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Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 35(2): 97-102, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-216458


Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la formación anual en desescalada verbal (DV) en la reducción de las contenciones mecánicas (CM) durante los traslados no voluntarios en ambulancia a urgencias de pacientes con enfermedad mental. Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental antes-después. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes con enfermedad mental trasladados de manera no voluntaria en Barcelona por un equipo de atención psiquiátrica en domicilio, desde enero de 2008 hasta diciembre de 2020. En el año 2013 el equipo al completo inició una formación anual en DV en base a las recomendaciones del proyecto BETA (Best Practices in the Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation). Se ha comparado la prevalencia de CM durante dichos traslados, antes y después de iniciar la formación en DV. Asimismo se han analizado los factores asociados a la necesidad de CM. Resultados: Se incluyeron 633 traslados no voluntarios. Antes de la formación en DV hubo un 42,0% de CM y después fue del 20,6%, lo que supone una reducción del 50,1%. La regresión logística mostró que los factores asociados a la necesidad de CM son una menor edad y la existencia de síntomas psicóticos como factores de riesgo y uso de la DV como factor protector (p < 0,005). Conclusiones: La formación anual en DV siguiendo las recomendaciones del proyecto BETA ha permitido una reducción del 50% de la necesidad de CM durante el traslado no voluntario en ambulancia de pacientes con enfermedad mental. (AU)

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of annual training in verbal de-escalation techniques for reducing the use of mechanical restraints during nonvoluntary ambulance transfers of patients with mental health problems who need emergency care. Methods: Quasi-experimental before-after study. Patients with mental diseases treated by a psychiatric team andtransferred from home without their consent were included from January through December 2008 in Barcelona. Since 2013, the team had been attending annual training sessions in verbal de-escalation based on the recommendations of the BETA project (Best Practices in the Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation). We compared the prevalence of the use of mechanical restraint before and after the team started verbal de-escalation training. We also analyzed variables associated with the need to use restraints. Results: Patients in 633 nonvoluntary transfers were included. Mechanical restraints were used in 42.0% of transfers before de-escalation training and in 20.6% of transfers afterwards, reflecting a 50.1% reduction. Logistic regression identified younger age and the presence of psychotic symptoms as factors associated with the use of restraints; the use of verbal de-escalation was a protective factor (P < 0.005). Conclusions: Annual training in verbal de-escalation techniques following the BETA project’s recommendations led to a 50% reduction in the need to use mechanical restraint during nonvoluntary ambulance transfers of patients with mental health problems. (AU)

Humanos , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Ambulâncias , Visita Domiciliar , Moradias Assistidas , Psiquiatria
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282425, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36877676


INTRODUCTION: In South Africa, Community Caregivers (CCGs) visit households to provide basic healthcare services including those for tuberculosis and HIV. However, CCG workloads, costs, and time burden are largely unknown. Our objective was to assess the workloads and operational costs for CCG teams operating in different settings in South Africa. METHODS: Between March and October 2018, we collected standardized self-reported activity time forms from 11 CCG pairs working at two public health clinics in Ekurhuleni district, South Africa. CCG workloads were assessed based on activity unit times, per-household visit time, and mean daily number of successful household visits. Using activity-based times and CCG operating cost data, we assessed CCG annual and per-household visit costs (USD 2019) from the health system perspective. RESULTS: CCGs in clinic 1 (peri-urban, 7 CCG pairs) and 2 (urban, informal settlement; 4 CCG pairs) served an area of 3.1 km2 and 0.6 km2 with 8,035 and 5,200 registered households, respectively. CCG pairs spent a median 236 minutes per day conducting field activities at clinic 1 versus 235 minutes at clinic 2. CCG pairs at clinic 1 spent 49.5% of this time at households (versus traveling), compared to 35.0% at clinic 2. On average, CCG pairs successfully visited 9.5 vs 6.7 households per day for clinics 1 and 2, respectively. At clinic 1, 2.7% of household visits were unsuccessful, versus 28.5% at clinic 2. Total annual operating costs were higher in clinic 1 ($71,780 vs $49,097) but cost per successful visit was lower ($3.58) than clinic 2 ($5.85). CONCLUSIONS: CCG home visits were more frequent, successful, and less costly in clinic 1, which served a larger and more formalized settlement. The variability in workload and cost observed across pairs and clinics suggests that circumstantial factors and CCG needs must be carefully assessed for optimized CCG outreach operations.

Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Cuidadores , Humanos , África do Sul , Recursos Humanos , Visita Domiciliar
Soins Psychiatr ; 44(344): 45-46, 2023.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36871977
CMAJ Open ; 11(2): E282-E290, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36944429


BACKGROUND: Physician home visits are essential for populations who cannot easily access office-based primary care. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics, practice patterns and physician-level patient characteristics of Ontario physicians who provide home visits. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study, based on health administrative data, of Ontario physicians who provided home visits and their patients, between Jan. 1, 2019, and Dec. 31, 2019. We selected family physicians who had at least 1 home visit in 2019. Physician demographic characteristics, practice patterns and aggregated patient characteristics were compared between high-volume home visit physicians (the top 5%) and low-volume home visit physicians (bottom 95%). RESULTS: A total of 6572 family physicians had at least 1 home visit in 2019. The top 5% of home visit physicians (n = 330) performed 58.6% of all home visits (n = 227 321 out of 387 139). Compared with low-volume home visit physicians (n = 6242), the top 5% were more likely to be male and practise in large urban areas, and rarely saw patients who were enrolled to them (median 4% v. 87.5%, standardized mean difference 1.12). High-volume physicians' home visit patients were younger, had greater levels of health care resource utilization, resided in lower-income and large urban neighbourhoods, and were less likely to have a medical home. INTERPRETATION: A small subset of home visit physicians provided a large proportion of home visits in Ontario. These home visits may be addressing a gap in access to primary care for certain patients, but could be contributing to lower continuity of care.

Visita Domiciliar , Médicos de Família , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Padrões de Prática Médica
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(3)2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36948531


INTRODUCTION: Though community health workers (CHWs) have improved access to antenatal care (ANC) and institutional delivery in different settings, it is unclear what package and delivery strategy maximises impact. METHODS: This study reports a secondary aim of the Proactive Community Case Management cluster randomised trial, conducted between December 2016 and April 2020 in Mali. It evaluated whether proactive home visits can improve ANC access at a population level compared with passive site-based care. 137 unique village clusters, covering the entire study area, were stratified by health catchment area and distance to the nearest primary health centre. Within each stratum, clusters were randomly assigned to intervention or control arm. CHWs in intervention clusters proactively visited all homes to provide care. In the control clusters, CHWs provided the same services at their fixed community health post to care-seeking patients. Pregnant women 15-49 years old were enrolled in a series of community-based and facility-based visits. We analysed individual-level annual survey data from baseline and 24-month and 36-month follow-up for the secondary outcomes of ANC and institutional delivery, complemented with CHW monitoring data during the trial period. We compared outcomes between: (1) the intervention and control arms, and (2) the intervention period and baseline. RESULTS: With 2576 and 2536 pregnancies from 66 and 65 clusters in the intervention and control arms, respectively, the estimated risk ratios for receiving any ANC was 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.07), four or more ANC visits was 1.25 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.43) and ANC initiated in the first trimester was 1.11 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.19), relative to the controls; no differences in institutional delivery were found. However, both arms achieved large improvements in institutional delivery, compared with baseline. Monitoring data show that 19% and 2% of registered pregnancies received at least eight ANC contacts in the intervention and control arms, respectively. Six clusters, three from each arm had to be dropped in the last 2 years of the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Proactive home visits increased ANC and the number of antenatal contacts at the clinic and community levels. ANC and institutional delivery can be increased when provided without fees from professional CHWs in upgraded primary care clinics. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02694055.

Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita Domiciliar , Mali , Gestantes
Front Public Health ; 11: 1066908, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36844831


Background: Improper or insufficient treatment of mental health illness harms individuals, families, and society. When psychiatric treatment shifts from a hospital-based to a community-based health care system, risk management is essential to the provision of effective care. Objective: We examine whether an upgrade in home visit frequency of psychiatric patients as identified by public health nurses can predict the subsequent need for emergency escort services for medical treatment. Design: A 2-year retrospective medical record review. Settings: A district of New Taipei City in Taiwan. Participants: A total of 425 patients with a diagnosed mental health illness cared for through home visits by public health nurses from January 2018 to December 2019. Methods: We accessed the Ministry of Health and Welfare's psychiatric care management information system to identify a set of medical records, and analyzed these records using chi-square and regression analyses. Results: The analyses indicated that the groups experiencing the greatest need for emergency escort services were: male, 35-49 years old, with a senior high school level of education, without a disability identification card, with a schizophrenia diagnosis, and had been reported by the nurse as having progressed to a serious level. Nurses' increased frequency of home visits (an indicator that the patient's overall condition was worsening) and nurses' reports of increased severity of problems were significant predictors of the need for emergency escort services. Conclusions: The nurses' adjustment of visit frequency based on the results of the visit assessment predicts the need for emergency escort services for mental patients. The findings support not only the professional roles and functions of public health nurses, but also the importance of strengthening psychiatric health community support services.

Transtornos Mentais , Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita Domiciliar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Registros Médicos
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 115, 2023 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36737771


BACKGROUND: To meet the increasing demand for home healthcare in Japan as the population ages, home care support clinics/hospitals (HCSCs) and enhanced HCSCs were introduced in 2006 and 2012, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate whether enhanced HCSCs fulfilled the expected role in home healthcare. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked medical and long-term care claims data from a municipality in Japan. Participants were ≥ 65 years of age, had newly started regular home visits between July 2014 and March 2018, and used either conventional or enhanced HCSCs. Patients were followed up for one year after they started regular home visits or until the month following the end of the regular home visits if they ended within one year. The outcome measures were (i) emergency home visits at all hours and on nights and holidays at least once, respectively, (ii) hospitalization at least once, and (iii) end-of-life care, which was evaluated based on the place of death and whether a physician was present at the time of in-home death. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted for the outcomes of emergency home visits and hospitalizations. RESULTS: The analysis included 802 patients, including 405 patients in enhanced HCSCs and 397 patients in conventional HCSCs. Enhanced HCSCs had more emergency home visits at all hours than conventional HCSCs (65.7% vs. 49.1%; adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI [1.26-2.28]), more emergency home visits on nights and holidays (33.6% vs. 16.7%; 2.20 [1.55-3.13]), and fewer hospitalizations (21.5% vs. 32.2%; 0.55 [0.39-0.76]). During the follow-up period, 229 patients (152 patients in enhanced HCSCs and 77 patients in HCSCs) died. Deaths at home were significantly more common in enhanced HCSCs than in conventional HCSCs (80.9% vs. 64.9%; p < .001), and physician-attended deaths among those who died at home were also significantly more common in enhanced HCSCs (99.2% vs. 78.0%; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that enhanced HCSCs are more likely to be able to handle emergency home visits and end-of-life care at home, which are important medical functions in home healthcare. Further promotion of enhanced HCSCs would be advantageous.

Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Visita Domiciliar , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Hospitalização , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
Hosp. domic ; 7(1): 11-24, febrero 7, 2023. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-216147


