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1.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340216

RESUMO

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
4.
Yi Chuan ; 42(2): 153-160, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102772

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne diseases have become an important public health issue of global concern because of their high incidence and transmission rate. As a vector for mosquito-borne diseases, studying the interaction mechanism between mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses will help control mosquito-borne diseases. The impaired innate immunity and immune barriers evasion caused by mosquito-borne viruses in mosquitoes pose a potential risk for the persistent infection of the virus in mosquitoes and the outbreak of mosquito-borne diseases. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, as a powerful antiviral defense barrier in mosquitoes, can inhibit viral replication and transmission by producing a variety of small RNAs to degrade viral RNA. In this review, we summarize the related studies on the innate immune mechanism against mosquito- borne virus infection in mosquitoes about small interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA), aiming to provide a theoretical reference for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Interferência de RNA , Viroses , Animais , Culicidae/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Mosquitos Vetores/imunologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/transmissão
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007999, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995572

RESUMO

January 30, 2020 is the first-ever World Neglected Tropical Diseases Day (World NTD Day), a day when we celebrate the achievements made towards control of the world's NTDs, yet recognize the daunting challenges we face in the control and elimination of these conditions.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças Negligenciadas/etiologia , Clima Tropical
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(1): 169-183, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902413

RESUMO

In vaccinating adults, clinicians face 2 types of challenges: (1) staying current on recommendations for influenza, pneumococcal, hepatitis A and B, zoster, and other vaccines and (2) addressing systemic barriers to implementing practices that increase vaccination rates. Although adult immunization rates remain suboptimal, there has been much good news in adult vaccination recently. New high-dose and adjuvanted influenza vaccines help improve immune response and may reduce influenza complications in older adults. The new recombinant zoster vaccine offers significantly more efficacy against zoster outbreaks and postherpetic neuralgia than zoster vaccine live. Pertussis vaccine given during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent between 50% and 90% of pertussis infections in infants. Shorter time for completion (1 vs 6 months) of new, adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine may increase adherence. Clinicians can address systemic barriers to increasing vaccination rates in their clinics and health care systems by following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Standards for Adult Immunization Practice. Clinicians can help increase vaccination rates by writing standing orders and by advocating for nurses or medical assistants to receive training and protected time for assessing and documenting vaccination histories and administration. Strong recommendations that presume acceptance of vaccination are effective with most patients. Communication techniques similar to motivational interviewing can help with vaccine-hesitant patients. Clinicians, as experts on providing preventive services, can educate community leaders about the benefits of immunization and can inform vaccine experts about challenges of implementing vaccination recommendations in clinical practice and strategies that can work to raise vaccination rates.


Assuntos
Vacinação em Massa , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Estados Unidos , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Viroses/epidemiologia
8.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(Spec 6/1): 552-558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864225

RESUMO

The proportion of adult population has increased globally and the current projections indicate that, by 2050, the group of 60 years and older will represent 21.1%. There are now vaccines exclusively designed for adults and others that are applied in early life but need to be updated later in life. Vaccines for adults are not only based on their respective age group but are also linked to risk factors like occupation, life style, health situation, among others. At the same time, longevity brings with it a weakening of the immune response to vaccines, a process known as immunosenescence representing an increasing challenge to adequately protect this age group. For some time, WHO has been promoting the term "Vaccination through the life course" allowing for an extension of the vaccination vision and taking adults as an integral part into the national vaccination programs and calendars. There are several vaccine preventable diseases affecting adults, but those associated with influenza virus and pneumococcus are the ones that affect the largest age group. Several recommendations include, additionally, others to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis A and B, meningococcus, chickenpox, measles, rubella, mumps, herpes zoster, human papilloma virus and others. There are still many challenges to overcome in order to fully include adults, particularly health personnel, and to make vaccines extensively valued as a prevention tool in order to achieve a healthy life.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/classificação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viroses/classificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Presse Med ; 48(12): 1528-1535, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767249

RESUMO

The emergence of a viral disease most often results from an imbalance in the interaction between the infectious agent, the host and the environment. After the introduction phase of a viral disease in a territory or a given population and once the first chains of transmission occur, the spread of the disease or its sustainability are possible if the control measures are not implemented or are not sufficiently effective. If it is difficult to anticipate the occurrence and introduction of an emerging viral disease, the following three key elements must be strengthened to limit its impact: (1) anticipation and preparation; (2) research and (3) monitoring and surveillance. Finally, to guarantee that the measures taken are relevant and acceptable to the population, a multidisciplinary approach must be systematically relied upon and re-evaluated on a prospective basis.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Previsões , Viroses/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Meio Ambiente , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Controle de Infecções/tendências , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Viroses/prevenção & controle
11.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1825-1830, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599524

RESUMO

Viral infections are extremely common and generally self-restricted, thus antiviral therapy is limited to precise indications. Apart from HIV (not reviewed in this article), the principal treatable viruses are HSV 1 and 2, VZV, CMV, Influenza A and B, and hepatitis B and C. Vaccination is another cornerstone of viral infections control. This article summarizes actual and available therapy. New treatments arrived recently on the market or are being developed : HCV can now be treated with a high success rate, baloxavir against the flu, a new zoster vaccine will probably soon be available in Switzerland and letermovir improves CMV prophylaxis in the case of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Medicina Geral , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Clínicos Gerais , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Suíça , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia
12.
Virol J ; 16(1): 109, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477134

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to summarise the virology content presented at the 9th Lorne Infection and Immunity Conference, Australia, in February 2019. The broad program included virology as a key theme, and the commentary herein highlights several key virology presentations at the meeting.


Assuntos
Virologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Austrália , Quirópteros/virologia , Congressos como Assunto , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/transmissão , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 417, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sterile male rear-and-release programmes are of growing interest for controlling Aedes aegypti, including use an "incompatible insect technique" (IIT) to suppress transmission of dengue, Zika, and other viruses. Under IIT, males infected with Wolbachia are released into the suppression area to induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in uninfected populations. These and similar mosquito-release programmes require cost-effective field surveys of both sexes to optimize the locations, timing, and quantity of releases. Unfortunately, traps that sample male Ae. aegypti effectively are expensive and usually require mains power. Recently, an electronic lure was developed that attracts males using a 484 Hz sinusoidal tone mimicking the female wingbeat frequencies, broadcast in a 120 s on/off cycle. When deployed in commercially available gravid Aedes traps (GATs), the new combination, sound-GAT (SGAT), captures both males and females effectively. Given its success, there is interest in optimizing SGAT to reduce cost and power usage while maximizing catch rates. METHODS: Options considered in this study included use of a smaller, lower-power microcontroller (Tiny) with either the original or a lower-cost speaker (lcS). A 30 s on/off cycle was tested in addition to the original 120 s cycle to minimize the potential that the longer cycle induced habituation. The original SGAT was compared against other traps incorporating the Tiny-based lures for mosquito capture in a large semi-field cage. The catch rates in waterproofed versions of this trap were then compared with catch rates in standard [BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS 2); Biogents AG, Regensburg, Germany] traps during an IIT field study in the Innisfail region of Queensland, Australia in 2017. RESULTS: The system with a low-power microcontroller and low-cost speaker playing a 30 s tone (Tiny-lcS-30s) caught the highest proportion of males. The mean proportions of males caught in a semi-field cage were not significantly different among the original design and the four low-power, low-cost versions of the SGAT. During the IIT field study, the waterproofed version of the highest-rated, Tiny-lcS-30s SGAT captured male Ae. aegypti at similar rates as co-located BGS-2 traps. CONCLUSIONS: Power- and cost-optimized, waterproofed versions of male Ae. aegypti acoustic lures in GATs are now available for field use in areas with sterile male mosquito rear-and-release programmes.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Som , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Custos e Análise de Custo , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(10): 2269-2285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368826

