Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 193.642
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 827-855, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646536

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca2+) is a universal signaling ion, whose major informational role shaped the evolution of signaling pathways, enabling cellular communications and responsiveness to both the intracellular and extracellular environments. Elaborate Ca2+ regulatory networks have been well characterized in eukaryotic cells, where Ca2+ regulates a number of essential cellular processes, ranging from cell division, transport and motility, to apoptosis and pathogenesis. However, in bacteria, the knowledge on Ca2+ signaling is still fragmentary. This is complicated by the large variability of environments that bacteria inhabit with diverse levels of Ca2+. Yet another complication arises when bacterial pathogens invade a host and become exposed to different levels of Ca2+ that (1) are tightly regulated by the host, (2) control host defenses including immune responses to bacterial infections, and (3) become impaired during diseases. The invading pathogens evolved to recognize and respond to the host Ca2+, triggering the molecular mechanisms of adhesion, biofilm formation, host cellular damage, and host-defense resistance, processes enabling the development of persistent infections. In this review, we discuss: (1) Ca2+ as a determinant of a host environment for invading bacterial pathogens, (2) the role of Ca2+ in regulating main events of host colonization and bacterial virulence, and (3) the molecular mechanisms of Ca2+ signaling in bacterial pathogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Cálcio , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Virulência , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Humanos , Virulência/fisiologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5573-5579, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer, frequently infected with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). H3K27me3 acts as a repressive histone modification that epigenetically controls gene transcription. The aim of this study was to examine H3K27me3 expression in MCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: H3K27me3 expression levels were immunohistochemically analyzed in 20 MCPyV-positive MCCs, 15 MCPyV-negative MCCs with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (combined MCCs), and six MCPyV-negative pure MCCs. RESULTS: Reduced H3K27me3 expression was variously observed in MCCs. H3K27me3 H-score was significantly lower in MCPyV-negative MCCs than in MCPyV-positive MCCs (p=0.002). H3K27me3 expression was significantly lower in MCPyV-negative combined MCC component than in MCPyV-positive MCCs (p<0.001), MCPyV-negative pure MCCs (p=0.036), or pure MCC histology (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no association of H3K27me3 with outcome. CONCLUSION: Differential reduction in H3K27me3 expression was observed based on MCPyV status and morphological type. These results implicate H3K27me3-mediated epigenetic changes in tumorigenesis of MCC, especially in MCPyV-negative MCC combined with SCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Histonas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma de Célula de Merkel/virologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Poliomavírus das Células de Merkel/patogenicidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/genética , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 1-2, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575831

RESUMO

Amphipods are a group of globally abundant Crustacea present throughout terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. These organisms host a highly diverse systematic assemblage of parasites and pathogens, which are closely linked to the host's evolution and ecological niche. Such symbioses have been found to affect the behaviour, physiology and overall health of amphipod hosts; including effects at both the individual and population scale, altering aquatic trophic structure and possibly representing far reaching consequences for fisheries species and predatory species. Amphipod diseases explored in this Special have been linked with biological invasions, systematics, behavioural ecology, ecotoxicology, epidemiology, host physiology and cannibalistic tendencies. These studies exemplify the importance of amphipod research and provide keystone studies for the use of these animals as model systems for understanding the effects of disease in crustacean assemblages.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Animais , Ecossistema
4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 51-62, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575834

RESUMO

The Trematoda are a group of phylogenetically diverse metazoan parasites that exhibit complex life cycles that often pass through invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Some trematodes influence their host's behaviour to benefit transmission. Their parasitic influence may impact host population size by inhibiting an individual's reproductive capacity. We assessed the impact of infection by Podocotyle atomon on the reproductive behaviour and fecundity of its amphipod intermediate host, Gammarus zaddachi, using laboratory and field studies. Parasite prevalence was high in the field, with males more likely to be infected (prevalence in males 64%, in females 39%). Males also suffered a higher parasite burden than females. Infected females were less active, but we found no evidence for a reduction in female reproductive success. Infected females also had comparable pairing success to uninfected females. In males, infection reduced survival and fecundity, with mortality being highest, and sperm numbers lowest, in heavily infected individuals. Trematode parasites are sometimes associated with altered host fecundity, but studies often lack the relevant experimental data to explore the evolution of the trait. We discuss this among information specific to the effect of P. atomon infection in G. zaddachi.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Trematódeos/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Reprodução
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 63-78, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575835

