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1.
Cells ; 9(11)2020 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171736

RESUMO

Viruses exhibit an elegant simplicity, as they are so basic, but so frightening. Although only a few are life threatening, they have substantial implications for human health and the economy, as exemplified by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. Viruses are rather small infectious agents found in all types of life forms, from animals and plants to prokaryotes and archaebacteria. They are obligate intracellular parasites, and as such, subvert many molecular and cellular processes of the host cell to ensure their own replication, amplification, and subsequent spread. This special issue addresses the cell biology of viral infections based on a collection of original research articles, communications, opinions, and reviews on various aspects of virus-host cell interactions. Together, these articles not only provide a glance into the latest research on the cell biology of viral infections, but also include novel technological developments.


Assuntos
Viroses/patologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia
2.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(5): 644-650, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210494

RESUMO

A large number of viruses have been found to be associated with ocular diseases, including human adenovirus, human herpesvirus (HHV), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), and newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This group of diseases is prone to be misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis, resulting in serious tissue and visual damage. Etiological diagnosis is a powerful auxiliary mean to diagnose the ocular diseases associated with human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus, and it provides the leading diagnosis evidence of infections with herpes simplex virus 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV-6/7, HHV-8, HTLV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Virus isolation, immunoassay and genetic diagnosis are usually used for etiologic diagnosis. For genetic diagnosis, the PCR technique is the most important approach because of its advantages of rapid detection, convenient operation, high sensitivity and high specificity.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Pesquisa , Viroses , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pesquisa/tendências , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/virologia
3.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092041

RESUMO

Viral infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the importance of public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations in reducing their spread is well established. Furthermore, it is well known that proper nutrition can help support optimal immune function, reducing the impact of infections. Several vitamins and trace elements play an important role in supporting the cells of the immune system, thus increasing the resistance to infections. Other nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, help sustain optimal function of the immune system. The main aim of this manuscript is to discuss of the potential role of micronutrients supplementation in supporting immunity, particularly against respiratory virus infections. Literature analysis showed that in vitro and observational studies, and clinical trials, highlight the important role of vitamins A, C, and D, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc in modulating the immune response. Supplementation with vitamins, omega 3 fatty acids and zinc appears to be a safe and low-cost way to support optimal function of the immune system, with the potential to reduce the risk and consequences of infection, including viral respiratory infections. Supplementation should be in addition to a healthy diet and fall within recommended upper safety limits set by scientific expert bodies. Therefore, implementing an optimal nutrition, with micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, might be a cost-effective, underestimated strategy to help reduce the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico
4.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096825

RESUMO

Most cells can release extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles containing various proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and signaling molecules. The exchange of EVs between cells facilitates intercellular communication, amplification of cellular responses, immune response modulation, and perhaps alterations in viral pathogenicity. EVs serve a dual role in inhibiting or enhancing viral infection and pathogenesis. This review examines the current literature on EVs to explore the complex role of EVs in the enhancement, inhibition, and potential use as a nanotherapeutic against clinically relevant viruses, focusing on neurotropic viruses: Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, this review's scope will elaborate on EV-based mechanisms, which impact viral pathogenicity, facilitate viral spread, and modulate antiviral immune responses.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Exossomos/metabolismo , HIV/metabolismo , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Retroviridae/metabolismo , Simplexvirus/metabolismo , Terapêutica/métodos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/virologia , Zika virus/metabolismo , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
5.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872469

