary mechanism of cholesterol catabolism in the brain. The novel CH24H inhibitor, soticlestat (SOT; or TAK-935), demonstrates the potential to restore excitatory/inhibitory balance in multiple preclinical models of hyperexcitability. This study thus sought to characterize the anticonvulsant potential of SOT in the TMEV model. Treatment with SOT (30 mg/kg, p.o.; n = 30) 0-7 days post-infection (DPI) reduced overall seizure burden and severity. SOT administration significantly delayed onset of infection-induced Racine stage 5 seizures, from 8.6 ± 0.6 (VEH-treated) to 10.8 ± 0.8 (SOT-treated) observation sessions. Infected mice were then allowed 36 days treatment-free recovery before assessing impact of earlier drug administration on epilepsy-related cognitive and behavioral comorbidities, including a non-habituated open field (OF) task. Total OF distance traveled was significantly less in SOT-treated mice compared to VEH-treated mice, suggesting attenuated TMEV-induced spatial memory deficits, or reduced chronic hyperexcitability. Mice with history of SOT treatment also spent significantly more time and traveled farther in the OF center, indicative of reduced epilepsy-induced anxiety-like behavior. These studies suggest that SOT is a mechanistically novel agent for symptomatic seizure control. Moreover, acute SOT administration during an epileptogenic insult may attenuate the resulting long-term behavioral comorbidities of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Theilovirus , Viroses , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Colesterol 24-Hidroxilase , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 20-25, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of viral infections, length of stay (LOS), and outcome in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) during the period preceding the COVID-19 pandemic in a MERS-CoV endemic country. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children 0-14 years old admitted to PICU with a viral infection. RESULTS: Of 1736 patients, 164 patients (9.45%) had a positive viral infection. The annual prevalence trended downward over a three-year period, from 11.7% to 7.3%. The median PICU LOS was 11.6 days. Viral infections were responsible for 1904.4 (21.94%) PICU patient-days. Mechanical ventilation was used in 91.5% of patients, including noninvasive and invasive modes. Comorbidities were significantly associated with intubation (P-value = 0.025). Patients infected with multiple viruses had median pediatric index of mortality 2 (PIM 2) scores of 4, as compared to 1 for patients with single virus infections (p < 0.001), and a median PICU LOS of 12 days, compared to 4 in the single-virus group (p < 0.001). Overall, mortality associated with viral infections in PICU was 7 (4.3%). Patients with viral infections having multiple organ failure were significantly more likely to die in the PICU (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Viral infections are responsible for one-fifth of PICU patient-days, with a high demand for mechanical ventilation. Patients with multiple viral infections had longer LOS, and higher PIM 2 scores. The downward trend in the yearly rate of PICU admissions for viral infections between the end of the MERS-CoV outbreak and the start of the COVID-19 pandemic may suggest viral interference that warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Viroses , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Pandemias , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Viroses/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação
4.
J Virol Methods ; 311: 114641, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328082