Introducción: La hospitalización a domicilio para pacientes quirúrgicos (HaDQ) es una al-ternativa a la hospitalización convencional para pacientes quirúrgicos estables clínicamente, que precisen procedimientos de enfermería complejos por intensidad, frecuencia o carac-terísticas, y control por especialista quirúrgico en el domicilio.Método: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y retrospectivo de la actividad de la HADQ de nuestro hospital durante los primeros seis me-ses del 2020, para analizar la repercusión de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en la unidad. Se distinguen tres periodos: prepandemia (enero-febreo), confinamiento (marzo-abril), poscon-finamiento (mayo-junio). Se diferencian dos grupos: A (HaD convencional) y B (despistaje preoperatorio COVID19). Se recogieron diver-sas variables: mes, tipo, estancia (HaD y hospi-tal), procedimientos, reingresos, domicilio, tipo visitas, COVID+. Se realizó un análisis estadís-tico descriptivo cuantitativo y cualitativo de los resultados obtenidosResultados: Ingresaron 345 pacientes, 225 en el grupo A (fase Pre (34%), fase C (40%), y fase Pos (25%)), y 120 en el B (fase C (75%), fase Pos (25%)). El confinamiento (fase C) fue el pe-ríodo más activo de la HADQ, tanto por número de ingresos (53%), como por la complejidad del grupo A que requería más procedimientos (71%) y más visitas domiciliarias (52%). Tam-bién aumentaron los pacientes de zona de no cobertura (42%), que implicaron visitas médicas y de enfermería en Hospital de Día (HD) (21%), y aumento de consultas telefónicas médicas (36%). En la fase Pos disminuyeron un 37% los ingresos del grupo A.Conclusiones: La HaDQ se reorganizó por la pandemia para atender a más pacientes quirúr-gicos, siendo un recurso asistencial esencial, especialmente durante el confinamiento. (AU)

Introduction: The HaDQ is an alternative to conventional hospitalization for clinically stable surgical patients who require complex nursing procedures due to intensity, frequency or char-acteristics, and control by a surgical specialist at home.Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive and ret-rospective study of the HADQ activity of our hospital during the first six months of 2020, to analyze the impact of the SARSCov2 pandemic in the unit. Three periods are distinguished: pre-pandemic (Jan-Feb), lockdown (Mar-Apr), post-lockdown (May-Jun). Two groups are differen-tiated: A (conventional HaD) and B (COVID19 preoperative screening). Various variables were collected: month, type, stay (HaD and hospi-tal), procedures, readmissions, address, type of visits, covid+. A quantitative and qualitative descriptive statistical analysis of the results ob-tained was carried out.Results: 345 patients were admitted, 225 in group A (phase Pre (34%), Phase C (40%), and phase Post (25%)), and 120 in group B (Phase C (75%), phase Post (25%)). %)). The confinement (phase C) was the most active period of the HADQ, both due to the number of admissions (53%), and the complexity of group A, which re-quired more procedures (71%) and more home visits (52%). There was also an increase in pa-tients from the non-coverage area (42%), which involved medical and nursing visits at the Day Hospital (HD) (21%), and an increase in medi-cal telephone consultations (36%). In the phase Post, the income of group A decreased by 37%.Conclusions: The HaDQ was reorganized due to the pandemic to care for more surgical pa-tients, being an essential care resource, espe-cially during confinement. (AU)

Humanos , Visita Domiciliar , Serviços Hospitalares de Assistência Domiciliar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Coronavírus Relacionado à Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva
Hosp. domic ; 7(1): 25-34, febrero 7, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-216148


Introducción: Los buenos resultados de la terapia intravenosa domiciliaria, la mayor complejidad de los pacientes y el aumento de presión hospitalaria provocan que cada vez que los requerimientos técnicos sobre la misma sean más exigentes. Método: De todos los principios activos se realizó una búsqueda ordenada mediante términos MESH buscando: [“principio activo” and stability], [“principio activo” and storage], [“principio activo” and solvent]. Resultados: En este artículo se detallan los aspectos técnicos críticos a la hora de plantear una estrategia de antibioterapia intravenosa a domicilio: se revisan los antimicrobianos (antibióticos, antifúngicos y antivirales) candidatos a ser administrados en el domicilio por vía intravenosa en un paciente ingresado cargo de un servicio de hospitalización a domicilio: se revisan los principios activos candidatos, la concentración a la que se debe administrar, los tiempos de infusión mínimos, las condiciones de conservación, las estabilidades máximas, los solventes compatibles más frecuentes tipo de vía en la que deberíamos administrar según las propiedades fisicoquímicas del fármaco, el dispositivo de administración y la duración prevista del tratamiento. Conclusiones: Es fundamental a la hora de plantear una terapia intravenosa antibiótica domiciliaria que los fármacos se encuentren correctamente acondicionados y seleccionados.(AU)