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emphasizes the need to actively study the virome of unexplained respiratory diseases. We performed viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) analysis of 91 nasal-throat swabs from individuals working with animals and with acute respiratory diseases. Fifteen virus RT-PCR-positive samples were included as controls, while the other 76 samples were RT-PCR negative for a wide panel of respiratory pathogens. Eukaryotic viruses detected by mNGS were then screened by PCR (using primers based on mNGS-derived contigs) in all samples to compare viral detection by mNGS versus PCR and assess the utility of mNGS in routine diagnostics. mNGS identified expected human rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, influenza A virus, coronavirus OC43, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A in 13 of 15 (86.7%) positive control samples. Additionally, rotavirus, torque teno virus, human papillomavirus, human betaherpesvirus 7, cyclovirus, vientovirus, gemycircularvirus, and statovirus were identified through mNGS. Notably, complete genomes of novel cyclovirus, gemycircularvirus, and statovirus were genetically characterized. Using PCR screening, the novel cyclovirus was additionally detected in 5 and the novel gemycircularvirus in 12 of the remaining samples included for mNGS analysis. Our studies therefore provide pioneering data of the virome of acute-respiratory diseases from individuals at risk of zoonotic infections. The mNGS protocol/pipeline applied here is sensitive for the detection of a variety of viruses, including novel ones. More frequent detections of the novel viruses by PCR than by mNGS on the same samples suggests that PCR remains the most sensitive diagnostic test for viruses whose genomes are known. The detection of novel viruses expands our understanding of the respiratory virome of animal-exposed humans and warrant further studies.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Viroses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898160

RESUMO

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators of plants, including those that produce nut, fruit, and vegetable crops. Therefore, high annual losses of managed honey bee colonies in the United States and many other countries threaten global agriculture. Honey bee colony deaths have been associated with multiple abiotic and biotic factors, including pathogens, but the impact of virus infections on honey bee colony population size and survival are not well understood. To further investigate seasonal patterns of pathogen presence and abundance and the impact of viruses on honey bee colony health, commercially managed colonies involved in the 2016 California almond pollination event were monitored for one year. At each sample date, colony health and pathogen burden were assessed. Data from this 50-colony cohort study illustrate the dynamic nature of honey bee colony health and the temporal patterns of virus infection. Black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, sacbrood virus, and the Lake Sinai viruses were the most readily detected viruses in honey bee samples obtained throughout the year. Analyses of virus prevalence and abundance revealed pathogen-specific trends including the overall increase in deformed wing virus abundance from summer to fall, while the levels of Lake Sinai virus 2 (LSV2) decreased over the same time period. Though virus prevalence and abundance varied in individual colonies, analyses of the overall trends reveal correlation with sample date. Total virus abundance increased from November 2015 (post-honey harvest) to the end of the almond pollination event in March 2016, which coincides with spring increase in colony population size. Peak total virus abundance occurred in late fall (August and October 2016), which correlated with the time period when the majority of colonies died. Honey bee colonies with larger populations harbored less LSV2 than weaker colonies with smaller populations, suggesting an inverse relationship between colony health and LSV2 abundance. Together, data from this and other longitudinal studies at the colony level are forming a better understanding of the impact of viruses on honey bee colony losses.


Assuntos
Abelhas/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/veterinária , Agricultura , Animais , Estações do Ano , Viroses/virologia
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112604, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980805

RESUMO

Virus severely endangers human life and health, and the detection of viruses is essential for the prevention and treatment of associated diseases. Metal-organic framework (MOF), a novel hybrid porous material which is bridged by the metal clusters and organic linkers, has become a promising biosensor platform for virus detection due to its outstanding properties including high surface area, adjustable pore size, easy modification, etc. However, the MOF-based sensing platforms for virus detection are rarely summarized. This review systematically divided the detection platforms into nucleic acid and immunological (antigen and antibody) detection, and the underlying sensing mechanisms were interpreted. The nucleic acid sensing was discussed based on the properties of MOF (such as metal ion, functional group, geometry structure, size, porosity, stability, etc.), revealing the relationship between the sensing performance and properties of MOF. Moreover, antibodies sensing based on the fluorescence detection and antigens sensing based on molecular imprinting or electrochemical immunoassay were highlighted. Furthermore, the remaining challenges and future development of MOF for virus detection were further discussed and proposed. This review will provide valuable references for the construction of sophisticated sensing platform for the detection of viruses, especially the 2019 coronavirus.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Antígenos Virais/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Humanos , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Imunoensaio/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Impressão Molecular/instrumentação , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Viroses/diagnóstico
8.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967126

RESUMO

Viral infections have been a cause of mortality for several centuries and continue to endanger the lives of many, specifically of the younger population. Vitamin D has long been recognized as a crucial element to the skeletal system in the human body. Recent evidence has indicated that vitamin D also plays an essential role in the immune response against viral infections and suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases susceptibility to viral infections as well as the risk of recurrent infections. For instance, low serum vitamin D levels were linked to increased occurrence of high burdens viral diseases such as hepatitis, influenza, Covid-19, and AIDS. As immune cells in infected patients are responsive to the ameliorative effects of vitamin D, the beneficial effects of supplementing vitamin D-deficient individuals with an infectious disease may extend beyond the impact on bone and calcium homeostasis. Even though numerous studies have highlighted the effect of vitamin D on the immune cells, vitamin D's antiviral mechanism has not been fully established. This paper reviews the recent mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system, both innate and adaptive systems, and reflects on the link between serum vitamin D levels and viral infections.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/terapia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/virologia
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(18): 7777-7785, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780290

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, is the main pathogenic agent of the rapidly spreading pneumonia called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infects much more people, especially the elder population, around the world than other coronavirus, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which is challenging current global public health system. Beyond the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, microbial coinfection plays an important role in the occurrence and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection by raising the difficulties of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of COVID-19, and even increasing the disease symptom and mortality. We summarize the coinfection of virus, bacteria and fungi with SARS-CoV-2, their effects on COVID-19, the reasons of coinfection, and the diagnosis to emphasize the importance of microbial coinfection in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Microbial coinfection is a nonnegligible factor in COVID-19. • Microbial coinfection exacerbates the processes of the occurrence, development and prognosis of COVID-19, and the difficulties of clinical diagnosis and treatment. • Different virus, bacteria, and fungi contributed to the coinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/microbiologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfopenia/microbiologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/microbiologia , Viroses/virologia
10.
Virus Res ; 287: 198108, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768490

RESUMO

Viral infections are dangerous diseases for human health worldwide, which lead to significant morbidity and mortality each year. Because of their importance and the lack of effective therapeutic approaches, further attempts should be made to discover appropriate alternative or complementary treatments. Melatonin, a multifunctional neurohormone mainly synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland, plays some roles in the treatment of viral infections. Regarding a deadly outbreak of COVID-19 across the world, we decided to discuss melatonin functions against various viral infections including COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we summarize current evidence on melatonin therapy for viral infections with focus on possible underlying mechanisms of melatonin actions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Antioxidantes , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia
13.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 137(4): 297-301, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773332

RESUMO

Viruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the current COVID-19 epidemic, are a key to the understanding of life and evolution. Cells may have arisen from aqueous sequestration inside a lipid envelope studded with chromophores capable of capturing solar photons. Nitrogen incorporation in the primordial cell chemistry allowed synthesis of amino acids and nucleic acids, a prelude to RNA and subsequently DNA. Metagenomics provides access to nucleoprotein sediments synthesised by a googol of metabolically differentiated cells that have marked the evolution of life. Replication of a virus, a nucleoprotein particle, occurs passively in competent cells. Viruses are only identified in the context of the epidemic that they induce as a result of transmission from one host to another. By breaking down the viral particle, the host cell appears to resurrect the metabolic function of the nucleic acid, which synthesises its components without any form of control. Viral products undergo self-assembly and are exported by either exocytosis or cytolysis. In the absence of cells, viruses appear to be inert. However, intracellular contamination of a virus does not always result in replication: the viral genome can disappear, remain latent, wake up, remain embedded in the cellular genome, become an oncogene or induce auto-immunity. The presence of endogenous retroviruses in eukaryotic cells raises the question of their possible role in evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Células/metabolismo , Células/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Animais , Humanos , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia
15.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 49: 107260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to study the effect of immunosupressive therapy (IST) in the virus-negative and virus-positive patients with immune-mediated myocarditis. METHODS: in 60 patients (45 male, 46.7 ± 11.8 years, mean LV EDD, 6.7 ± 0.7 cm, EF 26.2 ± 9.1%) active/borderline myocarditis was verified by endomyocardial biopsy (n = 38), intraoperative biopsy (n = 10), examination of explanted heart (n = 3) and autopsy (n = 9). Indications for IST determined based on histological, immune activity. The follow-up was 19.0 [7.25; 40.25] months. RESULTS: The viral genome in the myocardium was detected in 32 patients (V+ group), incl. parvovirus B19 in 23. The anti-heart antibody level was equally high in the V+ and V- patients. Antiviral therapy was administered in 24 patients. IST (in 22 V+ and 24 V- patients) include steroids (n = 40), hydroxychloroquine (n = 20), azathioprine (n = 21). The significant decrease of LV EDD (6.7 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.8), PAP (48.9 ± 15.5 to 39.4 ± 11.5 mm Hg, р<0,01), increase of EF (26.5 ± 0.9 to 36.0 ± 10.8), and lower lethality (23.9% and 64.3%; RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.71), p<0.01, were found only in IST group. Significant improvement due to IST were achieved not only in V-, but also in V+ patients. CONCLUSIONS: IST in patients with immune-mediated lymphocytic myocarditis is effective and is associated with lower lethality both in virus-negative and virus-positive patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/imunologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/imunologia , Miocardite/patologia , Miocardite/virologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/patologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673355

RESUMO

Antimicrobial-resistant and novel pathogens continue to emerge, outpacing efforts to contain and treat them. Therefore, there is a crucial need for safe and effective therapies. Ultraviolet-A (UVA) phototherapy is FDA-approved for several dermatological diseases but not for internal applications. We investigated UVA effects on human cells in vitro, mouse colonic tissue in vivo, and UVA efficacy against bacteria, yeast, coxsackievirus group B and coronavirus-229E. Several pathogens and virally transfected human cells were exposed to a series of specific UVA exposure regimens. HeLa, alveolar and primary human tracheal epithelial cell viability was assessed after UVA exposure, and 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was measured as an oxidative DNA damage marker. Furthermore, wild-type mice were exposed to intracolonic UVA as an in vivo model to assess safety of internal UVA exposure. Controlled UVA exposure yielded significant reductions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridioides difficile, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. UVA-treated coxsackievirus-transfected HeLa cells exhibited significantly increased cell survival compared to controls. UVA-treated coronavirus-229E-transfected tracheal cells exhibited significant coronavirus spike protein reduction, increased mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein and decreased coronavirus-229E-induced cell death. Specific controlled UVA exposure had no significant effect on growth or 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in three types of human cells. Single or repeated in vivo intraluminal UVA exposure produced no discernible endoscopic, histologic or dysplastic changes in mice. These findings suggest that, under specific conditions, UVA reduces various pathogens including coronavirus-229E, and may provide a safe and effective treatment for infectious diseases of internal viscera. Clinical studies are warranted to further elucidate the safety and efficacy of UVA in humans.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Micoses/terapia , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Terapia Ultravioleta/métodos , Viroses/terapia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/efeitos da radiação , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterovirus Humano B/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Micoses/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Terapia Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Viroses/virologia , Leveduras/efeitos da radiação
17.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(3): e12928, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640050

RESUMO

Several enveloped viruses, particularly some RNA viruses, have high rates of mutation or replication, which can make them virulent pathogens in humans and other mammals. A proposed treatment could use synthesized proteins to mask pathogenic viral surface proteins to quickly induce an immune attack on specific enveloped viruses by using existing immune cells. One treatment could inject dual-protein ligand masks into patients' bloodstreams to mask pathogenic surface proteins used to infect mammalian cells. The mammalian immune system already uses an analogous, more complex structure called a pentraxin to neutralize some pathogens by connecting their surface proteins to immune cells. And several types of antiviral peptides have already experimentally demonstrated effectiveness in blocking various viral pathogen infections. These treatments offer advantages, especially for currently untreatable viral pathogens. Furthermore, using dual-protein ligands and the antigenic memory of some sub-populations of NK cells would also allow the creation of defacto vaccines based on a host's NK cells, instead of vaccines utilizing CD4 and CD8 α:ß T cells, which are limited by the requirement of MHC presentation of the target antigens to α:ß T cells. Targeted NK cell vaccines could attack host cells latently or actively infected by intracellular pathogens, even host cells having pathogen downregulated MHC antigen presentation. Eight postulates concerning the effects of pathogen mutation, or change in phenotype from genetic recombination or rearrangement, and replication rates on pathogen vs host dominance are also listed, which should be applicable to viral and non-viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Mutação , Viroses/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Replicação Viral , Vírus/genética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Fenótipo , Recombinação Genética , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/imunologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/imunologia
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 275-280, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vaccination coverage is decreasing worldwide, favoring the potential reemergence of vaccine-preventable diseases. In this study, we performed a longitudinal characterization of vaccination coverage in Brazil and compared the profiles between the distinct regions in the country to test whether there has been a substantial change over the last 5 years. METHODS: De-identified publicly available data were retrieved from the repository of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, comprising detailed information on vaccination coverage in all age groups between 1994 and 2019. The vaccination coverage for the whole country and for each Brazilian region, by year, was examined, and a time-series pattern analysis was performed. RESULTS: A significant decrease in overall vaccination coverage across the country regions was observed between 2017 and 2019, especially in childhood immunization. A reduction in BCG, hepatitis B, influenza, and rotavirus vaccine coverage was observed. Conversely, vaccines against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and meningococcus showed an increase in coverage. Region-specific changes in vaccination patterns within the study period were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial reduction in vaccination coverage was detected in Brazil, a country already highly susceptible to the emergence of epidemic infectious diseases. Continuing evaluation of the immunization program actions may help to improve vaccination coverage and prevent new epidemics.


Assuntos
Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vírus/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Vacinação/economia , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinas Virais/economia , Viroses/economia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 249-251, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To metagenomically analyse blood units originating from the Brazilian Amazon and positive for parenterally transmitted infections (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), Chagas disease or syphilis). METHODS: Twenty plasma samples (35% HBV-positive, 10% HIV-positive, 10% HCV-positive, 20% positive for syphilis, 20% for Chagas disease, and 5% for HTLV) assembled in pools were analysed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing. The obtained raw sequencing data were submitted to a bioinformatic pipeline set up for identification of emerging viruses. The viral reads of interest were phylogenetically analysed and confirmed by PCR in the individual samples. RESULTS: The metagenomic analysis identified contigs belonging to the emerging human Gemykibivirus-2 (HuGkV-2) in two pools. The HuGkV-1 phylogeny demonstrated that the Amazonian isolate formed a separate cluster with other HuGkV-2 strains obtained from human hosts. The PCR confirmation detected HuGkV-1 DNA in three individual samples (15%). CONCLUSIONS: HuGkV-2 is an emerging virus with unknown clinical impact. The detection of HuGkV-2 DNA in blood donations positive for parenterally transmitted infections showed that HuGkV-2 can be considered as an opportunistic viral agent with a hypothetic parenteral transmission route.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Sangue/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Viroses/sangue , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3510, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665616

RESUMO

We report Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in 130 infants born to PCR+ mothers at the time of the Rio de Janeiro epidemic of 2015-2016. Serum and urine collected from birth through the first year of life were tested by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or IgM Zika MAC-ELISA. Four hundred and seven specimens are evaluated; 161 sera tested by PCR and IgM assays, 85 urines by PCR. Sixty-five percent of children (N = 84) are positive in at least one assay. Of 94 children tested within 3 months of age, 70% are positive. Positivity declines to 33% after 3 months. Five children are PCR+ beyond 200 days of life. Concordance between IgM and PCR results is 52%, sensitivity 65%, specificity 40% (positive PCR results as gold standard). IgM and serum PCR are 61% concordant; serum and urine PCR 55%. Most children (65%) are clinically normal. Equal numbers of children with abnormal findings (29 of 45, 64%) and normal findings (55 of 85, 65%) have positive results, p = 0.98. Earlier maternal trimester of infection is associated with positive results (p = 0.04) but not clinical disease (p = 0.98). ZIKV vertical transmission is frequent but laboratory confirmed infection is not necessarily associated with infant abnormalities.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Viroses/virologia
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