RESUMO

Dikerogammarus haemobaphes is a non-native amphipod in UK freshwaters. Studies have identified this species as a low-impact invader in the UK, relative to its cousin Dikerogammarus villosus. It has been suggested that regulation by symbionts (such as Microsporidia) could explain this difference in impact. The effect of parasitism on D. haemobaphes is largely unknown. This was explored herein using 2 behavioural assays measuring activity and aggregation. First, D. haemobaphes were screened histologically post-assay, identifying 2 novel viruses (D. haemobaphes bi-facies-like virus [DhbflV], D. haemobaphes bacilliform virus [DhBV]), Cucumispora ornata (Microsporidia), Apicomplexa, and Digenea, which could alter host behaviour. DhBV infection burden increased host activity, and C. ornata infection reduced host activity. Second, native invertebrates were collected from the invasion site at Carlton Brook, UK, and tested for the presence of C. ornata. PCR screening identified that Gammarus pulex and other native invertebrates were positive for C. ornata. The host range of this parasite, and its impact on host survival, was additionally explored using D. haemobaphes, D. villosus, and G. pulex in a laboratory trial. D. haemobaphes and G. pulex became infected by C. ornata, which also lowered survival rate. D. villosus did not become infected. A PCR protocol for DhbflV was also applied to D. haemobaphes after the survival trial, associating this virus with decreased host survival. In conclusion, D. haemobaphes has a complex relationship with parasites in the UK environment. C. ornata likely regulates populations by decreasing host survival and activity, but despite this benefit, the parasite threatens susceptible native wildlife.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/parasitologia , Anfípodes/virologia , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microsporídios , Trematódeos , Reino Unido
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 79-86, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575836

RESUMO

In Northern Ireland, the amphipods Gammarus duebeni celticus (native) and G. pulex (invasive) coexist in some places, whilst in others the native species has been replaced by the invader. We explored the role of parasites in mediating interactions between these amphipods, which demonstrate mutual intraguild predation (IGP: predation between animals that also compete for prey). IGP and cannibalism can be important factors in structuring populations and communities. We investigated the effects of parasitism on rates of IGP between G. d. celticus and G. pulex and on cannibalism within each species by comparing functional responses (FRs: relationships between the use of a prey resource and its availability). Infection with the microsporidian Pleistophora mulleri caused an increase in IGP and cannibalism by G. d. celticus, which showed increased attack rates and reduced prey handling times. In contrast, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Echinorhynchus truttae did not alter IGP or cannibalism by G. pulex. A prey preference experiment revealed that both amphipods were more likely to feed on heterospecific rather than conspecific prey, and this was also corroborated by the fact that overall IGP FRs were higher than cannibalism FRs. This may be selectively advantageous, as feeding on heterospecific prey removes possible competitors without the risk of consuming juvenile kin or acquiring parasites from infected conspecifics. Infection of the native G. d. celticus with P. mulleri enhanced IGP on the invasive G. pulex, which is likely to facilitate the coexistence of the 2 species.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Canibalismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Pleistophora/patogenicidade , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Comportamento Predatório
7.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 107-121, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575838

RESUMO

Amphipods are model species in studies of pervasive biological patterns such as sexual selection, size assortative pairing and parasite infection patterns. Cryptic diversity (i.e. morphologically identical but genetically divergent lineages) has recently been detected in several species. Potential effects of such hidden diversity on biological patterns remain unclear, but potentially significant, and beg the question of whether we have missed part of the picture by involuntarily overlooking the occurrence and effects of cryptic diversity on biological patterns documented by previous studies. Here we tested for potential effects of cryptic diversity on parasite infection patterns in amphipod populations and discuss the implications of our results in the context of previously documented host-parasite infection patterns, especially amphipod-acanthocephalan associations. We assessed infection levels (prevalence and abundance) of 3 acanthocephalan species (Pomphorhynchus laevis, P. tereticollis and Polymorphus minutus) among cryptic lineages of the Gammarus pulex/G. fossarum species complex and G. roeseli from sampling sites where they occur in sympatry. We also evaluated potential differences in parasite-induced mortality among host molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs)-parasite species combinations. Acanthocephalan prevalence, abundance and parasite-induced mortality varied widely among cryptic MOTUs and parasite species; infection patterns were more variable among MOTUs than sampling sites. Overall, cryptic diversity in amphipods strongly influenced apparent infection levels and parasite-induced mortality. Future research on species with cryptic diversity should account for potential effects on documented biological patterns. Results from previous studies may also need to be reassessed in light of cryptic diversity and its pervasive effects.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/patogenicidade , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Anfípodes/classificação , Animais
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 123-134, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575839

RESUMO

Amphipods are commonly used test organisms in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, their naturally occurring parasites have mostly been neglected in these investigations, even though several groups of parasites can have a multitude of effects, e.g. on host survival, physiology, or behavior. In the present review, we summarize the knowledge on the effects of Microsporidia and Acanthocephala, 2 common and abundant groups of parasites in amphipods, on the outcome of ecotoxicological studies. Parasites can have significant effects on toxicological endpoints (e.g. mortality, biochemical markers) that are unexpected in some cases (e.g. down-regulation of heat shock protein 70 response in infected individuals). Therefore, parasites can bias the interpretation of results, for example if populations with different parasite profiles are compared, or if toxicological effects are masked by parasite effects. With the present review, we would like to encourage ecotoxicologists to consider parasites as an additional factor if field-collected test organisms are analyzed for biomarkers. Additionally, we suggest intensification of research activities on the effects of parasites in amphipods in connection with other stressors to disentangle parasite and pollution effects and to improve our understanding of parasite effects in this host taxon.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/parasitologia , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Acantocéfalos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microsporídios
9.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2469-2477, out. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IPPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1016447

RESUMO

Rabies is a lethal viral disease that can affect a wide range of mammals. Currently, Rabies virus (RABV) in some European and American countries is maintained primarily in wild species. The regulation of viral replication is one of the critical mechanisms involved in RABV pathogenesis. However, the relationship between replication and the pathogenesis of RABV isolated from wild animals remains poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of the street viruses Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat-associated RABV (NYBRV) and Cerdocyon thous canid-associated RABV (CECRV). Infection of mice with NYBRV led to 33% mortality with rapid disease evolution and marked histopathological changes in the CNS. In contrast, infection with CECRV led to 67% mortality and caused mild neuropathological lesions. The proportion of RABV antigen was significantly higher in the cytoplasm of neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex and in the meninges of mice infected with CECRV and NYBRV, respectively. Moreover, the replication rate of NYBRV was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that of CECRV in neuroblastoma cells. However, CECRV replicated to a significantly higher titer in epithelial cells. Our results indicate that NYBRV infection results in rapid disease progression accompanied by frequent and intense histopathological alterations in the CNS in mice, and in a high replication rate in neuroblastoma cells. Although, CECRV is more pathogenic in mice, it caused milder histopathological changes in the CNS and replicated more efficiently in epithelial cells. Our data point to a correlation between clinical aspects of disease and the replication of RABV in different cell lines. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Canidae/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1790-1794, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599519

RESUMO

Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection, caused by the genus Actinomyces, commensal of the digestive and genital tract. The most common presentation of the disease affects the cervicofacial region, but other anatomical sites in the abdomen, thorax and central nervous system may be involved. Differential diagnosis includes neoplasia. Prolonged culture of deep samples in an anaerobic environment is the gold standard of the diagnosis. The treatment of choice is intravenous penicillin G followed by oral amoxicillin for a total duration of 6 to 12 months. However, depending on the location and response to antibiotics, shorter therapy may be considered.


