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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 509, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readily-available diagnostics do not reliably discriminate between viral and bacterial pediatric uncomplicated pneumonia, both of which are common. Some have suggested that assessment of pneumococcal carriage could be used to identify those children with bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to determine if nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization patterns differed between children with definite viral disease, definite bacterial disease, and respiratory disease of indeterminate etiology. METHODS: Three groups of subjects were recruited: children with critical respiratory illness, previously healthy children with respiratory illness admitted to the ward, and previously healthy children diagnosed in the emergency department with non-severe pneumonia. Subjects were categorized as follows: a) viral infection syndrome (eg. bronchiolitis), b) bacterial infection syndrome (ie. pneumonia complicated by effusion/empyema), or c) 'indeterminate' pneumonia. Subjects' nasopharyngeal swabs underwent quantitative PCR testing for S. pneumoniae. Associations between categorical variables were determined with Fisher's exact, chi-square, or logistic regression, as appropriate. Associations between quantitative genomic load and categorical variables was determined by linear regression. RESULTS: There were 206 children in Group 1, 122 children in Group 2, and 179 children in Group 3. Only a minority (227/507, 45%) had detectable pneumococcal carriage; in those subjects, there was no association of quantitative genomic load with age, recruitment group, or disease category. In multivariate logistic regression, pneumococcal colonization > 3 log copies/mL was associated with younger age and recruitment group, but not with disease category. CONCLUSIONS: The nasopharyngeal S. pneumoniae colonization patterns of subjects with definite viral infection were very similar to colonization patterns of those with definite bacterial infection or indeterminate pneumonia. Assessment and quantification of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization does not therefore appear useful to discriminate between acute viral and bacterial respiratory disease; consequently, this diagnostic testing is unlikely to reliably determine which children with indeterminate pneumonia have a bacterial etiology and/or require antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/epidemiologia
3.
Virol J ; 18(1): 92, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931090

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought more widespread attention to the basic reproductive number (Ro), an epidemiologic measurement. A lesser-known measure of virologic infectivity is the particle-to-plaque ratio (P:PFU). We suggest that comparison between the two parameters may assist in better understanding viral transmission dynamics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Viroses/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932915, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942804

RESUMO

There have been rapid developments in safe and effective mRNA vaccines for zoonotic infections in the past year. Years of research have made these advances possible, leading to in vitro-transcribed (IVT) mRNA expressing therapeutic proteins. There are several advantages of mRNA vaccines that include their low-cost manufacturing process, large-scale and rapid production, and the ability to modify the vaccines in response to emerging infections and viral variants. The COVID-19 pandemic and successful vaccination programs for SARS-CoV-2 have highlighted the advantages of mRNA vaccines. Also, mRNA vaccines are in development for several other potential pandemic zoonotic infections, including Ebola virus, rabies virus, Zika virus, HIV-1, and influenza. There may also be hope for the control of pandemic avian influenza by the combination of improved and rapid viral genotyping and the rapid development and mass production of mRNA vaccines. This Editorial aims to present a brief overview of how mRNA vaccines may help control and future epidemic, pandemic, and endemic zoonotic virus infections.


Assuntos
RNA Mensageiro , RNA Viral , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Viroses/virologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956882