Introduction: The good results of home intrave-nous therapy, the greater complexity of patients and the increase in hospital pressure cause that every time the technical requirements on it are more demanding. Method: Of all drugs, a search was carried out in order using MESH terms searching: [“drug” and stability], [“drug” and storage], [“drug” and solvent]. Results: This article details the critical technical aspects when considering a home intravenous antibiotic therapy strategy: antimicrobials (an-tibiotics, antifungals and antivirals) candidates to be administered at home intravenously in an inpatient in charge of a home hospitalization service are reviewed: the candidate drugs, the concentration to be administered, the minimum infusion times, storage conditions, maximum stability, the most frequent compatible solvents and the vascular access in which we should ad-minister according to the physicochemical prop-erties of the drug, the delivery device and the expected duration of treatment. Conclusions: It is essential when considering a home antibiotic intravenous therapy that the drugs are correctly conditioned and selected.(AU)

Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos , Administração Intravenosa , Antibacterianos , Antivirais , Terapêutica , Visita Domiciliar , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Serviços Hospitalares de Assistência Domiciliar
Swiss Med Wkly ; 153: 40038, 2023 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36800888


BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the number of home visits has been decreasing over past decades. Lack of time and long journeys have been reported to hinder general practitioners (GPs) from conducting home visits. In Switzerland also, home visits have declined. Time constraints in a busy GP practice could be one reason. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the time requirements of home visits in Switzerland. METHODS: A one-year cross-sectional study involving GPs from the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance System (Sentinella) was conducted in 2019. GPs provided basic information on all home visits performed throughout the year and additionally detailed reports of up to 20 consecutive home visits. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were run to identify factors affecting journey and consultation duration. RESULTS: In total, 95 GPs conducted 8489 home visits in Switzerland, 1139 of which have been characterised in detail. On average, GPs made 3.4 home visits per week. Average journey and consultation duration were 11.8 and 23.9 minutes, respectively. Prolonged consultations were provided by GPs working part-time (25.1 minutes), in group practice (24.9 minutes) or in urban regions (24.7 minutes). Rural environments and short journey to patient's home were both found to lower the odds of performing a long consultation compared to a short consultation (odds ratio [OR] 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.44 and OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.77, respectively). Emergency visits (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.21-4.01), out-of-hours appointments (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.36-3.97) and day care involvement (OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.13-3.62) increased the odds of having a long consultation. Finally, patients in their 60s had markedly higher odds of receiving long consultations than patients in their 90s (OR 4.13, 95% CI 2.27-7.62), whereas lack of chronic conditions lowered the odds of a long consultation (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.00-0.43). CONCLUSION: GPs perform rather few but long home visits, especially for multimorbid patients. GPs working part-time, in group practice or in urban regions devote more time to home visits.

Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Suíça , Visita Domiciliar , Encaminhamento e Consulta
Rural Remote Health ; 23(1): 8118, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36802723


INTRODUCTION: The rural population suffers from important limitations in accessing health care, often lacking a public policy approach to the health and sanitation conditions of their environment. In this sense, primary care emerges with the objective of offering comprehensive care to the population, applying some of its principles as territorialization, person-centered care, longitudinality, and resolution in health care. The goal is to offer the basic health needs of the population considering the determinants and conditions of health in each territory. METHODS: The present study is an experience report that aimed to raise the main health demands of the rural population in the areas of nursing, dentistry, and psychology of a village in the state of Minas Gerais through home visits carried out as part of primary care. RESULTS: Depression and psychological exhaustion were identified as the main psychological demands. Related to nursing, the difficulty of controlling chronic diseases was notable. Regarding dental care, the high prevalence of tooth loss was evident. In an attempt to minimize the limitations of access to health care, some strategies were created targeting the rural population. A radio program that aimed to disseminate basic health information in an accessible way was the main one. DISCUSSION: Therefore, the importance of home visits is evident, especially in rural areas, favoring educational health and preventive practices in primary care and considering the adoption of more effective care strategies for rural populations.

Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Saneamento , Educação em Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , População Rural
Matern Child Health J ; 27(3): 407-412, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36737527


INTRODUCTION: Evidence supports ongoing investment in maternal and early childhood home visiting in the US. Yet, a small fraction of eligible families accesses these services, and little is known about how families are referred. This report describes priority populations for home visiting programs, the capacity of programs to enroll more families, common sources of referrals to home visiting, and sources from which programs want to receive more referrals. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a national web-based survey of members of the Home Visiting Applied Research Collaborative (HARC), focusing on a small set of items that directly addressed study aims. Survey respondents (N = 87) represented local programs implementing varying home visiting models diverse in size and geographic context. RESULTS: Programs prioritized enrollment of pregnant women; parents with mental health, substance abuse or intimate partner violence concerns; teen parents; and children with developmental delays or child welfare involvement. Most respondents reported capacity to enroll more families in their programs. Few reported receiving any referrals from pediatric providers, child welfare, early care and education, or TANF/other social services. Most desired more referrals, especially from healthcare providers, WIC, and TANF/other social services. DISCUSSION: Given that most programs have the capacity to serve more families, this study provides insights regarding providers with whom home visiting programs might strengthen their referral systems.

Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gravidez , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Pais , Família , Visita Domiciliar , Encaminhamento e Consulta
Public Health ; 215: 106-117, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682079


OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of prenatal and postnatal home visits (HVs) and women group meetings (WGMs) by paramedical professionals to improve maternal and child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of trials published till December 2020, as per registered protocol in The International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42018091968). Outcomes were neonatal mortality rate (NMR), maternal mortality ratio (MMR), the incidence of low birth weight, and still birth rate (SBR). The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) were searched. Pooled results were estimated using random-effects meta-analysis in RevMan version 5.2. RESULTS: Twenty-five trials met the inclusion criteria. HVs were the key intervention in 12, WGMs in 11, and both interventions in 2 trials. The pooled estimates have shown that NMR was significantly reduced by HVs (OR 0.77, confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.90, P = 0.0007, I2 = 77%) and WGMs (OR 0.76, CI: 0.65-0.90, P = 0.001, I2 = 71%). SBR was significantly reduced by HVs (OR 0.77, CI: 0.70-0.85; P < 0.001, I2 = 0%). Subgroup analysis of studies in which more than 10% of pregnant women participated in the WGMs showed significant reduction in NMR (OR 0.67, CI 0.58-0.77, P = 0.00001, I2 = 31%) and MMR (OR 0.55, CI 0.36-0.84, P = 0.005, I2 = 27%). Two studies reported improvement in birth weight by HVs. CONCLUSIONS: HVs and WGMs (with >10% pregnant women) by paramedical professionals are effective strategies in reducing the NMR and MMR in LMICs. HVs were also effective in reducing SBR.

Países em Desenvolvimento , Mulheres , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Visita Domiciliar , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Vitaminas , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
Matern Child Health J ; 27(2): 218-225, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670308


BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and early parenthood can be challenging transitional times for many families, especially those struggling with opioid use disorder (OUD). Over 8 million children live with a parent with SUD and parental drug use has been attributed to rising rates of family instability and child welfare involvement (Lipari & Van Horn, 2017; AFCARS, 2020;). Community-based prevention programming for families with young children, such as evidence-based maternal and child home visiting (EBHV), may we well positioned to engage and support families impacted by the opioid epidemic through early childhood. This paper presents case studies to highlight promising practices for adapting EBHV models to families impacted by SUD from the perspectives of staff and administrators. METHODS: Data from three pilot sites are presented as case studies. These sites were selected to represent the most innovative and developed adaptations to EBHV for families impacted by substance use from an implementation evaluation of state-funded pilot sites (N = 20) at existing home visiting agencies across Pennsylvania. Data reported here represent semi-structured interviews with 11 individuals. Data were coded to facilitators and barriers nodes to understand the process and impact of pilot implementation. RESULTS: Systems-level collaboration and coordination were key to serving a population already engaged in multiple systems. Engagement of substance use experts allowed home visitors to focus on delivery of evidence-based curricula supporting family stability and child development. External partnerships reduced stigma among home visitors. Across sites, staff struggled with the increased acuity of social complexity of the OUD population. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Pregnancy and early parenthood are challenging transitional times for many families, especially those with OUD. Evaluation results demonstrate the promise of systems-based adaptations to community-based prevention programming for families with young children, such as maternal and child home visiting, to better support families impacted by SUD.

Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Pais , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Pennsylvania , Família , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Visita Domiciliar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle
Fam Community Health ; 46(1): 69-78, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073894


Early childhood home visiting (ECHV) is an evidence-based prevention strategy that directly impacts maternal and child health by mitigating the poor outcomes associated with socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse childhood experiences that disproportionately affect marginalized populations. Despite its promise, health care providers in many communities do not routinely refer patients to these services. This qualitative study examined barriers to health care providers' referrals to ECHV services and identified systems-level strategies to overcome those barriers through semistructured interviews with 37 health care providers in New Mexico. Most participants were pediatricians or family practice physicians working in hospitals or community-based primary care settings, and the majority served rural communities. Barriers included insufficient knowledge about ECHV programs; lack of trust of program providers; time constraints; concerns about available funding; lack of a standardized referral process; and concerns about stigma and messaging. Five systems-level recommendations were developed to improve practice: (1) educating health care providers; (2) developing messaging prompts for providers to use when talking with patients about ECHV; (3) increasing engagement among providers and ECHV programs; (4) standardizing referral systems within practices; and (5) promoting universal referrals. Additional research is ongoing to determine the degree to which these health promotion strategies increase referrals and participation in ECHV.

Encaminhamento e Consulta , População Rural , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Visita Domiciliar , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pessoal de Saúde
Infant Ment Health J ; 44(1): 117-124, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524446


Home visiting services for caregivers of infants and young children have been found to be an effective method for promoting child development. Unfortunately, such services suffer from high rates of attrition, suggesting the need to identify factors related to client retention in services. Research has indicated that the client-provider relationship is an important predictor of client retention in home visiting services; however, measures to assess this relationship are limited. This study reports on a pilot test of the Client Perceptions of Home Visitors Questionnaire, developed to assess home visiting clients' perceptions of their relationship with their home visitor. The measure was completed by 39 diverse home visiting clients during pregnancy in a midwestern town in the United States. The scale was found to have good internal consistency. Validity analyses found that the scale was positively associated with client satisfaction with services and perceived provider cultural sensitivity. The scale was also positively associated with retention in services at an 8-month follow-up. Additional research should examine the measure's psychometrics with larger samples.

Se ha determinado que los servicios de visita a casa para quienes prestan el cuidado a infantes y niños pequeños es un eficaz método para promover el desarrollo del niño. Desafortunadamente, tales servicios sufren de altas tasas de deserción, lo cual sugiere que hay una necesidad de identificar los factores relacionados con la retención del cliente en los servicios mencionados. La investigación ha señalado que la relación entre cliente y proveedor es un importante factor de predicción de la retención del cliente en los servicios de visita a casa; sin embargo, las medidas para evaluar esta relación son limitadas. Este estudio reporta acerca de un examen experimental del Cuestionario sobre las Percepciones del Cliente acerca de los Visitadores a Casa, desarrollado para evaluar las precepciones que tienen los clientes de visitas a casa acerca de su relación con el visitador a casa. Treinta y nueve clientes diversos de las visitas a casa completaron la medida durante el embarazo en un pueblo del medio oeste de los Estados Unidos. Se determinó que la escala tenía una buena consistencia interna. Los análisis de validez determinaron que la escala se asociaba positivamente con la satisfacción del cliente en cuanto a los servicios y la percibida sensibilidad cultural del proveedor. También se asoció la escala positivamente con la retención en los servicios al momento del seguimiento a los 8 meses. La investigación adicional debe examinar los aspectos sicométricos de la medida utilizando grupos muestras más grandes.