Assuntos
Actinomicose/diagnóstico , Actinomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Actinomyces/patogenicidade , Actinomicose/microbiologia , Actinomicose/patologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Especificidade de Órgãos
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190260, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by dimorphic pathogenic fungi belonging to the Sporothrix genus. Pathogenic Sporothrix species typically produce melanin, which is known to be a virulence factor. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform phenotypic, genotypic, and virulence analyses of two distinct Sporothrix brasiliensis strains isolated from the same lesion on a patient from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genotypic analyses by partial sequencing of the calmodulin, ß-tubulin, and chitin synthase genes, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-fingerprinting by T3B, M13, and GACA, showed that the isolates were very similar but not identical. Both isolates had similar phenotypic characteristics and effectively produced melanin in their yeast forms, accounting for their ability of causing disease in a murine sporotrichosis model. Remarkably, isolate B was albino in its environmental form but caused more severe disease than the pigmented A isolate. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the patient was infected by two genetically and biologically distinct S. brasiliensis that vary in their production of melanin in their environmental forms. The results underscore the importance of characterizing phenotypically different isolates found in the same clinical specimen or patient.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sporothrix/patogenicidade , Esporotricose/patologia , Esporotricose/virologia , Animais , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sporothrix/efeitos dos fármacos , Sporothrix/genética , Virulência
12.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 768, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hafnia genus is an opportunistic pathogen that has been implicated in both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Although Hafnia is fairly often isolated from clinical material, its taxonomy has remained an unsolved riddle, and the involvement and importance of Hafnia in human disease is also uncertain. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis to define the taxonomy of Hafnia, identify species-specific genes that may be the result of ecological and pathogenic specialization, and reveal virulence-related genetic profiles that may contribute to pathogenesis. RESULTS: One complete genome sequence and 19 draft genome sequences for Hafnia strains were generated and combined with 27 publicly available genomes. We provided high-resolution typing methods by constructing phylogeny and population structure based on single-copy core genes in combination with whole genome average nucleotide identity to identify two distant Hafnia species (alvei and paralvei) and one mislabeled strain. The open pan-genome and the presence of numerous mobile genetic elements reveal that Hafnia has undergone massive gene rearrangements. Presence of species-specific core genomes associated with metabolism and transport suggests the putative niche differentiation between alvei and paralvei. We also identified possession of diverse virulence-related profiles in both Hafnia species., including the macromolecular secretion system, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance. In the macromolecular system, T1SS, Flagellum 1, Tad pilus and T6SS-1 were conserved in Hafnia, whereas T4SS, T5SS, and other T6SSs exhibited the evolution of diversity. The virulence factors in Hafnia are related to adherence, toxin, iron uptake, stress adaptation, and efflux pump. The identified resistance genes are associated with aminoglycoside, beta-lactam, bacitracin, cationic antimicrobial peptide, fluoroquinolone, and rifampin. These virulence-related profiles identified at the genomic level provide insights into Hafnia pathogenesis and the differentiation between alvei and paralvei. CONCLUSIONS: Our research using core genome phylogeny and comparative genomics analysis of a larger collection of strains provides a comprehensive view of the taxonomy and species-specific traits between Hafnia species. Deciphering the genome of Hafnia strains possessing a reservoir of macromolecular secretion systems, virulence factors, and resistance genes related to pathogenicity may provide insights into addressing its numerous infections and devising strategies to combat the pathogen.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Hafnia/classificação , Hafnia/patogenicidade , Virulência , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Virulência/genética
14.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(10): 658-661, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increasing and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, there is a need to find new tools to determine the severity of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic values of inflammatory markers such as mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with CDAD. METHODS: The study comprised of 100 patients diagnosed with CDAD. The study included an additional control group of 69 patients with diarrhea who were negative for C. difficile toxin. The control group was age- and sex-matched and hospitalized at the same time period. NLR and MPV were obtained from complete blood count results. Serum CRP levels were measured by the latex particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Blood samples for all inflammatory markers were collected at time of diagnosis and prior to initiating the antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and prognostic data were collected from medical records for a period of 90 days from the initial diagnosis of CDAD. RESULTS: The mean age of the CDAD group was 68.6 ± 21.5 years compared to 65.6 ± 24.5 in the control group (P = 0.29). Our findings show that patients with CDAD had significantly higher NLR, MPV and serum CRP levels compared to the control group (P < 0.001)). Moreover, significantly higher levels were observed when CDAD was fatal (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NLR, MPV, and serum CRP levels may serve as biomarkers for prediction of recurrence and mortality in patients with CDAD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/sangue , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Clostridium difficile/patogenicidade , Diarreia/microbiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/microbiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Diarreia/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Volume Plaquetário Médio/estatística & dados numéricos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1333-1339, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022140

