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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 588, 2022 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between viral etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) with meteorological factors and air pollutants among children is not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the viral etiology among children hospitalized for ARI and the association of meteorological factors and air pollutants with children hospitalization due to viral ARI. METHODS: Electronic health record data about children (aged between 1 month and 14 years) admitted for ARI at Kiang Wu Hospital in Macao between 2014 and 2017 was analyzed retrospectively. xMAP multiplex assays were used to detect viruses in the nasopharyngeal swab and distributed-lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: Among the 4880 cases of children hospitalization due to ARI, 3767 (77.2%) were tested positive for at least one virus and 676 (18%) exhibited multiple infections. Enterovirus (EV)/rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus (ADV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (IFV) were the most common viral pathogens associated with ARI and human bocavirus (hBOV) exhibited the highest multiple infection rates. Meteorological factors and air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) were associated with the risk of viral ARI hospitalization. The relative risk of viral infection increased with daily mean temperature but plateaued when temperature exceeded 23 °C, and increased when the relative humidity was < 70% and peaked at 50%. The effect of solar radiation was insignificant. Air pollutants (including PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3) showed strong and immediate effect on the incidence of viral infection. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of mean temperature, relative humidity and air pollutants should be taken into account when considering management of ARI among children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Macau , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/etiologia
2.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 177, 2022 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections such as influenza account for significant global mortality each year. Generating lipid profiles is a novel and emerging research approach that may provide new insights regarding the development and progression of priority respiratory infections. We hypothesized that select clusters of lipids in human sputum would be associated with specific viral infections (Influenza (H1N1, H3N2) or Rhinovirus). METHODS: Lipid identification and semi-quantitation was determined with liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry in induced sputum from individuals with confirmed respiratory infections (influenza (H1N1, H3N2) or rhinovirus). Clusters of lipid species and associations between lipid profiles and the type of respiratory viral agent was determined using Bayesian profile regression and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: More than 600 lipid compounds were identified across the sputum samples with the most abundant lipid classes identified as triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), phosphatidylcholines (PC), Sphingomyelins (SM), ether-PC, and ether-PE. A total of 12 lipid species were significantly different when stratified by infection type and included acylcarnitine (AcCar) (10:1, 16:1, 18:2), diacylglycerols (DG) (16:0_18:0, 18:0_18:0), Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (12:0, 20:5), PE (18:0_18:0), and TG (14:1_16:0_18:2, 15:0_17:0_19:0, 16:0_17:0_18:0, 19:0_19:0_19:0). Cluster analysis yielded three clusters of lipid profiles that were driven by just 10 lipid species (TGs and DGs). Cluster 1 had the highest levels of each lipid species and the highest prevalence of influenza A H3 infection (56%, n = 5) whereas cluster 3 had lower levels of each lipid species and the highest prevalence of rhinovirus (60%; n = 6). Using cluster 3 as the reference group, the crude odds of influenza A H3 infection compared to rhinovirus in cluster 1 was significantly (p = 0.047) higher (OR = 15.00 [95% CI: 1.03, 218.29]). After adjustment for confounders (smoking status and pulmonary comorbidities), the odds ratio (OR) became only marginally significant (p = 0.099), but the magnitude of the effect estimate was similar (OR = 16.00 [0.59, 433.03]). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, human sputum lipid profiles were shown to be associated with distinct types of viral infection. Better understanding the relationship between respiratory infections of global importance and lipids contributes to advancing knowledge of pathogenesis of infections including identifying populations with increased susceptibility and developing effective therapeutics and biomarkers of health status.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Lisofosfatidilcolinas , Fosfatidilcolinas , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus , Escarro , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia
3.
Euro Surveill ; 27(27)2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801521

RESUMO

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic expanded the need for timely information on acute respiratory illness at population level.AimWe explored the potential of routine emergency department data for syndromic surveillance of acute respiratory illness in Germany.MethodsWe used routine attendance data from emergency departments, which continuously transferred data between week 10 2017 and 10 2021, with ICD-10 codes available for > 75% of attendances. Case definitions for acute respiratory infection (ARI), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV) and COVID-19 were based on a combination of ICD-10 codes, and/or chief complaints, sometimes combined with information on hospitalisation and age.ResultsWe included 1,372,958 attendances from eight emergency departments. The number of attendances dropped in March 2020 during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave, increased during summer, and declined again during the resurge of COVID-19 cases in autumn and winter of 2020/21. A pattern of seasonality of respiratory infections could be observed. By using different case definitions (i.e. for ARI, SARI, ILI, RSV) both the annual influenza seasons in the years 2017-2020 and the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020/21 were apparent. The absence of the 2020/21 influenza season was visible, parallel to the resurge of COVID-19 cases. SARI among ARI cases peaked in April-May 2020 (17%) and November 2020-January 2021 (14%).ConclusionSyndromic surveillance using routine emergency department data can potentially be used to monitor the trends, timing, duration, magnitude and severity of illness caused by respiratory viruses, including both influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Viroses/epidemiologia
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(6): 913-926, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797284

RESUMO

Pakistan is endemic to a number of viral infections, owing to its humid climate, topographical variation, soaring population, and lack of education and awareness. These viruses may have several different modes of transmission, including respiratory or airborne transmission, sexual transmission, blood-borne, fecal-oral transmission, vector-borne transmission, and transmission following an organ transplant. Although several different microorganisms are responsible for causing these infections, a few viruses are found more commonly in Pakistan and are primarily responsible for causing infections. In this study, we present a review of the most recent studies on different viruses, transmitted through various transmission routes, found commonly in Pakistan, along with the prevalence of each, and recommend control measures required against these viruses.


Assuntos
Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(7): 912-918, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899342

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the common viral infection among the surveillance cases of fever respiratory syndrome (FRS) in nine provinces in China. Methods: The research data were obtained from nine provinces (Anhui, Beijing, Guangdong, Hebei, Hunan, Jilin, Shandong, Shaanxi and Xinjiang) in the "Infectious Disease Surveillance Technology Platform Information Management System" of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from January 2009 to June 2021. Finally, 8 243 FRS cases with nucleic acid detection results of eight viruses [human influenza virus (HIFV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV) and human Boca virus (HBoV)] were included in the study. The χ2 test/Fisher exact probability method was used to analyze the difference of virus detection rate in different age groups, regions and seasons. Results The M (Q1, Q3) age of 8 243 FRS cases was 4 (1, 18) years old, and 56.56% (4 662 cases) were children under 5 years old. Males accounted for 58.1% (4 792 cases) of all cases. All cases were from outpatient/emergency department (2 043 cases) and inpatient department (6 200 cases). The virus detection rates of FRS cases from high to low were HRSV, HIFV, HPIV, HRV, HAdV, HMPV, HCoV and HBoV. Two or more viruses were detected simultaneously in 524 cases, accounting for 15.66% of virus-positive cases. The difference of the virus detection rate in different age groups was statistically significant (all P values<0.05), and the virus detection rate in children<5 years old was higher (49.96%). The positive rate of any virus in south China was higher than that in north China (P<0.001). The virus-positive FRS cases were detected throughout the year. The detection rate of HRSV was higher in autumn and winter. The detection rate of HIFV was higher in winter. The detection rate of HMPV was higher in winter and spring. The detection rates of HPIV, HRV, HCoV and HBoV were higher in summer and autumn, while there was no significant difference in the detection rate of HAdV in different seasons. Compared with 2009-2019, the detection rate of any virus in 2020-2021 decreased from 41.37% to 37.86%. The detection rate of HIFV decreased sharply from 10.62% to 1.37%. The detection rate of HPIV decreased from 8.24% to 5.88%. The detection rate of HRV and HBoV increased from 5.43% and 1.79% to 9.67% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: HRSV and HIFV infections are more common among FRS cases in nine provinces in China from 2009 to 2021, and the epidemiological characteristics of eight common respiratory viruses vary in different age groups, regions and seasons.


Assuntos
Orthomyxoviridae , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sistema Respiratório , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia
6.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(3): 549-557, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a degenerative disease distinguished by progressive epithelial secretory gland dysfunction associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite that bacteria have previously been studied as the main cause of CF airway damage, a strong effect of respiratory viral infections is also now recognized. We aimed to detect the relationship between viral infection and exacerbation in children with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: This is a cross sectional observational study recruiting 60 patients diagnosed as CF following in Cystic Fibrosis Clinic, Children`s Hospital, Cairo University, throughout a period of 7 months. Their age ranged from 6 months to 13 years. Patients had nasal swabs and sputum samples obtained when they developed respiratory exacerbations. Multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique was used to detect respiratory viruses from nasal swabs. RESULTS: We detected viruses in 48 patients during exacerbation (80%), the most common virus was rhinovirus in 43.4% of patients, followed by bocavirus in 20%, adenovirus in 13.3%, enterovirus in 10% and human metapneumovirus in 6.7%. Co-infection with double viruses was detected in 10 patients. Bacterial infection was present in 56.7% of patients; the most common organism was Pseudomonas in 20% of patients, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella and Haemophilus influenzae. CRP was positive in 53.3% of patients. There was a significant relationship between sputum positive bacterial culture and each of influenza A virus, enterovirus and human metapneumovirus. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that exacerbation in cystic fibrosis may be exaggerated by viral infections such as influenza A and enterovirus necessitating hospitalization which shows the important protective role of vaccination. Also, a strong relationship was detected between some viruses such as enterovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza and between bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Fibrose Cística , Influenza Humana , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 578, 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of transmission of viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is high in mass gatherings including Hajj. This cohort study estimated the incidence of symptomatic RTIs and hand hygiene compliance with its impact among Hajj pilgrims during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: During the week of Hajj rituals in 2021, domestic pilgrims were recruited by phone and asked to complete a baseline questionnaire. Pilgrims were followed up after seven days using a questionnaire about the development of symptoms, and practices of hand hygiene. Syndromic definitions were used to clinically diagnose 'possible' influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: A total of 510 pilgrims aged between 18 and 69 (median of 50) years completed the questionnaire, 280 (54.9%) of whom were female, and all of them (except for one) were vaccinated against COVID-19 with at least one dose. The mean (± SD) of pilgrims' hand hygiene knowledge score (on a scale of 0 to 6) was 4.15 (± 1.22), and a higher level of knowledge was correlated with a higher frequency of handwashing using soap and water. Among those 445 pilgrims who completed the follow-up form, 21 (4.7%) developed one or more respiratory symptoms, of which sore throat and cough were the commonest (respectively 76.2% and 42.8%); 'possible ILI' and 'possible COVID-19' were present in 1.1% and 0.9% of pilgrims. Obesity was found to be a significant factor associated with the risk of developing RTIs (odds ratio = 4.45, 95% confidence interval 1.15-17.13). CONCLUSIONS: Hajj pilgrims are still at risk of respiratory infections. Further larger and controlled investigations are needed to assess the efficacy of hand hygiene during Hajj.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Higiene das Mãos , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Viagem , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269804, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although influenza surveillance systems have been used to monitor influenza epidemics, these systems generally evaluate diagnostic information obtained from medical institutions and they do not include patients who have not been examined. In contrast, community based epidemiological studies target people with influenza-like illness (ILI) that self-reported influenza-like symptoms whether they have medical examinations or not. Because the criteria for influenza surveillance systems and ILI differ, there is a gap between them. The purpose of this study was to clarify this gap using school-based survey data. METHODS: Questionnaires about both ILI and the influenza diagnosis history during the 2018/19 season were administered to the guardians of 11,684 elementary schoolchildren in a single city in Japan. Based on their responses, a Bayesian model was constructed to estimate the probability of infection, ILI onset, and diagnosis at medical institutions. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from guardians of 10,309 children (88.2%). Of these, 3,380 children (32.8%) had experienced ILI, with 2,380 (23.1%) diagnosed as influenza at a medical institution. Bayesian estimation showed that the probability of influenza cases being diagnosed among ILI symptomatic children was 70% (95% credible interval, 69-71%). Of the infected children, 5% were without ILI symptoms, with 11% of these patients diagnosed with influenza. CONCLUSIONS: This epidemiological study clarified the proportion gap between ILI and influenza diagnosis among schoolchildren. These results may help to establish epidemic control measures and secure sufficient medical resources.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Humana , Viroses , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1167, 2022 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections are among the main causes of death. Although there are many respiratory viruses, diagnostic efforts are focused mainly on influenza. The Respiratory Viruses Network (RespVir) collects infection data, primarily from German university hospitals, for a high diversity of infections by respiratory pathogens. In this study, we computationally analysed a subset of the RespVir database, covering 217,150 samples tested for 17 different viral pathogens in the time span from 2010 to 2019. METHODS: We calculated the prevalence of 17 respiratory viruses, analysed their seasonality patterns using information-theoretic measures and agglomerative clustering, and analysed their propensity for dual infection using a new metric dubbed average coinfection exclusion score (ACES). RESULTS: After initial data pre-processing, we retained 206,814 samples, corresponding to 1,408,657 performed tests. We found that Influenza viruses were reported for almost the half of all infections and that they exhibited the highest degree of seasonality. Coinfections of viruses are frequent; the most prevalent coinfection was rhinovirus/bocavirus and most of the virus pairs had a positive ACES indicating a tendency to exclude each other regarding infection. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of respiratory viruses dynamics in monoinfection and coinfection contributes to the prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and development of new therapeutics. Data obtained from multiplex testing is fundamental for this analysis and should be prioritized over single pathogen testing.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções Respiratórias , Viroses , Vírus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Rhinovirus , Viroses/epidemiologia
11.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746780

RESUMO

Cucurbits in Southeastern USA have experienced a drastic decline in production over the years due to the effect of economically important viruses, mainly those transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius). In cucurbits, these viruses can be found as a single or mixed infection, thereby causing significant yield loss. During the spring of 2021, surveys were conducted to evaluate the incidence and distribution of viruses infecting cantaloupe (n = 80) and watermelon (n = 245) in Georgia. Symptomatic foliar tissues were collected from six counties and sRNA libraries were constructed from seven symptomatic samples. High throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis revealed the presence of three different new RNA viruses in Georgia: cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV), cucumis melo amalgavirus (CmAV1), and cucumis melo cryptic virus (CmCV). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed the presence of CmEV and CmAV1 in 25% and 43% of the total samples tested, respectively. CmCV was not detected using RT-PCR. Watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 1 (WCLaV-1), recently reported in GA, was detected in 28% of the samples tested. Furthermore, RT-PCR and PCR analysis of 43 symptomatic leaf tissues collected from the fall-grown watermelon in 2019 revealed the presence of cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV), cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), and cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) at 73%, 2%, and 81%, respectively. This finding broadens our knowledge of the prevalence of viruses in melons in the fall and spring, as well as the geographical expansion of the WCLaV-1 in GA, USA.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Cucumis melo , Hemípteros , Vírus de RNA , Viroses , Vírus , Animais , Georgia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Plantas , Vírus de RNA/genética , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/genética
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(5): 940-946, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713060

RESUMO

Globally more than a million sexually transmitted infections occur daily, and over 53 000 [47,000-60,000] women aged 15 and over were living with human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Pakistan by the year 2020. This situation becomes graver when the sexually transmitted infections exist as co-infections while remaining undiagnosed or under-diagnosed. Additionally, herpetic or papillomavirus lesions are more recurrent, more extensive and have more serious consequences in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Literature shows a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality due to the occurrence of malignancies in genital co-infections. There is a key concern that every single adolescent female living in Pakistan is at a high risk of acquiring viral sexually transmitted infections along with malignancy of the cervix. As such, the health and future of this age group is already imperilled. Needless to mention that the practice of routine cervical screening and diagnostic laboratory services offered to a common woman in Pakistan have been less than satisfactory for decades. Therefore, to meet the minimum expectations regarding the Millennium Development Goals for sexual and reproductive health and rights 2030, it has now become imperative for the health sector to develop and implement scientific and community-based policies for comprehensive and multidisciplinary diagnostic strategies leading to early and effective management of viral sexually transmitted infections and subsequent neoplasia.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Viroses , Adolescente , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Genitália Feminina , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia
15.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632842