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The recovery of other pathogens in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported, either at the time of a SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis (co-infection) or subsequently (superinfection). However, data on the prevalence, microbiology, and outcomes of co-infection and superinfection are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of co-infections and superinfections and their outcomes among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched literature databases for studies published from October 1, 2019, through February 8, 2021. We included studies that reported clinical features and outcomes of co-infection or superinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. We followed PRISMA guidelines, and we registered the protocol with PROSPERO as: CRD42020189763. RESULTS: Of 6639 articles screened, 118 were included in the random effects meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of co-infection was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%-25%, I2 = 98%) and that of superinfection was 24% (95% CI: 19%-30%). Pooled prevalence of pathogen type stratified by co- or superinfection were: viral co-infections, 10% (95% CI: 6%-14%); viral superinfections, 4% (95% CI: 0%-10%); bacterial co-infections, 8% (95% CI: 5%-11%); bacterial superinfections, 20% (95% CI: 13%-28%); fungal co-infections, 4% (95% CI: 2%-7%); and fungal superinfections, 8% (95% CI: 4%-13%). Patients with a co-infection or superinfection had higher odds of dying than those who only had SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.82-5.99). Compared to those with co-infections, patients with superinfections had a higher prevalence of mechanical ventilation (45% [95% CI: 33%-58%] vs. 10% [95% CI: 5%-16%]), but patients with co-infections had a greater average length of hospital stay than those with superinfections (mean = 29.0 days, standard deviation [SD] = 6.7 vs. mean = 16 days, SD = 6.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that as many as 19% of patients with COVID-19 have co-infections and 24% have superinfections. The presence of either co-infection or superinfection was associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. Our findings support the need for diagnostic testing to identify and treat co-occurring respiratory infections among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Superinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Coinfecção/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Micoses/terapia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Superinfecção/mortalidade , Superinfecção/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/mortalidade , Viroses/terapia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Magnesium (Mg2+) deficiency is a common finding in the early phase after kidney transplantation (KT) and has been linked to immune dysfunction and infections. Data on the association of hypomagnesemia and the rate of infections in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are sparse. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of KTRs transplanted between 2005 and 2015. Laboratory data, including serum Mg2+ (median time of the Mg2+ measurement from KT: 29 days), rate of infections including mainly urinary tract infections (UTI), and common transplant-related viral infections (CMV, polyoma, EBV) in the early phase after KT were recorded. The primary outcome was the incidence of infections within one year after KT, while secondary outcomes were hospitalization due to infection, incidence rates of long-term (up to two years) infections, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 376 KTRs of whom 229 patients (60.9%) suffered from Mg2+ deficiency defined as a serum Mg2+ < 0.7 mmol/L. A significantly higher incidence rate of UTIs and viral infections was observed in patients with versus without Mg2+ deficiency during the first year after KT (58.5% vs. 47.6%, p = 0.039 and 69.9% vs. 51.7%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum Mg2+ deficiency remained an independent predictor of both UTIs and viral infections (odds ratio (OR): 1.73, 95% CI: 1.04-2.86, p = 0.035 and OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.23-3.41, p = 0.006). No group differences according to Mg2+ status in hospitalizations due to infections and infection incidence rates in the 12-24 months post-transplant were observed. In the Cox regression analysis, Mg2+ deficiency was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.70-1.89, p = 0.577). CONCLUSIONS: KTRs suffering from Mg2+ deficiency are at increased risk of UTIs and viral infections in the first year after KT. Interventional studies investigating the effect of Mg2+ supplementation on Mg2+ deficiency and viral infections in KTRs are needed.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de Magnésio/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Magnésio/sangue , Deficiência de Magnésio/sangue , Deficiência de Magnésio/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Viroses/etiologia
7.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 425-428, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our work assessed the prevalence of co-infections in patients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: All patients hospitalized in a Parisian hospital during the first wave of COVID-19 were tested by multiplex PCR if they presented ILI symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 806 patients (21%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 755 (20%) were positive for other respiratory viruses. Among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 49 (6%) had viral co-infections. They presented similar age, symptoms, except for fever (P = .013) and headaches (P = .048), than single SARS-CoV-2 infections. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presenting viral co-infections had similar clinical characteristics and prognosis than patients solely infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Paris/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/diagnóstico , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 478-487, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical distancing and facemask use are worldwide recognized as effective non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Since January 2020, Taiwan has introduced both NPIs but their effectiveness on non-COVID-19 respiratory viruses (NCRVs) remain underexplored. METHODS: This retrospective observational study examined electronic records at a tertiary hospital in northern Taiwan from pre-COVID (January-December 2019) to post-COVID period (January-May 2020). Patients with respiratory syndromes were tested for both enveloped (eg, influenza virus and seasonal coronavirus) and non-enveloped RVs (eg, enterovirus and rhinovirus) using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Monthly positivity rates of NCRVs among adult and pediatric patients were analyzed with comparison between pre- and post-COVID periods. RESULTS: A total of 9693 patients underwent 12 127 multiplex RT-PCR tests. The average positivity rate of NCRVs reduced by 11.2% (25.6% to 14.4%) after nationwide PHIs. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the most commonly identified enveloped and non-enveloped viruses were influenza virus and enterovirus/rhinovirus, respectively. Observed reduction in NCRV incidence was predominantly contributed by enveloped NCRVs including influenza viruses. We did not observe epidemiological impacts of NPIs on non-enveloped viruses but an increasing trend in enterovirus/rhinovirus test positivity rate among pediatric patients. Our data were validated using Taiwan's national notification database. CONCLUSIONS: Our frontline investigation suggests that the current NPIs in Taiwan might not effectively control the transmission of non-enveloped respiratory viruses, despite their protective effects against influenza and seasonal coronavirus. Health authorities may consider using hydrogen peroxide or chloride-based disinfectants as additional preventative strategies against non-enveloped respiratory viruses in the post-COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Distanciamento Físico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Especificidade da Espécie , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
9.
N Z Vet J ; 69(4): 224-233, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840356