On considère que les services de visite à domicile pour les personnes prenant soin de bébés et de jeunes enfants sont une méthode efficace pour promouvoir le développement de l'enfant. Malheureusement de tes services souffrent de taux élevés d'attrition, suggérant donc le besoin d'identifier des facteurs liés à la rétention du client dans ces services. Les recherches ont indiqué que la relation client-prestataire est un facteur de prédiction important pour la rétention du client dans les services de visite à domicile. Cependant les mesures pour évaluer cette relation sont limitées. Cette étude porte sur un test pilote du Questionnaire des Perceptions du Client de la Visite à Domicile, développé afin d'évaluer les perceptions des clients de visite à domicile de leur relation au visiteur à domicile. La mesure a été remplie par 39 clients de visite a domicile, de milieux divers, durant la grossesse dans une ville du centre nord des Etats-Unis d'Amérique. On a trouvé que l'échelle avait une bonne consistance interne. Des analyses de validité ont trouvé que l'échelle était liée de manière positive à la satisfaction du client avec les services et à la sensibilité culturelle perçue du prestataire. L'échelle était aussi liée de manière positive à la rétention dans les services à un suivi à 8 mois. Des recherches supplémentaires devraient examiner la psychométrie de la mesure avec des échantillons plus grands.

Visita Domiciliar , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Lactente , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
Infant Ment Health J ; 44(1): 5-26, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565695


Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (IECMHC) is a preventative, capacity-building intervention in which mental health professionals partner with early childhood professionals to indirectly improve the environments and relationships that young children experience. Prior research has demonstrated that IECMHC is associated with positive outcomes for children, teachers, and classrooms. Over the past decade, IECMHC implementation and research have expanded, warranting an updated review. The current paper provides an update of the IECMHC evidence base. Included studies (n = 16) were systematically gathered, screened, and coded for context, intervention characteristics, methods and measures, outcomes across ecological levels, and alignment with the IDEAS Impact Framework's guiding questions. Our analysis replicates prior reviews, describing the positive impact of IECMHC on outcomes such as child externalizing behavior, teacher self-efficacy, and teacher-child interactions. Beyond updating prior reviews, this analysis describes emerging, nuanced findings regarding the mechanisms of change and the differential impact of IECMHC. We augment our review with descriptions of evaluations that did not meet our inclusion criteria (e.g., IECMHC in the home visiting context, unpublished evaluation reports) to provide context for our findings. Finally, we provide policy and practice implications and articulate an agenda for future research.

Saúde Mental , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Saúde do Lactente , Visita Domiciliar
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 35(1): 63-70, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476637


ABSTRACT: This educational innovation describes the implementation and evaluation of a telehealth maternal-newborn home visit clinical experience for nurse practitioner students at an urban, private research university in the Midwest. The visits were conducted using the Family Connects evidence-based universal support program for families with newborns to evaluate each family's unique risks and to align their needs with available community resources. Students were prepared for the clinical experience through advanced practice didactic modules and simulation and then participated in the visits over a 2-week period. After the clinical opportunity, both students and community health nurse collaborators completed a survey about their experiences. The students reported feeling prepared to participate in the visits, that they were able to meet clinical objectives using telehealth, and learned about the community resources available for families with newborns. The nurses reported feeling prepared to collaborate with nurse practitioner students and that they benefitted from having a student participate in the visits. The experience prepared the students to meet the needs of a diverse patient population during the early postpartum/newborn period by providing newborn care advice, addressing access to health, assessing social determinants of health, and considering community resource referrals to reduce disparities and improve health equity. This article describes how a telehealth clinical experience addresses the American Association of Colleges of Nursing Essentials for advanced-level nursing students and provides recommendations for incorporating and evaluating telehealth clinical experiences in pediatric advanced practice education.

Equidade em Saúde , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Telemedicina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Visita Domiciliar , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação