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2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1217: 99-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898224

RESUMO

Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are efficient and diverse toolsets of the cells to regulate almost every biological process. However, these characteristics have also been usurped by many viruses to optimize for their replication. CRLs are often at the forefront of the arms races in the coevolution of viruses and hosts. Here we review the modes of actions and functional consequences of viral manipulations of host cell CRLs. We also discuss the therapeutic applications to target these viral manipulations for treating viral infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 44: 107155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760237

RESUMO

"Since the pathological conditions take place at the cellular level, viral myocarditis and postinfectious autoimmunity can be suggested but not diagnosed clinically. All clinical methods including imaging techniques are misleading if infectious agents are involved. Accurate diagnosis demands simultaneous histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biological workup of the tissue. If the primary infectious or immune-mediated causes of the disease are carefully defined by clinical and biopsy-based tools, specific antiviral treatment options in addition to basic symptomatic therapy are available under certain conditions. These may allow a tailored cause-specific treatment that improves symptoms and prognosis of patients with acute and chronic disease." Uwe Kühl; Heinz-Peter SchultheissViral myocarditis.Swiss Medical Weekly. 144():w14010, JAN 2014 DOI:10.4414/smw.2014.14010.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Miocardite/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Viroses/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Autoimunidade , Biópsia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Cardiomiopatias/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Miocardite/terapia , Miocardite/virologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/terapia , Viroses/virologia
5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(13): 138101, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697512

RESUMO

Multipartite viruses have a genome divided into different disconnected viral particles. A majority of multipartite viruses infect plants; very few target animals. To understand why, we use a simple, network-based susceptible-latent-infectious-recovered model. We show both analytically and numerically that, provided that the average degree of the contact network exceeds a critical value, even in the absence of an explicit microscopic advantage, multipartite viruses have a lower threshold to colonizing network-structured populations compared to a well-mixed population. We further corroborate this finding on two-dimensional lattice networks, which better represent the typical contact structures of plants.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Vírus de Plantas/fisiologia , Viroses/transmissão , Viroses/virologia , Genoma Viral , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Vírion/genética , Vírion/fisiologia
6.
Immunity ; 51(5): 856-870.e5, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747582

RESUMO

Naive CD8+ T cells differentiating into effector T cells increase glucose uptake and shift from quiescent to anabolic metabolism. Although much is known about the metabolism of cultured T cells, how T cells use nutrients during immune responses in vivo is less well defined. Here, we combined bioenergetic profiling and 13C-glucose infusion techniques to investigate the metabolism of CD8+ T cells responding to Listeria infection. In contrast to in vitro-activated T cells, which display hallmarks of Warburg metabolism, physiologically activated CD8+ T cells displayed greater rates of oxidative metabolism, higher bioenergetic capacity, differential use of pyruvate, and prominent flow of 13C-glucose carbon to anabolic pathways, including nucleotide and serine biosynthesis. Glucose-dependent serine biosynthesis mediated by the enzyme Phgdh was essential for CD8+ T cell expansion in vivo. Our data highlight fundamental differences in glucose use by pathogen-specific T cells in vivo, illustrating the impact of environment on T cell metabolic phenotypes.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Glucose/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicólise , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1701-1710, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749410

RESUMO

We conducted this study to describe the dynamics of the acquisition of respiratory pathogens, their potential interactions and risk factors for possible lower respiratory tract infection symptoms (LRTI) among French pilgrims during the 2018 Hajj. Each participant underwent four successive systematic nasopharyngeal swabs before and during their stay in Saudi Arabia. Carriage of the main respiratory pathogens was assessed by PCR. 121 pilgrims were included and 93.4% reported respiratory symptoms during the study period. The acquisition of rhinovirus, coronaviruses and Staphylococcus aureus occurred soon after arrival in Saudi Arabia and rates decreased gradually after days 5 and 6. In contrast, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage increased progressively until the end of the stay in Saudi Arabia. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis carriage increased starting around days 12 and 13, following an initial clearance. Influenza viruses were rarely isolated. We observed an independent positive mutual association between S. aureus and rhinovirus carriage and between H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis carriage. Dual carriage of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was strongly associated with S. pneumoniae carriage (OR = 6.22). Finally, our model showed that M. catarrhalis carriage was negatively associated with K. pneumoniae carriage. Chronic respiratory disease was associated with symptoms of LRTI. K. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis-S. aureus and H. influenzae-rhinovirus dual carriage was associated with LRTI symptoms. Our data suggest that RTIs at the Hajj are a result of complex interactions between a number of respiratory viruses and bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Viagem , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
8.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(5): 871-880, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661485