RESUMO

The devastating Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 has flagged the need for the timely development of vaccines for high-threat pathogens. To be better prepared for new epidemics, the WHO has compiled a list of priority pathogens that are likely to cause future outbreaks and for which R&D efforts are, therefore, paramount (R&D Blueprint: https://www.who.int/blueprint/priority-diseases/en/ ). To this end, the detailed characterization of vaccine platforms is needed. The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been established as a robust vaccine vector backbone for infectious diseases for well over a decade. The recent clinical trials testing the vaccine candidate VSV-EBOV against EBOV disease now have added a substantial amount of clinical data and suggest VSV to be an ideal vaccine vector candidate for outbreak pathogens. In this review, we discuss insights gained from the clinical VSV-EBOV vaccine trials as well as from animal studies investigating vaccine candidates for Blueprint pathogens.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos , Vesiculovirus , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vacinas Atenuadas , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle
15.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 142, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirame novirhabdovirus (HIRRV) can infect a wide range of marine and freshwater fish, causing huge economic losses to aquaculture industry. Vaccine development, especially oral vaccine, has become an effective and convenient way to control aquatic infectious diseases. HIRRV glycoprotein (G), an immunogenic viral protein is a potential vaccine candidate for prevention of the disease. Here, we aimed to construct a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain expressing HIRRV-G on the cell surface as an oral vaccine to prevent HIRRV. RESULTS: Glycoprotein gene of HIRRV was successfully cloned and expressed in L. lactis NZ9000 in a surface-displayed form, yielding Ll:pSLC-G. An approximately 81 kDa recombinant G protein (containing LysM anchoring motif) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and mass spectrometry analysis. The surface-displayed G protein was also verified by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assays. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential of Ll:pSLC-G as oral vaccine candidate, flounders were continuously fed with commercial diet pellets coated with 1.0 × 109 cfu/g of induced Ll:pSLC-G for 1 week. Four weeks later, booster vaccination was performed with the same procedure. Compared with the controls, Ll:pSLC-G elicited significantly higher levels of specific IgM against HIRRV in flounder gut mucus at the second week and in serum at the fourth week (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, oral immunization with Ll:pSLC-G could provide 60.7% protection against HIRRV infection and a significantly lower virus load was detected than the controls on the third day post-challenge (p < 0.01). Moreover, on the first day post 1-week feeding, approximately 104-105 recombinant L. lactis cells were detected in every gram of foregut, midgut and hindgut of flounder, which were mainly localized at the bottom of gut mucus layer; and on day 21, 102-103 L. lactis cells could still be recovered. CONCLUSIONS: HIRRV-G protein was successfully expressed on the surface of L. lactis cells, which could trigger mucosal and humoral immune response of flounder and provide considerable immune protection against HIRRV. It suggests that genetically engineered L. lactis expressing G protein can be employed as a promising oral vaccine against HIRRV infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Linguado/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Novirhabdovirus/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Engenharia Genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Viroses/veterinária
16.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(4): 447-467, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411169

RESUMO

Infectious diseases remain as the major causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality leading to significant healthcare expenditure in India. The country has experienced the outbreaks and epidemics of many infectious diseases. However, enormous successes have been obtained against the control of major epidemic diseases, such as malaria, plague, leprosy and cholera, in the past. The country's vast terrains of extreme geo-climatic differences and uneven population distribution present unique patterns of distribution of viral diseases. Dynamic interplays of biological, socio-cultural and ecological factors, together with novel aspects of human-animal interphase, pose additional challenges with respect to the emergence of infectious diseases. The important challenges faced in the control and prevention of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases range from understanding the impact of factors that are necessary for the emergence, to development of strengthened surveillance systems that can mitigate human suffering and death. In this article, the major emerging and re-emerging viral infections of public health importance have been reviewed that have already been included in the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/patogenicidade , Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia
18.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 26(3): 155-159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255509

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Different evaluations conducted on blood safety between 2004 and 2013 in Africa showed some progress in most countries. This paper describes the current status of the availability and access to safe blood in the Region. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to December 2018. Data were collected through a questionnaire prepared using key indicators of blood safety and analysis was done using Excel 2010 and results were compared to those of the 2013. RESULTS: A total of 2,678 blood centres were reported including 244 (9%) stand-alone and 2,434 (91%) hospital based. Amongst these countries, 90.2% had a blood policy, 60.1% participated in an External Quality Assessment Scheme for Transfusion Transmissible Infections screening, 12% had accredited blood services, 73.2% had national guidelines on clinical use of blood and 78% had a government budget. The total number of blood units collected was 4,899,913 and the average proportion of voluntary blood donations was 71%. Plasma-derived medicinal products were included in the national essential medicines list in 52.6% of countries. The average proportion of units of blood tested for infections was 99.5% for HIV, 92.3% for HBV, 98.9% for HCV, 98.8% for syphilis. The percentage of whole blood separated into blood components was 63.4%. CONCLUSION: Countries in the region continue to improve availability and access to safe blood, but challenges still remain and call for concrete actions required to reach universal access to quality and safe blood for transfusion throughout the region.


Assuntos
Segurança do Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , África/epidemiologia , Bancos de Sangue/normas , Bancos de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Sangue/normas , Segurança do Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue/normas , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/transmissão , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Reação Transfusional/prevenção & controle , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/epidemiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/transmissão , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27816, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyurea (HU) increases fetal hemoglobin (HgbF) and ameliorates sickle cell disease (SCD) symptoms. Studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of HU in infants and children. Initiation of HU in infancy for children with SCD needs to be implemented in community practice. PROCEDURE: Starting in 2011, the Pediatric Sickle Cell Program of Northern Virginia initiated HU in infants with SCD. A prospective longitudinal database tracked the clinical course and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four children with HgbSS who started HU by age 1 were continuously followed for a total of 95 person-years. Age at the time of analysis ranged from 2 to 7 years. Average hemoglobin at 6-month intervals ranged from 9.5 + 1.9 to 10.7 + 0.8 g/dL, and average HgbF ranged from 27.8 + 5.0% to 34.1 + 6.6%. Twenty-seven hospitalizations occurred (0.28/person-year), all before age 3, including 19 (70%) for fever or infection, five (19%) for splenic sequestration, and one (4%) for pain in an infant prior to starting HU. The treat-and-release emergency department visits totaled 68 (0.72/person-year), including 62 visits (91%) for fever, infection, or viral illness, and two visits (3%) for pain/dactylitis in infants before HU initiation. Splenic sequestration accounted for all five transfusions. No pain episodes requiring medical attention were documented after HU initiation. No complicated acute chest syndrome, no abnormal or conditional transcranial Doppler ultrasound, and no overt strokes occurred. CONCLUSION: Implementation of HU in infancy for patients with SCD in community practice is feasible and is highly effective in preventing disease complications.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Transfusão de Sangue , Hospitalização , Hidroxiureia/administração & dosagem , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Febre/sangue , Febre/prevenção & controle , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina Falciforme/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Viroses/sangue , Viroses/prevenção & controle
20.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 58(4): 532-537, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248735

RESUMO

In this report, a personal view is provided on the current achievements and challenges with unresolved issues regarding the viral and transfusion safety of blood in the UK and Europe. Advances in plasma fractionation processes and the use of alternative strategies to reshape treatment of bleeding disorders are also explored. The relationships between the cellular storage lesion and transfusion outcomes using newer tools such as -omics are explored. The use of some newer developments in the promising areas of diagnosis, development, and research [DDR] strategies for improving healthcare of both donors and recipients are discussed using the current transfusion transplant practices in the UK as an example. Other key sections include: a concise presentation of the "Big Six Parameters" for enhancing the safety of transfusion / transplant practice; surmounting the unresolved issues of blood viral safety and food borne diseases, the circulatory role of the donor-gut microbiome in transfusion-induced immunomodulation, and the use of extracellular vesicles [EV] in routine aspects of the cell lesion and in the clinical performance of red cells. These topics are discussed together with the concept of using cell microparticles in drug delivery and the promising role of novel blood products such as serum eye drops and platelet lysates in regenerative medicine. It is hoped that the information conveyed in this overview would be of educational value and serve the transfusion/ transplant services and those involved in related clinical-DDR strategies worldwide and cultivate future talents capable of serving patients.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Segurança do Sangue , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Medicina Regenerativa , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Doadores de Sangue , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/transmissão
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