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to identify the actions to fight the dengue fever vector, and also the way that patients bearing the symptoms have being handled. Methods: This research describes the semiological and pathophysiological aspects of dengue fever through the perception of health professionals, who assisted the patients bearing the symptoms of this disease. Furthermore, this study addresses the perception of endemic diseases combat agents and community health agents regarding the efficiency of vector control measures. Results: The health professionals are working according to the World Health Organization recommendations. The majority of the population contributes to the mosquito breeding sites elimination. The elevated number of closed properties and houses with difficult access has been the greatest obstacle to control the vector. Conclusion: These services need to be aware of the disease trends in order to quickly detect changes in its profile and guide control actions


Objetivo: Identificar as ações adotadas de combate ao vetor e as formas de manejo dos pacientes com sinais e sintomas de alarme para dengue grave. Métodos: Estudo que descreve, na percepção dos profissionais de saúde que atenderam pacientes com suspeita de dengue, os aspectos semiológicos e fisiopatológicos da doença. Apresenta a percepção dos Agentes de Combate a Endemias e Agentes Comunitários de Saúde sobre a eficiência das medidas de controle do vetor. Resultados: Os profissionais de saúde procedem o cuidado conforme orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A maior parte da população contribui com a eliminação dos criadouros do mosquito. Imóveis fechados e o difícil acesso têm sido os principais desafios para o controle do vetor. Conclusão: Esses serviços precisam estar atentos às tendências dessa doença para rapidamente conseguir detectar mudanças em seu perfil e orientar ações de controle


Objetivo: Identificar la satisfacción de los pacientes seguidos en un ambulatorio de Educación para la Salud y evaluar el efecto de las variables antecedentes sobre el nivel de satisfacción de los pacientes. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado en un ambulatorio la Educación para la Salud. La muestra estuvo constituida por todos los pacientes cardíacos en el ambulatorio (17 pacientes). La satisfacción del paciente se evaluó a través del Instrumento de Satisfacción del Paciente (ISP). Resultados: Todos los pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción. Los dominios con los puntajes más altos y más bajos fueron el profesional y el educacional, respectivamente. No hubo correlación significativa entre los niveles de satisfacción con cualquiera de las variables antecedentes. Conclusión: Pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción y no hubo correlación significativa entre variables y los niveles de satisfacción


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Aedes/patogenicidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 105-111, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473449

RESUMO

Diclazuril, which is widely used for the prevention of coccidiosis in chickens, has a lethal effect on asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria spp. However, little is known about its effect on the exogenous stages of Eimeria spp. In this study, we evaluated the effect of in vitro treatment with 0.2% diclazuril on unsporulated and sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. For this purpose, a total of 180 male layer chicks aged one day were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups. Each group was divided into 3 replicates of 12 chicks each. Group 1 (G1) and Group 2 (G2) were negative (non-immunized and non-challenged) and positive (non-immunized and challenged) controls, respectively. Group 3 (G3) was immunized per os with 1.0 × 104 non-diclazuril treated-sporulated oocysts. Groups 4 (G4) was immunized per os with 0.2% diclazuril treated-unsporulated oocysts (1.0 × 104) in which diclazzuril didn't affect sporulation. Group 5 (G5) was immunized per os with 0.2% diclazuril treated-sporulated oocysts (1.0 × 104). Chicks of G2, G3, G4, and G5 were challenged with 7.5 × 104 untreated sporulated oocysts at the age of 21 days, while the group 1 chicks remained unchallenged. G4 and G5 animals immunized with 0.2% diclazuril-treated oocysts showed a significant decrease in bloody diarrhea severity, lesion scores, and oocyst counts in comparison to those immunized with untreated oocysts. Furthermore, histopathologic findings showed a low number of parasitic stages in cecal tissues in G4 and G5. A significant increased body weight gain was observed in Gs 4 and 5 in comparison to G2. In addition, expression levels of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in G4 and G5. In conclusion, diclazuril is effective in attenuating Eimeria oocysts and thus provides an alternative approach for using diclazuril-treated oocysts to protect chicks against Eimeria challenge.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Distribuição Aleatória , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
BMJ ; 366: l5021, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506273