RESUMO

Climate variability and anomalies are known drivers of the emergence and outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the emergence and spillover events of bat-borne viral diseases in humans and livestock in the Asia-Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Our findings from time series analyses, logistic regression models, and structural equation modelling revealed that the spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were differently impacted by climate variability and with different time lags. We also used event coincidence analysis to show that the emergence events of most bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula were statistically associated with ENSO climate anomalies. Spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were also significantly associated with these events, although the pattern and co-influence of other climate factors differed. Our results suggest that climate factors and anomalies may create opportunities for virus spillover from bats to livestock and humans. Ongoing climate change and the future intensification of El Niño events will therefore potentially increase the emergence and spillover of bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Vírus Hendra , Vírus Nipah , Viroses , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627498

RESUMO

A descriptive analysis of common respiratory pathogens (CRPs) detected in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) from hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness during the fall seasons of the past three years, 2019-2021, in the Lazio region, Italy, was conducted to assess whether or not CRP circulation changed because of COVID-19 during the fall season. The results observed in a total of 633 NPSs subjected to molecular diagnosis for CRPs by multiplex PCR assay during the autumn seasons (exactly from week 41 to week 50) were compared with each other. In 2019, in 144 NPSs, the more represented CRPs were rhinovirus/enterovirus (7.6%) and influenza A/B (4.2%). In 2020, 55 (21.6%) out of 255 NPSs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 and, except for one case of Legionella pneumophila, the CRPs detected were exclusively rhinovirus/enterovirus (4.7%). In 2021, among 234 NPSs, 25.6% resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2, 14.5% for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and 12.8% for rhinovirus/enterovirus. Compared with 2019, in 2020, CRP circulation was severely limited to a few cases; in 2021, instead, infections by RSV (detected also among adults), rhinovirus/enterovirus, and other respiratory pathogens were observed again, while influenza was practically absent. The comparison of the CRPs detected in the NPSs depicts a different circulation in the Lazio region during the last three fall seasons. CRP monitoring has a direct impact on the prevention and control strategies of respiratory infectious diseases, such as the non-pharmacological interventions implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies should investigate the impact of specific interventions on the spread of respiratory infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa , Influenza Humana , Viroses , Vírus , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1298-1300, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608868

RESUMO

The treat of infectious disease epidemics has increased the critical need for continuous broad-ranging surveillance of pathogens with outbreak potential. Using metatranscriptomic sequencing of blood samples, we identified several cases of Japanese encephalitis virus infection from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. This discovery highlights the risk for known viral diseases even in nonendemic areas.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Epidemias , Viroses , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Viroses/epidemiologia
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2211958, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35552722

RESUMO

Importance: The severity of viral infections can vary widely, from asymptomatic cases to complications leading to hospitalizations and death. Milder cases, despite being more prevalent, often go undocumented, and their public health burden is not accurately estimated. Objective: To estimate the true burden of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the US population using a surrogate measure of daily steps lost as measured by commercial wearable sensors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study modeled data from 15 122 US adults who reported ILI symptoms during the 2018-2019 influenza season (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and who had a sufficient density of wearable sensor data at symptom onset. Participants' minute-level step data as measured by commercial wearable sensors were collected from October 1, 2018, through June 30, 2019. Minute-level activity time series were transformed into day-level time series per user, indicating the total number of steps daily. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the number of steps lost during the period of 4 days before symptom onset (the latent phase) through 11 days after symptom onset (the symptomatic phase). The association between covariates and steps lost during this interval was also examined. Results: Of the 15 122 participants in this study, 13 108 (86.7%) were women, and the median age was 32 years (IQR, 27-38 years). For their ILI event, 2836 of 15 080 participants (18.8%) sought medical attention, and only 61 (0.4%) were hospitalized. Over the course of an ILI lasting 10 days, the mean cumulative loss was 4437 steps (95% CI, 4143-4731 steps). After weighting, there was an estimated overall nationwide reduction in mobility equivalent to 255.2 billion steps (95% CI, 232.9-277.6 billion steps) lost because of ILI symptoms during the study period. This finding reflects significant changes in routines, mobility, and employment and is equivalent to 15% of the active US population becoming completely immobilized for 1 day. Moreover, 60.6% of this reduction in steps (154.6 billion steps [95% CI, 138.1-171.2 billion steps]) occurred among persons who sought no medical care. Age and educational level were positively associated with steps lost. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that most of the burden of ILI in this study would have been invisible to health care and public health reporting systems. This approach has applications for public health, health care, and clinical research, from estimating costs of lost productivity at population scale, to measuring effectiveness of anti-ILI treatments, to monitoring recovery after acute viral syndromes such as during long COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Viroses , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Viroses/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8145, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581286

RESUMO

Wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) is one of the large mammals most spread worldwide, highly adaptable, and its population rapidly increased in many areas in Europe, including Italy, where Tuscany is considered particularly suitable for wild boar. Wild boars are potential hosts for different etiological agents, such as Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Pseudorabies virus and they can contribute to maintain and/or to disseminate some bacterial or viral pathogens to humans and domestic animals, above all-in free-range farms. In order to identify hypothetical genomic regions associated with these infection diseases, 96 samples of wild boars hunted in Tuscany during the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 hunting seasons were considered. Diagnosis was achieved by serological tests and 42 Pseudorabies, 31 Leptospira and 15 Brucella positive animals were identified. All animals were genotyped with Geneseek Genomic Profiler Porcine HD (70 k) and a genome-wide scan was then performed. Significant markers were highlighted for Pseudorabies (two SNPs), Brucella (seven SNPs), and Leptospira (four SNPs) and they were located within, or nearby, 29 annotated genes on chromosome 6, 9, 12, 13, 14 and 18. Eight genes are implicated in viral (SEC14L1, JMJD6, SRSF2, TMPRSS2, MX1, MX2) or bacterial (COL8A1, SPIRE1) infections, seven genes (MFSD11, METTL23, CTTNBP2, BACE2, IMPA2, MPPE1 and GNAL) are involved in mental disorders and one gene (MGAT5B) is related to the Golgi complex. Results presented here provide interesting starting points for future research, validation studies and fine mapping of candidate genes involved in bacterial and viral infections in wild boar.


Assuntos
Brucella , Leptospira , Pseudorraiva , Doenças dos Suínos , Viroses , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji , Leptospira/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Viroses/epidemiologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2121335119, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639694

RESUMO

Many pathogenic viruses are endemic among human populations and can cause a broad variety of diseases, some potentially leading to devastating pandemics. How virus populations maintain diversity and what selective pressures drive population turnover is not thoroughly understood. We conducted a large-scale phylodynamic analysis of 27 human pathogenic RNA viruses spanning diverse life history traits, in search of unifying trends that shape virus evolution. For most virus species, we identify multiple, cocirculating lineages with low turnover rates. These lineages appear to be largely noncompeting and likely occupy semiindependent epidemiological niches that are not regionally or seasonally defined. Typically, intralineage mutational signatures are similar to interlineage signatures. The principal exception are members of the family Picornaviridae, for which mutations in capsid protein genes are primarily lineage defining. Interlineage turnover is slower than expected under a neutral model, whereas intralineage turnover is faster than the neutral expectation, further supporting the existence of independent niches. The persistence of virus lineages appears to stem from limited outbreaks within small communities, so that only a small fraction of the global susceptible population is infected at any time. As disparate communities become increasingly connected through globalization, interaction and competition between lineages might increase as well, which could result in changing selective pressures and increased diversification and/or pathogenicity. Thus, in addition to zoonotic events, ongoing surveillance of familiar, endemic viruses appears to merit global attention with respect to the prevention or mitigation of future pandemics.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , RNA , Viroses , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/patogenicidade , Estações do Ano , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/genética
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