RESUMO

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is one of the pathogenic mechanisms related to disease severity in dengue virus infection. Conventional assays for detecting ADE activity usually require several days. In this study, we established a rapid assay system to evaluate ADE activity in dengue-seropositive samples using single round infectious particles (SRIPs). Human Fc-gamma receptor-bearing cells (K562 and Mylc cells) were infected with SRIP antigen in the presence of human serum samples to measure ADE activity. Two assay protocols were introduced: (i) rapid assay with 5 h of incubation, and (ii) semi-rapid assay with 24 h of incubation. The rapid assay requires a large quantity of SRIP antigen and gives results in half a day. Although the semi-rapid assay requires slightly more than a day, it can be performed using only a small amount of SRIP. Interestingly, the range of the number of Mylc cells required for the semi-rapid assay was wider than that of K562 cells. Significant correlations were observed between the rapid and semi-rapid assays for both cell types. Although it is difficult to judge which protocol best reflects the current immune status in vivo, both assays could rapidly provide valuable information regarding the risk assessment for severe diseases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Viroses , Humanos , Anticorpos Facilitadores , Anticorpos Antivirais
5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30065, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. While numerous studies report on viral infections in children with hematologic malignancies and solid organ transplantation, epidemiologic data on the incidence and outcome of viral infections in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with targeted therapies are still lacking. OBJECTIVES/STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed all children with brain tumors receiving targeted therapies in a primary or recurrent setting at the Medical University of Vienna from 2006 to 2021. Demographic variables, quantitative and qualitative parameters of possible infections, and treatment outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: In our cohort (n = 117), 36% of the patients developed at least one PCR-proven viral infection. Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections were most common, with 31% and 25%, respectively. Central nervous system (CNS) infections occurred in approximately 10%, with an almost equal distribution of varicella-zoster virus, John Cunningham virus (JCV), and enterovirus. Two patients tested PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, with one virus-related death caused by a SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients receiving bevacizumab or mTOR inhibitors seem to have a greater susceptibility to viral infections. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with brain tumors receiving targeted therapies have a higher risk of viral infections when compared to children receiving conventional chemotherapy or the general population, and life-threatening infections can occur. Fast detection and upfront treatment are paramount to prevent life-threatening infections in immunocompromised children suffering from brain tumors receiving targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , COVID-19 , Viroses , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 51(12): 924-927, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are one of the most common presentations to Australian general practitioners. Patients often present hoping to be cured, but most URTIs are caused by viral infections, so the task of management is predominantly symptomatic. Patients may be impatient to recover from cough because of concerns from others regarding infectivity from potential SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of interventions is poorly understood and lacking a robust evidence base. As a result, URTIs are a common presentation leading to unnecessary use of antibiotics or ineffectual treatments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to improve the management of acute cough, a common reason for consulting a general practitioner. Understanding the pathophysiology and time course of this symptom informs selection of evidence-based treatment options and supports better antibiotic stewardship. DISCUSSION: URTI presentations provide fertile ground for educating patients about infections, self-management options, dealing with uncertainty and responsible use of medicines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Viroses , Humanos , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Austrália , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(11): 685, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319873

RESUMO

For the last 3 decades the shrimp industries has been plagued by many destructive diseases, which have resulted in severe production and economic losses to many aquaculture countries. These include viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases. Recently, another emerging viral disease is threatening the shrimp culture industry in Asia. The virus originally called Cherax quadricarinatus iridovirus (CQIV) or Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV) and now classified within the proposed genus Decapodiridovirus and formally named as Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1) by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The virus was first detected as early as 2014 from Cherax quadricarinatus samples in Fujian Province and farmed white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei samples from Zhejiang Province. This review article encompasses the significance of the DIV1 and their implications for the future of the global aquaculture.


Assuntos
Iridoviridae , Penaeidae , Viroses , Animais , Aquicultura , Alimentos Marinhos
8.
PLoS Biol ; 20(11): e3001870, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378688

RESUMO

Bunyaviruses lack a specific mechanism to ensure the incorporation of a complete set of genome segments into each virion, explaining the generation of incomplete virus particles lacking one or more genome segments. Such incomplete virus particles, which may represent the majority of particles produced, are generally considered to interfere with virus infection and spread. Using the three-segmented arthropod-borne Rift Valley fever virus as a model bunyavirus, we here show that two distinct incomplete virus particle populations unable to spread autonomously are able to efficiently complement each other in both mammalian and insect cells following co-infection. We further show that complementing incomplete virus particles can co-infect mosquitoes, resulting in the reconstitution of infectious virus that is able to disseminate to the mosquito salivary glands. Computational models of infection dynamics predict that incomplete virus particles can positively impact virus spread over a wide range of conditions, with the strongest effect at intermediate multiplicities of infection. Our findings suggest that incomplete particles may play a significant role in within-host spread and between-host transmission, reminiscent of the infection cycle of multipartite viruses.


Assuntos
Arbovírus , Culicidae , Orthobunyavirus , Febre do Vale de Rift , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Mamíferos
9.
Urologiia ; (5): 117-122, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382829

RESUMO

Currently, an increase in the incidence and reactivation of the lower urinary tract viral infections is seen in women that often manifest as various micturition disorders. The most common viral agents are herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Varicella-Zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human papillomavirus. Since micturition disorders in bacterial cystitis and viral infections of the lower urinary tract are identical, urologists often prescribe antimicrobial drugs. This, in turn, not only has no effect in the treatment of micturition disorders, but also leads to the imbalances in the microflora of vagina and lower urinary tract, and, as a result, to the development of a chronic infectious process. This review presents the main characteristics, as well as features of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the most common lower urinary tract viral infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Sistema Urinário , Viroses , Feminino , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Micção
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 950531, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389175

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) versus conventional microbiological tests (CMTs) for pediatric pneumonia. Methods: This retrospective observational study enrolled 103 children who were diagnosed with pneumonia and hospitalized at Hubei Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital between 15 October 2020 and 15 February 2022. The pneumonia diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations, lung imaging, and microbiological tests. Pathogens in the lower respiratory tract were detected using CMTs and BALF mNGS (of DNA and RNA). The diagnostic performance of BALF mNGS was compared with that of CMTs. Results: In 96 patients, pathogens were identified by microbiological tests. The overall pathogen detection rate of mNGS was significantly higher than that of CMTs (91.3% vs. 59.2%, p = 0.000). The diagnostic performance of mNGS varied for different pathogens; however, its sensitivity and accuracy for diagnosing bacterial and viral infections were both higher than those of CMTs (p = 0.000). For the diagnosis of fungi, the sensitivity of mNGS (87.5%) was higher than that of CMTs (25%); however, its specificity and accuracy were lower than those of CMTs (p < 0.01). For the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, the specificity (98.8%) and accuracy (88.3%) of mNGS were high; however, its sensitivity (42.1%) was significantly lower than that of CMTs (100%) (p = 0.001). In 96 patients with definite pathogens, 52 cases (50.5%) were infected with a single pathogen, while 44 cases (42.7%) had polymicrobial infections. Virus-bacteria and virus-virus co-infections were the most common. Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, rhinovirus, cytomegalovirus, parainfluenza virus, and fungi were more likely to be associated with polymicrobial infections. Conclusions: BALF mNGS improved the detection rate of pediatric pneumonia, especially in mixed infections. The diagnostic performance of BALF mNGS varies according to pathogen type. mNGS can be used to supplement CMTs. A combination of mNGS and CMTs may be the best diagnostic strategy.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Pneumonia , Viroses , Vírus , Gravidez , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Vírus/genética , Viroses/diagnóstico , Fungos/genética , Bactérias/genética
11.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 87(5): 99-103, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404699

RESUMO

THE AIM: Share with healthcare practitioners personal experience of using benzydamine spray (Oralsept) in pediatric practice; present a clinical case, which, according to the author, can help doctors optimize approaches to the treatment of patients with acute respiratory viral infections (including COVID-19), thereby improving the quality of life of pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Benzidamina , COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Humanos , Criança , Benzidamina/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(11): 1554-1559, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372743

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics, etiology and hemagglutinin (HA) gene characteristics of prevalent strains in Shandong Province from 2021 to 2022. Methods: The sentinel surveillance data of influenza-like illness (ILI) were collected in Shandong Province from 2021 to 2022. ILI specimens were detected with Real-Time PCR and virus isolation to explore the distribution of influenza viruses in different months. Three virus strains of each city were selected for gene sequencing, and the HA phylogenetic analysis was carried out. Results: In the surveillance-year from 2021 to 2022, 528 263 ILI cases were totally reported in 54 sentinel hospitals for influenza surveillance in Shandong Province. ILI visiting ratio (ILI%) was 4.07%, with the largest number in 0-4 age group (45.86%). The highly frequent season for ILI was in winter and spring, with a peak in the 52nd week, 2021 (6.62%). Totally, nucleic acid was detected in 26 754 specimens, with a positive rate of 27.10%, all of which were type B Victoria influenza. The positive rate reached a peak in the 49th week, 2021 (63.78%). A total of 295 outbreaks of ILI had been reported, in which 269 were positive for influenza virus. Most of outbreaks occurred in the primary school, with a peak in December. Gene evolution analysis showed that the HA gene in Shandong possessed high homology, 98.6% to 99.5%, with the recommended vaccine strains in 2020-2023, which was divided into two branches, V1A.3a.1 and V1A.3a.2. Conclusion: In the surveillance-year of 2021-2022, influenza is prevalent in December in Shandong Province, with a single circulating strain type. The positive rate of influenza virus and outbreak are higher than those in the previous surveillance-year. The circulating strain possesses high HA gene homology with those of the WHO vaccine recommended strains. However, the overall immune barrier of influenza virus is weak.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Orthomyxoviridae , Viroses , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , China/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362035

RESUMO

Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) is a recently identified virus. Previous research indicates primarily a substantial impact on berry ripening in all varieties studied. The current study analyzed grapes' primary and secondary metabolism across grapevine genotypes and seasons to reveal both conserved and variable impacts to GRBV infection. Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grapevines grafted on two different rootstocks (110R and 420A) were analyzed in 2016 and 2017. Metabolite profiling revealed a considerable impact on amino acid and malate acid levels, volatile aroma compounds derived from the lipoxygenase pathway, and anthocyanins synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Conserved transcriptional responses to GRBV showed induction of auxin-mediated pathways and photosynthesis with inhibition of transcription and translation processes mainly at harvest. There was an induction of plant-pathogen interactions at pre-veraison, for all genotypes and seasons, except for CS 110R in 2017. Lastly, differential co-expression analysis revealed a transcriptional shift from metabolic synthesis and energy metabolism to transcription and translation processes associated with a virus-induced gene silencing transcript. This plant-derived defense response transcript was only significantly upregulated at veraison for all genotypes and seasons, suggesting a phenological association with disease expression and plant immune responses.


Assuntos
Geminiviridae , Viroses , Vitis , Vitis/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Geminiviridae/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362351

RESUMO

Several human diseases are caused by viruses, including cancer, Type I diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the past, people have suffered greatly from viral diseases such as polio, mumps, measles, dengue fever, SARS, MERS, AIDS, chikungunya fever, encephalitis, and influenza. Recently, COVID-19 has become a pandemic in most parts of the world. Although vaccines are available to fight the infection, their safety and clinical trial data are still questionable. Social distancing, isolation, the use of sanitizer, and personal productive strategies have been implemented to prevent the spread of the virus. Moreover, the search for a potential therapeutic molecule is ongoing. Based on experiences with outbreaks of SARS and MERS, many research studies reveal the potential of medicinal herbs/plants or chemical compounds extracted from them to counteract the effects of these viral diseases. COVID-19's current status includes a decrease in infection rates as a result of large-scale vaccination program implementation by several countries. But it is still very close and needs to boost people's natural immunity in a cost-effective way through phytomedicines because many underdeveloped countries do not have their own vaccination facilities. In this article, phytomedicines as plant parts or plant-derived metabolites that can affect the entry of a virus or its infectiousness inside hosts are described. Finally, it is concluded that the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants must be analyzed and evaluated entirely in the control of COVID-19 in cases of uncontrollable SARS infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Plantas Medicinais , Viroses , Humanos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
15.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several environmental stimuli may influence lupus, particularly viral infections. In this study, we used an imiquimod-induced lupus mouse model focused on the TLR7 pathway and proteomics analysis to determine the specific pathway related to viral infection and the related protein expressions in splenic B cells to obtain insight into B-cell responses to viral infection in the lupus model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated FVB/N wild-type mice with imiquimod for 8 weeks to induce lupus symptoms and signs, retrieved splenocytes, selected B cells, and conducted the proteomic analysis. The B cells were co-cultured with CD40L+ feeder cells for another week before performing Western blot analysis. Panther pathway analysis was used to disclose the pathways activated and the protein-protein interactome was analyzed by the STRING database in this lupus murine model. RESULTS: The lupus model was well established and well demonstrated with serology evidence and pathology proof of lupus-mimicking organ damage. Proteomics data of splenic B cells revealed that the most important activated pathways (fold enrichment > 100) demonstrated positive regulation of the MDA5 signaling pathway, negative regulation of IP-10 production, negative regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production, and positive regulation of the RIG-I signaling pathway. A unique protein-protein interactome containing 10 genes was discovered, within which ISG15, IFIH1, IFIT1, DDX60, and DHX58 were demonstrated to be downstream effectors of MDA5 signaling. Finally, we found B-cell intracellular cytosolic proteins via Western blot experiment and continued to observe MDA5-related pathway activation. CONCLUSION: In this experiment, we confirmed that the B cells in the lupus murine model focusing on the TLR7 pathway were activated through the MDA5 signaling pathway, an important RNA sensor implicated in the detection of viral infections and autoimmunity. The MDA5 agonist/antagonist RNAs and the detailed molecular interactions within B cells are worthy of further investigation for lupus therapy.


Assuntos
Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon , Viroses , Animais , Camundongos , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 7 Toll-Like , Viroses/metabolismo , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente
17.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(4): 897-909, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328642

RESUMO

Procalcitonin is a commonly used biomarker for infection and severity in the intensive care unit. Although relatively specific for bacterial, as opposed to viral, infections, serum procalcitonin levels also correlate with disease severity and thus cannot reliably distinguish between bacterial and nonbacterial infections in the setting of critical illness, particularly in cases of severe influenza and coronavirus disease-2019. Baseline procalcitonin levels are insufficiently discriminative to permit the withholding of antibiotics in patients with critical illness and suspected sepsis. Trends in procalcitonin levels over time, however, give us the opportunity to individualize the duration of antibiotics without negative impacts on mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , COVID-19 , Sepse , Viroses , Humanos , Pró-Calcitonina , Estado Terminal , Cuidados Críticos , Biomarcadores , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1008072, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325336

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) bind to cell surface receptors and activate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) through intracellular signaling cascades. ISGs and their expression products have various biological functions, such as antiviral and immunomodulatory effects, and are essential effector molecules for IFN function. ISGs limit the invasion and replication of the virus in a cell-specific and region-specific manner in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to participating in natural immunity against viral infections, studies have shown that ISGs are essential in the pathogenesis of CNS disorders such as neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this review is to present a macroscopic overview of the characteristics of ISGs that restrict viral neural invasion and the expression of the ISGs underlying viral infection of CNS cells. Furthermore, we elucidate the characteristics of ISGs expression in neurological inflammation, neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression as well as neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Finally, we summarize several ISGs (ISG15, IFIT2, IFITM3) that have been studied more in recent years for their antiviral infection in the CNS and their research progress in neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Interferons , Viroses , Humanos , Interferons/metabolismo , Antivirais , Viroses/genética , Imunidade Inata , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
19.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366463

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a positive-strand RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family, is the causative agent of viral diarrheal disease in bovine. BVDV has been used as a surrogate model for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral drugs. The plant flavonol quercetin causes multiple health-promoting effects in humans and animals. It can be made into a variety of additives, and it exerts a variety of immunomodulatory effects with the potential to be used as an antiviral agent. However, quercetin's antiviral effect and mechanism of action on BVDV are still unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate quercetin's effect on BVDV virus replication in vitro and in vivo and elucidate its mechanism of action. A CCK-8 kit was used to analyze the toxicity of the quercetin to the MDBK cells. Western blot, qRT-PCR, TCID50, and histological analysis were used to determine the mechanism of quercetin's anti-BVDV activity. An oxidative stress kit was used to evaluate the effects of quercetin on ROS, antioxidant enzymes, and MDA indexes. The effect of quercetin on IL-2 and IFN-γ in the serum of mice was determined by using an ELISA kit. The results showed that quercetin inhibits Hsp70, blocks BVDV infection in the early stage of virus infection and inhibits BVDV replication by inhibiting oxidative stress or ERK phosphorylation. In addition, quercetin alleviated the decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 in the serum of BVDV-infected mice. Quercetin ameliorated BVDV-induced histopathological changes. In summary, this study demonstrated for the first time the role of Hsp70 in BVDV infection and the potential application of quercetin in treating BVDV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Viroses , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/genética , Interleucina-2 , Quercetina/farmacologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Replicação Viral , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo
20.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366540

RESUMO

Monitoring virus infections can be an important selection tool in honey bee breeding. A recent study pointed towards an association between the virus-free status of eggs and an increased virus resistance to deformed wing virus (DWV) at the colony level. In this study, eggs from both naturally surviving and traditionally managed colonies from across Europe were screened for the prevalence of different viruses. Screenings were performed using the phenotyping protocol of the 'suppressed in ovo virus infection' trait but with qPCR instead of end-point PCR and a primer set that covers all DWV genotypes. Of the 213 screened samples, 109 were infected with DWV, 54 were infected with black queen cell virus (BQCV), 3 were infected with the sacbrood virus, and 2 were infected with the acute bee paralyses virus. It was demonstrated that incidences of the vertical transmission of DWV were more frequent in naturally surviving than in traditionally managed colonies, although the virus loads in the eggs remained the same. When comparing virus infections with queen age, older queens showed significantly lower infection loads of DWV in both traditionally managed and naturally surviving colonies, as well as reduced DWV infection frequencies in traditionally managed colonies. We determined that the detection frequencies of DWV and BQCV in honey bee eggs were lower in samples obtained in the spring than in those collected in the summer, indicating that vertical transmission may be lower in spring. Together, these patterns in vertical transmission show that honey bee queens have the potential to reduce the degree of vertical transmission over time.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Viroses , Vírus , Animais , Abelhas/virologia , Prevalência , Vírus de RNA/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...