RESUMO

Numerous studies on the nature of neoplastic growth have demonstrated that oncogenic viruses maybe one of the factors causing cancer. According to various estimates, 10-20% of all human cancers are caused by viruses. For example, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B and C viruses, human papillomavirus (HPV), human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), and Merkel cell polyomavirus were implicated in initiating tumors. At the same time, the long period between viral infection and the manifestation of cancer significantly complicates the search for a causal relationship between the presence of a virus in the human organism and the malignant transformation. For this reason, the role of certain viruses in the initiation of neoplastic processes in humans remains an unresolved issue.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Vírus Oncogênicos/patogenicidade , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/virologia , Humanos
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 800-809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580938

RESUMO

This review describes and summarizes the knowledge on established and experimental vaccines developed against viral and bacterial pathologies affecting the most important farmed marine finfish species present in the Mediterranean area, namely European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax, sea bream Sparus aurata, turbot Psetta maxima and meagre Argyrosomus regius. The diseases that have been recorded in seabass, sea bream and meagre are caused by bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae, Tenacibaculum maritimum as well as by viruses such as Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy/Viral Nervous Necrosis and Lymphocystic disease. The main pathologies of turbot are instead bacteriosis provoked by Tenacibaculum maritimum, Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio anguillarum, and virosis by viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Some vaccines have been optimized and are now regularly available for the majority of the above-mentioned pathogens. A measurable immune protection has been conferred principally against Vibrio anguillarum, Photobacterium damselae sub. piscicida and VER/VNN.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/virologia
10.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 5370706, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583257

RESUMO

MHC class I molecules are key in the presentation of antigen and initiation of adaptive CD8+ T cell responses. In addition to its classical activity, MHC I may possess nonclassical functions. We have previously identified a regulatory role of MHC I in TLR signaling and antibacterial immunity. However, its role in innate antiviral immunity remains unknown. In this study, we found a reduced viral load in MHC I-deficient macrophages that was independent of type I IFN production. Mechanically, MHC I mediated viral suppression by inhibiting the type I IFN signaling pathway, which depends on SHP2. Cross-linking MHC I at the membrane increased SHP2 activation and further suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation. Therefore, our data revealed an inhibitory role of MHC I in type I IFN response to viral infection and expanded our understanding of MHC I and antigen presentation.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/metabolismo , Viroses/imunologia , Replicação Viral
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108419, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585655

RESUMO

Diarrhea is one of the major causes of neonatal mortality in pigs. In the present study, 31 pig farms with outbreaks of neonatal diarrhea were investigated in Catalonia (NE Spain) from February 2017 until June 2018. Two hundred and fifteen diarrheic samples from 1 to 7 days old piglets were tested for a panel of enteric pathogens. In 19 of the studied farms additional fecal samples from apparently healthy pen-mates were collected and tested for the same panel of infectious agents. Samples were bacteriologically cultured and tested by PCR for E. coli virulence factors genes, C. perfringens types A and C toxins (Cpα, Cpß, Cpß2) and C. difficile toxins (TcdA, TcdB). Moreover, Rotavirus A (RVA), Rotavirus B (RVB), Rotavirus C (RVC), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were also determined by RT-qPCR. More than one pathogen could be detected in all of the outbreaks. Nevertheless, RVA was the only agent that could be statistically correlated with the outcome of diarrhea. For the other viruses and bacteria analyzed significant differences between the diseased pigs and the controls were not found. In spite of this, the individual analysis of each of the studied farms indicated that other agents such as RVB, RVC, toxigenic C. difficile or pathogenic E. coli could play a relevant role in the outbreak of diarrhea. In conclusion, the large diversity of agent combinations and disease situations detected in neonatal diarrhea outbreaks of this study stand for a more personalized diagnosis and management advice at a farm level.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Diarreia/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Viroses/virologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575039

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a multifunctional factor that regulates inflammation and immunity. Knowledge of its regulatory mechanisms is very limited. Here, we showed that enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 and the expression of its downstream inflammatory regulators. Knockdown of STAT3 with siRNAs significantly restricted viral RNA and protein levels, and also reduced viral titers. With further investigation, we found that importin α family member Karyopherin-α1 (KPNA1) was employed by both STAT1 and STAT3 for their nuclear import. The phosphorylated and un-phosphorylated STAT3 competed with STAT1 for binding to the decreased KPNA1 post infection and repressed downstream ISG expression. STAT3 knockdown alleviated the repressed type I IFN-mediated antiviral response upon infection and led to decreased viral replication. Taken together, our data suggested the role of STAT3 in maintaining the balance of inflammation and antiviral responses in the central nervous system (CNS) upon infection.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais , Viroses/virologia
13.
Immunity ; 51(5): 840-855.e5, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606264

RESUMO

TCF-1 is a key transcription factor in progenitor exhausted CD8 T cells (Tex). Moreover, this Tex cell subset mediates responses to PD-1 checkpoint pathway blockade. However, the role of the transcription factor TCF-1 in early fate decisions and initial generation of Tex cells is unclear. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and lineage tracing identified a TCF-1+Ly108+PD-1+ CD8 T cell population that seeds development of mature Tex cells early during chronic infection. TCF-1 mediated the bifurcation between divergent fates, repressing development of terminal KLRG1Hi effectors while fostering KLRG1Lo Tex precursor cells, and PD-1 stabilized this TCF-1+ Tex precursor cell pool. TCF-1 mediated a T-bet-to-Eomes transcription factor transition in Tex precursors by promoting Eomes expression and drove c-Myb expression that controlled Bcl-2 and survival. These data define a role for TCF-1 in early-fate-bifurcation-driving Tex precursor cells and also identify PD-1 as a protector of this early TCF-1 subset.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/genética , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1825-1830, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599524

RESUMO

Viral infections are extremely common and generally self-restricted, thus antiviral therapy is limited to precise indications. Apart from HIV (not reviewed in this article), the principal treatable viruses are HSV 1 and 2, VZV, CMV, Influenza A and B, and hepatitis B and C. Vaccination is another cornerstone of viral infections control. This article summarizes actual and available therapy. New treatments arrived recently on the market or are being developed : HCV can now be treated with a high success rate, baloxavir against the flu, a new zoster vaccine will probably soon be available in Switzerland and letermovir improves CMV prophylaxis in the case of hematopoietic stem cell transplant.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Medicina Geral , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Clínicos Gerais , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Suíça , Vacinas Virais/provisão & distribução , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia
15.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 32(4)2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511250

RESUMO

Patients undergoing solid-organ transplantation (SOT) or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at increased risk for infectious complications. Community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs) pose a particular challenge due to the frequent exposure pre-, peri-, and posttransplantation. Although influenza A and B viruses have a top priority regarding prevention and treatment, recent molecular diagnostic tests detecting an array of other CARVs in real time have dramatically expanded our knowledge about the epidemiology, diversity, and impact of CARV infections in the general population and in allogeneic HCT and SOT patients. These data have demonstrated that non-influenza CARVs independently contribute to morbidity and mortality of transplant patients. However, effective vaccination and antiviral treatment is only emerging for non-influenza CARVs, placing emphasis on infection control and supportive measures. Here, we review the current knowledge about CARVs in SOT and allogeneic HCT patients to better define the magnitude of this unmet clinical need and to discuss some of the lessons learned from human influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenzavirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and bocavirus regarding diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Transplantados , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Viroses/terapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais
16.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 315-339, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560123

RESUMO

Foodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different enteric virus infections among Egyptian population such as Hepatitis A and E viruses, human rotaviruses, human noroviruses, human astroviruses, and human adenovirus. Recently, a number of foodborne gastroenteritis and acute hepatitis outbreaks have occurred in the US, Canada, Australia, and the European Union countries. Some of these outbreaks were attributed to the consumption of minimally processed foods imported from Egypt indicating the possibility that Egyptian foods may also be partially responsible for high prevalence of enteric virus infections among Egyptian population. In the absence of official foodborne-pathogen surveillance systems, evaluating the virological safety of Egyptian foods is a difficult task. In this review, we aim to provide a preliminary evaluation of the virological safety of Egyptian foods. A comprehensive review of prevalence studies on enteric virus infections shows hyperendemicity of several enteric viruses in Egypt and provides strong evidence of implication of Egyptian foods in these infections. We also address possible environmental risk factors that may lead to the contamination of Egyptian foods with enteric viruses. In addition, we describe potential obstacles to any plan that might be considered for improving the virological safety of Egyptian foods.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/mortalidade , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/mortalidade , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547251

RESUMO

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes that play an important role in the innate immune system. They are of particular interest for their role in elimination of intracellular pathogens, viral infection and tumor cells. As such, numerous strategies are being investigated in order to potentiate their functions. One of these techniques aims at promoting the function of their activating receptors. However, different observations have revealed that providing activation signals could actually be counterproductive and lead to NK cells' hyporesponsiveness. This phenomenon can occur during the NK cell education process, under pathological conditions, but also after treatment with different agents, including cytokines, that are promising tools to boost NK cell function. In this review, we aim to highlight the different circumstances where NK cells become hyporesponsive and the methods that could be used to restore their functionality.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/imunologia
18.
Elife ; 82019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478480

RESUMO

The collapse of iconic, keystone populations of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon in the Northeast Pacific is of great concern. It is thought that infectious disease may contribute to declines, but little is known about viruses endemic to Pacific salmon. Metatranscriptomic sequencing and surveillance of dead and moribund cultured Chinook salmon revealed a novel arenavirus, reovirus and nidovirus. Sequencing revealed two different arenavirus variants which each infect wild Chinook and sockeye salmon. In situ hybridisation localised arenavirus mostly to blood cells. Population surveys of >6000 wild juvenile Chinook and sockeye salmon showed divergent distributions of viruses, implying different epidemiological processes. The discovery in dead and dying farmed salmon of previously unrecognised viruses that are also widely distributed in wild salmon, emphasizes the potential role that viral disease may play in the population dynamics of wild fish stocks, and the threat that these viruses may pose to aquaculture.


Assuntos
Arenavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Nidovirales/isolamento & purificação , Reoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Salmão/virologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Arenavirus/classificação , Arenavirus/genética , Células Sanguíneas/virologia , Hibridização In Situ , Metagenômica , Nidovirales/classificação , Nidovirales/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Reoviridae/classificação , Reoviridae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcrição Genética , Viroses/virologia
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101272, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481344

RESUMO

The continuous flow of billions of birds between Africa and Europe creates an "ecological bridge" between physically remote areas. Migratory birds fly south from their breeding grounds during late summer/fall and fly back in spring. These movements regulate the spread of internal and external parasites, as well as pathogens of potential public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible introduction of exotic tick species and tick-borne pathogens into Europe via migratory birds. At the bird observatory of Ventotene island (Italy), 443 feeding ticks were collected from 249 birds captured and ringed during their northbound migration in spring 2013. Each tick was identified by morphological and molecular methods and then tested for bacterial and viral pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Coxiella burnetii, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Flavivirus. Morphological and molecular identification confirmed Hyalomma rufipes as the most abundant species among the collected arthropods (366/443; 82.6%) followed by Hyalomma marginatum (10/433; 2.3%). Rickettsia aeschlimannii was identified in 158 ticks, while one engorged Amblyomma variegatum nymph was infected with Rickettsia africae. The other bacteria were not detected in any specimen. Among viruses, RNA belonging to West Nile virus and other Flavivirus were detected whereas all ticks were negative for CCHFV RNA. These results confirm how migratory birds play a role in carrying Rickettsia-infected ticks, as well as viruses of zoonotic importance, from Africa into Europe. To what extent tick species are capable of establishing a permanent population once introduced in naïve areas, is far from defined and deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Aves , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Aves/virologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Itália , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(9)2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470675

RESUMO

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) can capture the full spectrum of viral pathogens in a specimen and has the potential to become an all-in-one solution for virus diagnostics. To date, clinical application is still in an early phase and limitations remain. Here, we evaluated the impact of viral mNGS for cases analyzed over two years in a tertiary diagnostics unit. High throughput mNGS was performed upon request by the treating clinician in cases where the etiology of infection remained unknown or the initial differential diagnosis was very broad. The results were compared to conventional routine testing regarding outcome and workload. In total, 163 specimens from 105 patients were sequenced. The main sample types were cerebrospinal fluid (34%), blood (33%) and throat swabs (10%). In the majority of the cases, viral encephalitis/meningitis or respiratory infection was suspected. In parallel, conventional virus diagnostic tests were performed (mean 18.5 individually probed targets/patients). mNGS detected viruses in 34 cases (32%). While often confirmatory, in multiple cases, the identified viruses were not included in the selected routine diagnostic tests. Two years of mNGS in a tertiary diagnostics unit demonstrated the advantages of a single, untargeted approach for comprehensive, rapid and efficient virus diagnostics, confirming the utility of mNGS in complementing current routine tests.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Viroses/virologia , Sangue/virologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Metagenômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/estatística & dados numéricos , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia
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