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease syndrome (CIRDS) among a population of New Zealand dogs. METHODS: Convenience samples of oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 116 dogs, including 56 CIRDS-affected and 60 healthy dogs from various locations in New Zealand between March 2014 and February 2016. Pooled samples from CIRDS-affected (n = 50) and from healthy (n = 50) dogs were tested for the presence of canine respiratory viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS). Individual samples (n = 116) were then tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR) for specific viruses. Groups were compared using Fisher's exact or χ2 tests. The effect of explanatory variables (age, sex, type of household, presence of viral infection) on the response variable (CIRDS-affected or not) was tested using RR. RESULTS: Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1), canine picornavirus and influenza C virus sequences were identified by NGS in the pooled sample from CIRDS-affected but not healthy dogs. At least one virus was detected by qPCR/RT-qPCR in 20/56 (36%) samples from CIRDS dogs and in 23/60 (38%) samples from healthy dogs (p = 0.84). CIRDS-affected dogs were most commonly positive for CnPnV (14/56, 25%) followed by canine adenovirus-2 (CAdV-2, 5/56, 9%), canine parainfluenza virus (CpiV) and CHV-1 (2/56, 4% each), and CRCoV (1/56, 2%). Only CnPnV (17/60, 28%) and CAdV-2 (14/60, 23%) were identified in samples from healthy dogs, and CAdV-2 was more likely to be detected healthy than diseased dogs (RR 0.38; 95% CI = 0.15-0.99; p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of detection of viruses traditionally linked to CIRDS (CAdV-2 and CPiV) among diseased dogs was low. This suggests that other pathogens are likely to have contributed to development of CIRDS among sampled dogs. Our data represent the first detection of CnPnV in New Zealand, but the role of this virus in CIRDS remains unclear. On-going monitoring of canine respiratory pathogens by NGS would be beneficial, as it allows rapid detection of novel viruses that may be introduced to the New Zealand canine population in the future. Such monitoring could be done using pooled samples to minimise costs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Testing for novel respiratory viruses such as CnPnV and CRCoV should be considered in all routine laboratory investigations of CIRDS cases, particularly in dogs vaccinated with currently available kennel cough vaccines.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Viroses/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802042

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition of the central nervous system (CNS) that presents with severe communication problems, impairment of social interactions, and stereotypic behaviours. Emerging studies indicate possible associations between viral infections and neurodegenerative and neurobehavioural conditions including autism. Viral infection during critical periods of early in utero neurodevelopment may lead to increased risk of autism in the offspring. This review is aimed at highlighting the association between viral infections, including viruses similar to COVID-19, and the aetiology of autism. A literature search was conducted using Pubmed, Ovid/Medline, and Google Scholar database. Relevant search terms included "rubella and autism", "cytomegalovirus and autism", "influenza virus and autism", "Zika virus and autism", "COVID-19 and autism". Based on the search terms, a total of 141 articles were obtained and studies on infants or children with congenital or perinatal viral infection and autistic behaviour were evaluated. The possible mechanisms by which viral infections could lead to autism include direct teratogenic effects and indirect effects of inflammation or maternal immune activation on the developing brain. Brain imaging studies have shown that the ensuing immune response from these viral infections could lead to disruption of the development of brain regions and structures. Hence, long-term follow up is necessary for infants whose mothers report an inflammatory event due to viral infection at any time during pregnancy to monitor for signs of autism. Research into the role of viral infection in the development of ASD may be one avenue of improving ASD outcomes in the future. Early screening and diagnosis to detect, and maybe even prevent ASD are essential to reduce the burden of this condition.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , COVID-19 , Viroses , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroses/epidemiologia
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 393-398, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822151

RESUMO

Serum samples of 11 Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from Chitwan National Park in Nepal, collected between 2011-17, were evaluated for the presence of antibodies to eight diseases commonly investigated in large felids. This initial serologic survey was done to establish baseline information to understand the exposure of Nepal's free-ranging tiger population to these diseases. Tiger serum samples collected opportunistically during encounters such as translocation, human conflict, and injury were placed in cold storage for later use. Frozen serum samples were assessed for feline coronavirus (FCoV), feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus (FHV), canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), leptospirosis (LEP; seven serovars), and toxoplasmosis (TOX). Six tigers were found to be positive for LEP, eight for CPV-2, five for FHV, one for FCoV, and 10 for TOX. Tigers, like other wild felids, have been exposed to these common pathogens, but further research is needed to determine the significance of these pathogens to the Nepali population.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Tigres , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/veterinária
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e96, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849679

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. Prevention and control strategies require an improved understanding of SARS-CoV-2 dynamics. We did a rapid review of the literature on SARS-CoV-2 viral dynamics with a focus on infective dose. We sought comparisons of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We examined laboratory animal and human studies. The literature on infective dose, transmission and routes of exposure was limited specially in humans, and varying endpoints were used for measurement of infection. Despite variability in animal studies, there was some evidence that increased dose at exposure correlated with higher viral load clinically, and severe symptoms. Higher viral load measures did not reflect coronavirus disease 2019 severity. Aerosol transmission seemed to raise the risk of more severe respiratory complications in animals. An accurate quantitative estimate of the infective dose of SARS-CoV-2 in humans is not currently feasible and needs further research. Our review suggests that it is small, perhaps about 100 particles. Further work is also required on the relationship between routes of transmission, infective dose, co-infection and outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Carga Viral , Adenoviridae/patogenicidade , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetinae , Enterovirus/patogenicidade , Furões , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/patogenicidade , Rhinovirus/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/transmissão , Viroses/virologia
14.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 488-494, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in Japan in January 2020 and has spread throughout the country. Previous studies have reported that viral interference among influenza virus, rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses can affect viral infections at the host and population level. METHODS: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on influenza and other respiratory virus infections, we analyzed clinical specimens collected from 2244 patients in Japan with respiratory diseases between January 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The frequency of influenza and other respiratory viruses (coxsackievirus A and B; echovirus; enterovirus; human coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43; human metapneumovirus; human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3, and 4; human parechovirus; human respiratory syncytial virus; human adenovirus; human bocavirus; human parvovirus B19; herpes simplex virus type 1; and varicella-zoster virus) was appreciably reduced among all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic except for that of rhinovirus in children younger than 10 years, which was appreciably increased. COVID-19 has not spread among this age group, suggesting an increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children. CONCLUSIONS: Rhinovirus infections should be continuously monitored to understand their increased risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and viral interference with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Clin Virol ; 137: 104795, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2, different European countries reacted with temporary national lockdowns with the aim to limit the virus transmission in the population. Also Austria started a lockdown of public life in March 2020. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated whether the circulation of different respiratory virus infections in Austria, as assessed by the established respiratory virus surveillance system, is affected by these measures as well and may reflect the success of the lockdown in limiting respiratory virus transmission. STUDY DESIGN: Sentinel data obtained for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus cases were analyzed and compared between the season 2019/2020 and the five previous seasons. RESULTS: We observed a rapid and statistically significant reduction of cumulative cases for all these viruses within short time after the lockdown in March 2020, compared to previous seasons (each p < 0.001). Also, sentinel screening for SARS-CoV-2 infections was performed and a decrease of SARS-CoV-2 was seen after the lockdown. While for the seasonally occurring viruses as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus or human metapneumovirus the lockdown led to the end of the annual epidemics, a re-increase of rhinovirus infections was observed after liberalization of numerous lockdown measures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that occurrence of different respiratory virus infections reflect not only the efficiency of lockdown measures taken against SARS-CoV-2 but it shows also the effects of lockdown releases on the transmission of respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Áustria/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Epidemias , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/transmissão , Viroses/virologia
17.
Cell ; 184(6): 1604-1620, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740455

RESUMO

Historically, emerging viruses appear constantly and have cost millions of human lives. Currently, climate change and intense globalization have created favorable conditions for viral transmission. Therefore, effective antivirals, especially those targeting the conserved protein in multiple unrelated viruses, such as the compounds targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, are urgently needed to combat more emerging and re-emerging viruses in the future. Here we reviewed the development of antivirals with common targets, including those against the same protein across viruses, or the same viral function, to provide clues for development of antivirals for future epidemics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Pandemias , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/enzimologia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Humanos , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Viroses/virologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 306, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the leading causes of hospitalization in children. Understanding the local dominant viral etiologies is important to inform infection control practices and clinical management. This study aimed to investigate the viral etiology and epidemiology of respiratory infections among pediatric inpatients in Macao. METHODS: A retrospective study using electronic health records between 2014 and 2017 at Kiang Wu Hospital was performed. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were obtained from hospitalized children aged 13 years or younger with respiratory tract diseases. xMAP multiplex assays were employed to detect respiratory agents including 10 respiratory viruses. Data were analyzed to describe the frequency and seasonality. RESULTS: Of the 4880 children enrolled in the study, 3767 (77.1%) were positive for at least one of the 13 viral pathogens tested, of which 2707 (55.5%) being male and 2635 (70.0%) under 2 years old. Among the positive results, there were 3091 (82.0%) single infections and 676 (18.0%) multiple infections. The predominant viruses included human rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/EV 27.4%), adenovirus (ADV, 15.8%), respiratory syncytial virus B (RSVB, 7.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus A (RSVA, 7.8%). The detection of viral infection was the most prevalent in autumn (960/1176, 81.6%), followed by spring (1095/1406, 77.9%), winter (768/992, 77.4%), and summer (944/1306, 72.3%), with HRV/EV and ADV being most commonly detected throughout the 4 years of study period. The detection rate of viral infection was highest among ARI patients presented with croup (123/141, 87.2%), followed by lower respiratory tract infection (1924/2356, 81.7%) and upper respiratory tract infection (1720/2383, 72.2%). FluA, FluB and ADV were positive factors for upper respiratory tract infections. On the other hand, infection with RSVA, RSVB, PIV3, PIV4, HMPV, and EV/RHV were positively associated with lower respiratory tract infections; and PIV1, PIV2, and PIV3 were positively associated with croup. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Macao to determine the viral etiology and epidemiology of pediatric patients hospitalized for ARIs. The study findings can contribute to the awareness of pathogen, appropriate preventative measure, accurate diagnosis, and proper clinical management of respiratory viral infections among children in Macao.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Macau/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhinovirus , Estações do Ano
19.
CMAJ ; 193(13): E439-E446, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the outcomes of noninfluenza respiratory virus (NIRV) infections among hospitalized adults are lacking. We aimed to study the burden, severity and outcomes of NIRV infections in this population. METHODS: We analyzed pooled patient data from 2 hospital-based respiratory virus surveillance cohorts in 2 regions of Canada during 3 consecutive seasons (2015/16, 2016/17, 2017/18; n = 2119). We included patients aged ≥ 18 years who developed influenza-like illness or pneumonia and were hospitalized for management. We included patients confirmed positive for ≥ 1 virus by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], human rhinovirus/enterovirus (hRV), human coronavirus (hCoV), metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza viruses). We compared patient characteristics, clinical severity conventional outcomes (e.g., hospital length-of stay, 30-day mortality) and ordinal outcomes (5 levels: discharged, receiving convalescent care, acute ward or intensive care unit [ICU] care and death) for patients with NIRV infections and those with influenza. RESULTS: Among 2119 adults who were admitted to hospital, 1156 patients (54.6%) had NIRV infections (hRV 14.9%, RSV 12.9%, hCoV 8.2%) and 963 patients (45.4%) had influenza (n = 963). Patients with NIRVs were younger (mean 66.4 [standard deviation 20.4] yr), and more commonly had immunocompromising conditions (30.3%) and delay in diagnosis (median 4.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-7.0] days). Overall, 14.6% (12.4%-19.5%) of NIRV infections were acquired in hospital. Admission to ICU (18.2%, median 6.0 [IQR 3.0-13.0] d), hospital length-of-stay (median 5.0 [IQR 2.0-10.0] d) and 30-day mortality (8.4%; RSV 9.5%, hRV 6.6%, hCoV 9.2%) and the ordinal outcomes were similar for patients with NIRV infection and those with influenza. Age > 60 years, immunocompromised state and hospital-acquired viral infection were associated with worse outcomes. The estimated median cost per acute care admission was $6000 (IQR $2000-$16 000). INTERPRETATION: The burden of NIRV infection is substantial in adults admitted to hospital and associated outcomes may be as severe as for influenza, suggesting a need to prioritize therapeutics and vaccines for at-risk people.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hospitalização , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(3): e154-e163, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) caused by respiratory viruses are common and persistent infectious diseases worldwide and in China, which have pronounced seasonal patterns. Meteorological factors have important roles in the seasonality of some major viruses, especially respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus. Our aim was to identify the dominant meteorological factors and to model their effects on common respiratory viruses in different regions of China. METHODS: We analysed monthly virus data on patients hospitalised with ALRI from 81 sentinel hospitals in 22 provinces in mainland China from Jan 1, 2009, to Sept 30, 2013. We considered seven common respiratory viruses: RSV, influenza virus, human parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and human coronavirus. Meteorological data of the same period were used to analyse relationships between virus seasonality and seven meteorological factors according to region (southern vs northern China). The geographical detector method was used to quantify the explanatory power of each meteorological factor, individually and interacting in pairs, on the respiratory viruses. FINDINGS: 28 369 hospitalised patients with ALRI were tested, 10 387 (36·6%) of whom were positive for at least one virus, including RSV (4091 [32·0%] patients), influenza virus (2665 [20·8%]), human parainfluenza virus (2185 [17·1%]), adenovirus (1478 [11·6%]), human bocavirus (1120 [8·8%]), human coronavirus (637 [5·0%]), and human metapneumovirus (615 [4·8%]). RSV and influenza virus had annual peaks in the north and biannual peaks in the south. Human parainfluenza virus and human bocavirus had higher positive rates in the spring-summer months. Human metapneumovirus had an annual peak in winter-spring, especially in the north. Adenovirus and human coronavirus exhibited no clear annual seasonality. Temperature, atmospheric pressure, vapour pressure, and rainfall had most explanatory power on most respiratory viruses in each region. Relative humidity was only dominant in the north, but had no significant explanatory power for most viruses in the south. Hours of sunlight had significant explanatory power for RSV and influenza virus in the north, and for most viruses in the south. Wind speed was the only factor with significant explanatory power for human coronavirus in the south. For all viruses, interactions between any two of the paired factors resulted in enhanced explanatory power, either bivariately or non-linearly. INTERPRETATION: Spatiotemporal heterogeneity was detected for most viruses in this study, and interactions between pairs of meteorological factors were found to enhance their influence on virus variation. These findings might be helpful to guide government planning, such as public health interventions, infection control practice, and timing of passive immunoprophylaxis, and might facilitate the development of future vaccine strategies. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, and the Technology Major Project of China. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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