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the recently defined Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. It is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that results in epidemics of respiratory infections that typically peak in the winter in temperate climates and during the rainy season in tropical climates. Generally, one of the two genotypes (A and B) predominates in a single season, alternating annually, although regional variation occurs. RSV is a cause of disease and death in children, older people, and immunocompromised patients, and its clinical effect on adults admitted to hospital is clarified with expanded use of multiplex molecular assays. Among adults, RSV produces a wide range of clinical symptoms including upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of underlying disease. Here we discuss the latest evidence on the burden of RSV related disease in adults, especially in those with immunocompromise or other comorbidities. We review current therapeutic and prevention options, as well as those in development.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Epidemias , Genótipo , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/terapia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/patogenicidade , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Estações do Ano
19.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2735-2745, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486907

RESUMO

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is unique among endogenous retroviruses because its endogenization is still active. Two major KoRV subtypes, KoRV-A and B, have been described, and KoRV-B is associated with disease and poses a health threat to koalas. Here, we investigated the co-prevalence of KoRV-A and KoRV-B, detected by type-specific PCR and sequencing, and their impact on the health of koalas in three Japanese zoos. We also investigated KoRV proviral loads and found varying amounts of genomic DNA (gDNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that 100% of the koalas examined were infected with KoRV-A and 60% (12/20) were coinfected with KoRV-B. The KoRV-A sequence was highly conserved, whereas the KoRV-B sequence varied among individuals. Interestingly, we observed possible vertical transmission of KoRV-B in one offspring in which the KoRV-B sequence was similar to that of the father but not the mother. Moreover, we characterized the KoRV growth patterns in concanavalin-A-stimulated PBMCs isolated from KoRV-B-coinfected or KoRV-B-uninfected koalas. We quantified the KoRV provirus in gDNA and the KoRV RNA copy numbers in cells and culture supernatants by real-time PCR at days 4, 7, and 14 post-seeding. As the study population is housed in captivity, a longitudinal study of these koalas may provide an opportunity to study the transmission mode of KoRV-B. In addition, we characterized KoRV isolates by infecting tupaia cells. The results suggested that tupaia may be used as an infection model for KoRV. Thus, this study may enhance our understanding of KoRV-B coinfection and transmission in the captive koalas.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Gammaretrovirus/patogenicidade , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Retrovirus Endógenos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gammaretrovirus/classificação , Gammaretrovirus/genética , Gammaretrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Provírus/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Tupaia/virologia , Carga Viral
20.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1679-1688, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479404

RESUMO

Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a ubiquinol terminal oxidase that is involved in fungal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In this study, we analyzed the roles of AOX in Botrytis cinerea by generating BcAOX deletion mutants. The mutants exhibited defects in mycelial growth, sporulation, spore germination, and virulence. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the mutants to quinone outside inhibitor fungicides and oxidative stress were increased. All phenotypic variations could be restored in the complemented strain. In summary, these results showed that BcAOX is involved in the regulation for vegetative development, adaptation to environmental stress, and virulence of B. cinerea.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Oxirredutases , Oxigênio , Proteínas de Plantas , Botrytis/enzimologia , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Virulência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA