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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e53264, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145832

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a experiência de famílias que vivenciam o sofrimento mental em dispositivos existenciais presentes no território. Método: estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa, fundamentado na fenomenologia de Merleau-Ponty. Com aprovação do comitê de ética em pesquisa, o estudo foi desenvolvido entre julho de 2017 e junho de 2018 em um município da Bahia, Brasil, com a participação de dez famílias, representadas por 24 pessoas. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas fenomenológicas e rodas de intersubjetividade, tendo sido analisados pela técnica analítica da ambiguidade. Resultados: as descrições foram categorizadas em: família como lugar de re(construção) de virtudes relacionais e liberdade como dispositivo existencial de cuidado. Conclusão: o estudo demostrou o potencial da família para se constituir como espaço de promoção de virtudes e fortalecimento de vínculos; e ressaltou a importância da construção e valorização de experiências dialógicas, a exemplo das rodas de intersubjetividade, que se mostraram como relevante estratégia de cuidado em saúde mental.


Objective: to describe the experience of families who experience mental suffering in existential spaces in the territory. Method: this qualitative, descriptive study, based on the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty and approved by the research ethics committee, was conducted between July 2017 and June 2018 in a municipality in Bahia, Brazil, with the participation of ten families, represented by 24 people. Data were collected in phenomenological interviews and intersubjectivity groups, and then analyzed using the ambiguity analysis technique. Results: the resulting descriptions were categorized into the family as a place for re(building) relational virtues and freedom as an existential space for care. Conclusion: the study demonstrated the family's potential to constitute a space for promoting virtues and strengthening bonds, and highlighted the importance of building and valuing dialogical experiences, such as the intersubjectivity groups, which proved to be a substantial mental health care strategy.


Objetivo: describir la vivencia de familias que experimentan sufrimiento mental en espacios existenciales del territorio. Método: este estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, basado en la fenomenología de Merleau-Ponty y aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación, se realizó entre julio de 2017 y junio de 2018 en un municipio de Bahía, Brasil, con la participación de diez familias, representadas por 24 personas. Los datos fueron recolectados en entrevistas fenomenológicas y grupos de intersubjetividad, y luego analizados usando la técnica de análisis de ambigüedad. Resultados: las descripciones resultantes se categorizaron en la familia como lugar de reconstrucción de las virtudes relacionales y la libertad como espacio existencial para el cuidado. Conclusión: el estudio demostró el potencial de la familia para constituir un espacio de promoción de virtudes y fortalecimiento de vínculos, y destacó la importancia de construir y valorar experiencias dialógicas, como los grupos de intersubjetividad, que resultó ser una estrategia sustancial de atención en salud mental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Família/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Virtudes , Relações Familiares , Liberdade , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Estresse Psicológico/reabilitação , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Mental
2.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 139-149, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910668

RESUMO

The crisis of COVID-19 leaves us a teaching in the form of reminiscence. We do not learn anything new from it, but it reminds us of something we knew and forgot. It shows us in a new light our vulnerability, the impossibility of protecting ourselves perfectly through prediction and control. The sciences do not predict with certainty and the technologies do not manage to have everything under control, although the former and the latter have many other and worthwhile functions. Ideologies do not see the future, no matter how much they pretend to do so. However, we are not without reliable guidance in deciding our actions. This orientation must be sought in being, not in the future. It is fidelity to our common human nature that must advise us. It is the full realization of our personal being, of our peculiar vocation, that guides us. So, the means for self-realization consists in the development of a virtuous character. The same character that has mitigated the ravages of the pandemic, given that, to some degree, it was already present in many of our fellow citizens. The same that would have alleviated the suffering even more if it had been available in more people and to a greater degree.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Previsões , Características Humanas , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Resiliência Psicológica , Responsabilidade Social , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Virtudes , Populações Vulneráveis
3.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 31-42, 2020 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988184

RESUMO

Sin in its original form constitutes a deviation from human behavior. Christian doctrine incorporates into the Judeo-Christian tradition the deadly sins that we all know (and their demons), as well as the virtues that are supposed to defeat or at least neutralize: 1) pride / humility, 2) greed / generosity, 3) lust / chastity, 4) anger / patience, 5) gluttony / temperance, 6) envy / charity and 7) laziness / diligence. In this same line of thought, to sin would be to abuse the freedom of God. According to John Bossy, the seven deadly sins would be the expression of a social and community ethic with which the Catholic Church tried at the time to contain violence and heal the troubled medieval society. Sins and their penance were originally a healthy warning of how to manage one’s individual and social behavior (Savater, 2013). That which Modern society allows as lawful or not, has “overcome” the conduct and moral republicanism of our days (1). Morality is one of the most sophisticated features of human judgment, behavior, and mind. An individual who deviates from violent morality, rules and civil rights, even affecting the individual liberties of others, sometimes even aggressively. A scientific approach to the origins of evil refers us to the exciting analysis of the molecular, epigenetic, phylogenetic and cellular determinants of the neurobiology of sin. This formidable adventure of thought constitutes a harmonious path traveled by moral philosophy and the neurosciences of that long stretch that is between the error of Prometheus and the error of Descartes.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Cristianismo , Princípios Morais , Virtudes , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Filogenia
4.
J Med Philos ; 45(4-5): 560-579, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726810

RESUMO

After expressing our gratitude to the commentators for their valuable analyses and assessments of Principles of Biomedical Ethics, we respond to several particular critiques raised by the commentators under the following rubrics: the compatibility of different sets of principles and rules; challenges to the principle of respect for autonomy; connecting principles to cases and resolving their conflicts; the value of and compatibility of virtues and principles; common morality theory; and moral status. We point to areas where we see common agreement with our commentators and respond to their critical evaluations.


Assuntos
Bioética , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Teoria Ética , Humanos , Virtudes
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517165

RESUMO

Engaging in prosocial behavior is considered an effective way to increase happiness in a sustainable manner. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the conditions under which such a happiness effect occurs. From a person-activity congruence perspective, we proposed that an individual's eudaimonic orientation moderates the effect of prosocial behavior on happiness, whereas hedonic orientation does not. For this purpose, 128 participants were assigned to play a game in which half of them were explained the benevolence impact of playing the game (the benevolence condition), and the other half played the same game without this knowledge (the control condition). Participants' eudaimonic and hedonic orientations were assessed before the game, and their post-task happiness were measured after the game. The results showed that participants in the benevolence condition reported higher post-task positive affect than those in the control condition. Furthermore, this happiness effect was moderated by participants' eudaimonic orientation-participants with high eudaimonic orientation reaped greater benefits from benevolence, and their hedonic orientation did not moderate the relationship between benevolence and happiness. The importance of the effect of person-activity congruence on happiness is discussed, along with the implications of these findings for sustainably pursuing happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Orientação , Prazer/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Filosofia , Teoria Psicológica , Virtudes
9.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 64(5): 470-497, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126867

RESUMO

Research on incarcerated offenders trained to help prisoners change is rare because programs that equip inmates with practical capacities for helping others rehabilitate in prison hardly exist. An exception is the Field Ministry program in Texas, which enlists inmates who have graduated from a prison-based seminary to work as "Field Ministers" and serve other inmates in various capacities. We hypothesize that inmate exposure to Field Ministers is inversely related to antisocial factors and positively to prosocial ones. We applied manifest-variable structural equation modeling to analyze data from a survey of a random sample of male inmates at three maximum-security prisons where the Field Ministry program operated. We found that inmates exposed more frequently to the Field Ministry and for a longer time period tended to report lower levels of criminological risk factors and aggressiveness and higher levels of virtues and predictors of human agency as well as religiosity and spirituality.


Assuntos
Clero/psicologia , Mentores/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Clero/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/organização & administração , Fatores de Proteção , Religião , Espiritualidade , Texas , Virtudes
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203528

RESUMO

Extant research suggests that individuals employ traditional moral heuristics to support their observed altruistic behavior; yet findings have largely been limited to inductive extrapolation and rely on relatively few traditional frames in so doing, namely, deontology in organizational behavior and virtue theory in law and economics. Given that these and competing moral frames such as utilitarianism can manifest as identical behavior, we develop a moral framing instrument-the Philosophical Moral-Framing Measure (PMFM)-to expand and distinguish traditional frames associated and disassociated with observed altruistic behavior. The validation of our instrument based on 1015 subjects in 3 separate real stakes scenarios indicates that heuristic forms of deontology, virtue-theory, and utilitarianism are strongly related to such behavior, and that egoism is an inhibitor. It also suggests that deontic and virtue-theoretical frames may be commonly perceived as intertwined and opens the door for new research on self-abnegation, namely, a perceived moral obligation toward suffering and self-denial. These findings hold the potential to inform ongoing conversations regarding organizational citizenship and moral crowding out, namely, how financial incentives can undermine altruistic behavior.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Heurística/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Teoria Ética , Ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obrigações Morais , Filosofia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Virtudes , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110047, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090805

RESUMO

When confronted with concerns or backlash as a result of their environmental or sustainability performance, companies may elect to address them head-on by directly correcting their real or perceived misdeeds. However, it is often the case that businesses are unwilling or unable to address their transgressions directly; in these cases, they may elect to draw attention to indirect substantiality benefits unfolding in areas unrelated to where the concerns or backlash initially arose. In this study, we sought to test the effect of these indirect and direct responses to sustainability challenges on two dependent variables: public perception of company reputation, and their willingness to grant a company "social license" for future business activities. Compared to a business-as-usual control condition, and across three company contexts, consumers provided favorable ratings of reputation, and were willing to grant social license, when companies responded indirectly to a sustainability challenge. These results highlight the powerful effect of indirect responses, which may be perceived as "greenwash", and the importance of intuitive judgmental heuristics and individual value orientations when consumers form impressions about corporate sustainability.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Virtudes , Atitude , Comércio , Organizações
15.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 118(3): 501-531, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107053

RESUMO

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology on Oct 24 2019 (see record 2019-63656-001). In the article "Does Virtue Lead to Status? Testing the Moral Virtue Theory of Status Attainment" by Feng Bai, Grace Ching Chi Ho, and Jin Yan, funding acknowledgments were omitted from the author note. The second paragraph of the author note should read as follows: This research was funded by an internal start-up grant (1-ZE74) awarded to Feng Bai from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and a grant (NSFC 71572175) awarded to Jin Yan from the National Natural Science Foundation of China.] The authors perform one of the first empirical tests of the moral virtue theory of status attainment (MVT), a conceptual framework for showing that morality leads to status. Studies 1a to 1d are devoted to developing and validating a 15-item status attainment scale (SAS) to measure how virtue leads to admiration (virtue-admiration), how dominance leads to fear (dominance-fear), and how competence leads to respect (competence-respect). Studies 2a and 2b are an exploration of the nomological network and discriminant validity to show that peer-reported virtue-admiration is positively related to moral character and perceptions such as perceived warmth and unrelated to amoral constructs such as neuroticism. In addition, virtue-admiration mediates the positive effect of several self-reported moral character traits, such as moral identity-internalization, on status conferral. Study 3 supports the external validity of the virtue route to status in a sample of fulltime managers from China. In Study 4, a preregistered experiment, virtue evokes superior status while selfishness evokes inferior status. Perceivers who are high in moral character show stronger perceptions of superior status. Finally, Study 5, another preregistered experiment, shows that virtue leads to higher status through inducing virtue-admiration rather than competence-respect, even for incompetent actors. The findings provide initial support for MVT arguing that virtue is a distinct, third route to status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Caráter , Teoria Psicológica , Comportamento Social , Classe Social , Virtudes , Adulto , Humanos
16.
J Relig Health ; 59(2): 796-803, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992473

RESUMO

Healthcare practitioners are increasingly aware that patients may utilize faith-based healing practices in place of conventional medicine based on their spiritual and/or religious understandings of health and illness. Therefore, elucidating the ontological understandings of patients utilizing such religion-based treatments may clarify why patients and clinicians have differing understandings of 'who' heals and 'what' are means for healing. This paper describes an Islamic ontological schema that includes the following realms: Divine existence; spirits/celestial beings; non-physical forms/similitudes; and physical bodies. Ontological schema-based means of healing include conventional medicine, religion-based means (e.g., supplication, charity, prescribed incantations/amulets), and active adoption of Islamic virtues (e.g., reliance on God [tawakkul] and patience [sabr]). An ontological schema-based description of causes and means of healing can service a more holistic model of healthcare by integrating the overlapping worlds of religion and medicine and can support clinicians seeking to further understand and assess patient responses and attitudes toward illness and healing.


Assuntos
Cura pela Fé , Islamismo , Religião e Medicina , Humanos , Virtudes
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(12): 1767-1772, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Theoretically, the exercise of good medicine requires physicians who possess and practice virtues. There are good reasons to believe that virtue ethics would be highly appreciated by patients. AIM: To determine the importance that patients attribute to the possession virtues among physicians. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients hospitalized in a private and a public hospital were invited to answer a three-question survey. The questions were: first, what do you expect of a good physician? Second, please evaluate, in a scale from 1 to 5, the importance of physician virtues to consider him a good doctor (fidelity to trust given by the patient, benevolence, postponement of self-interests, compassion, intellectual honesty, justice and prudence). Third, among the seven former virtues, select the three more important, and then the most important of all. RESULTS: Most patients responded that they valued that a good physician should have good communication skills, a cordial relationship, commitment to the patient and knowledge. All virtues studied were considered important or very important by almost all patients. The virtues considered the most important were intellectual honesty and fidelity to trust given by the patient. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the theoretical argument that, for patients, the practice of virtue ethics is essential for a good medical practice.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Empatia , Ética Médica , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Médico-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Virtudes
19.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(11): 1668-1673, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844774

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed the vulnerability of the human being in their existential and medical fields. A feeling of uncertainty of an overwhelming and ominous nature indicates that dying is inherent for the human condition, a feeling that is daily hidden behind the mask of a casual, unexpected, random event. The possibility of dying from the viral disease revealed that the essence of man as being-in-the-world is ethical or self-assumption and is expressed through an original rather than a moral conscience, which calls for authenticity, to listen to its nihility as being-referred-to-death. The medical ethical principles based on rights and duties need to be perfected by the ethics of virtues in accordance with the current challenges, requiring a transformation of the moral self of the doctor. A moral failure of duty is inevitable for medicine, it will never reach its final realization.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Ética Médica , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Virtudes
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