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1.
J Crit Care ; 71: 154050, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, intensive care units (ICU) introduced restrictions to in-person family visiting to safeguard patients, healthcare personnel, and visitors. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey (March-July 2021) investigating ICU visiting practices before the pandemic, at peak COVID-19 ICU admissions, and at the time of survey response. We sought data on visiting policies and communication modes including use of virtual visiting (videoconferencing). RESULTS: We obtained 667 valid responses representing ICUs in all continents. Before the pandemic, 20% (106/525) had unrestricted visiting hours; 6% (30/525) did not allow in-person visiting. At peak, 84% (558/667) did not allow in-person visiting for patients with COVID-19; 66% for patients without COVID-19. This proportion had decreased to 55% (369/667) at time of survey reporting. A government mandate to restrict hospital visiting was reported by 53% (354/646). Most ICUs (55%, 353/615) used regular telephone updates; 50% (306/667) used telephone for formal meetings and discussions regarding prognosis or end-of-life. Virtual visiting was available in 63% (418/667) at time of survey. CONCLUSIONS: Highly restrictive visiting policies were introduced at the initial pandemic peaks, were subsequently liberalized, but without returning to pre-pandemic practices. Telephone became the primary communication mode in most ICUs, supplemented with virtual visits.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Visitas a Pacientes , Comunicação , Cuidados Críticos , Família , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Política Organizacional , Pandemias , Políticas
3.
Am J Nurs ; 122(6): 13, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617548
5.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(7): 868-879, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hospital policies forbidding or limiting families from visiting relatives on the intensive care unit (ICU) has affected patients, families, healthcare professionals, and patient- and family-centered care (PFCC). We sought to refine evidence-informed consensus statements to guide the creation of ICU visitation policies during the current COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics and to identify barriers and facilitators to their implementation and sustained uptake in Canadian ICUs. METHODS: We created consensus statements from 36 evidence-informed experiences (i.e., impacts on patients, families, healthcare professionals, and PFCC) and 63 evidence-informed strategies (i.e., ways to improve restricted visitation) identified during a modified Delphi process (described elsewhere). Over two half-day virtual meetings on 7 and 8 April 2021, 45 stakeholders (patients, families, researchers, clinicians, decision-makers) discussed and refined these consensus statements. Through qualitative descriptive content analysis, we evaluated the following points for 99 consensus statements: 1) their importance for improving restricted visitation policies; 2) suggested modifications to make them more applicable; and 3) facilitators and barriers to implementing these statements when creating ICU visitation policies. RESULTS: Through discussion, participants identified three areas for improvement: 1) clarity, 2) accessibility, and 3) feasibility. Stakeholders identified several implementation facilitators (clear, flexible, succinct, and prioritized statements available in multiple modes), barriers (perceived lack of flexibility, lack of partnership between government and hospital, change fatigue), and ways to measure and monitor their use (e.g., family satisfaction, qualitative interviews). CONCLUSIONS: Existing guidance on policies that disallowed or restricted visitation in intensive care units were confusing, hard to operationalize, and often lacked supporting evidence. Prioritized, succinct, and clear consensus statements allowing for local adaptability are necessary to guide the creation of ICU visitation policies and to optimize PFCC.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Les politiques hospitalières interdisant ou limitant les visites des familles à des proches à l'unité de soins intensifs (USI) ont affecté les patients, les familles, les professionnels de la santé et les soins centrés sur le patient et la famille (SCPF). Nous avons cherché à affiner les déclarations de consensus fondées sur des données probantes afin de guider la création de politiques de visite aux soins intensifs pendant la pandémie actuelle de COVID-19 et les pandémies futures, et dans le but d'identifier les obstacles et les critères facilitants à leur mise en œuvre et à leur adoption répandue dans les unités de soins intensifs canadiennes. MéTHODE: Nous avons créé des déclarations de consensus à partir de 36 expériences fondées sur des données probantes (c.-à-d. impacts sur les patients, les familles, les professionnels de la santé et les SCPF) et 63 stratégies fondées sur des données probantes (c.-à-d. moyens d'améliorer les restrictions des visites) identifiées au cours d'un processus Delphi modifié (décrit ailleurs). Au cours de deux réunions virtuelles d'une demi-journée tenues les 7 et 8 avril 2021, 45 intervenants (patients, familles, chercheurs, cliniciens, décideurs) ont discuté et affiné ces déclarations de consensus. Grâce à une analyse descriptive qualitative du contenu, nous avons évalué les points suivants pour 99 déclarations de consensus : 1) leur importance pour l'amélioration des politiques de restriction des visites; 2) les modifications suggérées pour les rendre plus applicables; et 3) les critères facilitants et les obstacles à la mise en œuvre de ces déclarations lors de la création de politiques de visite aux soins intensifs. RéSULTATS: En discutant, les participants ont identifié trois domaines à améliorer : 1) la clarté, 2) l'accessibilité et 3) la faisabilité. Les intervenants ont identifié plusieurs critères facilitants à la mise en œuvre (énoncés clairs, flexibles, succincts et hiérarchisés disponibles dans plusieurs modes), des obstacles (manque perçu de flexibilité, manque de partenariat entre le gouvernement et l'hôpital, fatigue du changement) et des moyens de mesurer et de surveiller leur utilisation (p. ex., satisfaction des familles, entrevues qualitatives). CONCLUSION: Les directives existantes sur les politiques qui interdisaient ou limitaient les visites dans les unités de soins intensifs étaient déroutantes, difficiles à mettre en oeuvre et manquaient souvent de données probantes à l'appui. Des déclarations de consensus hiérarchisées, succinctes et claires permettant une adaptabilité locale sont nécessaires pour guider la création de politiques de visite en soins intensifs et pour optimiser les soins centrés sur le patient et la famille.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Visitas a Pacientes , Canadá , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Políticas
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265082, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) pandemic, many hospitals imposed a no-visitation policy for visiting patients in hospitals to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among visitors and patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the no-visitation policy and delirium in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: This was a single-center, before-after comparative study. Patients were admitted to a mixed medical-surgical ICU from September 6, 2019 to October 18, 2020. Because no-visitation policy was implemented on February 26, 2020, we compared patients admitted after this date (after phase) with the patients admitted before the no-visitation policy (before phase) was implemented. The primary outcome was the incidence of delirium during the ICU stay. Cox regression was used for the primary analysis and was calculated using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Covariates were age, sex, APACHE II, dementia, emergency surgery, benzodiazepine, and mechanical ventilation use. RESULTS: Of the total 200 patients consecutively recruited, 100 were exposed to a no-visitation policy. The number of patients who developed delirium during ICU stay during the before phase and the after phase were 59 (59%) and 64 (64%), respectively (P = 0.127). The adjusted HR of no-visitation policy for the number of days until the first development of delirium during the ICU stay was 0.895 (0.613-1.306). CONCLUSION: The no-visitation policy was not associated with the development of delirium in ICU patients.


Assuntos
Delírio/epidemiologia , Políticas , Visitas a Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , APACHE , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
9.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 33(1): 1-11, Enero-Marzo, 2022. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-203594

RESUMO

Introducción: El delirium es una alteración cognitiva relacionada con resultados negativos en el paciente interno en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), las intervenciones familiares han demostrado ser efectivas para reducir la incidencia de esta condición.Objetivo: Identificar las estrategias que incluyen a la familia en la prevención del delirium en la UCI del adulto que pueden ser integradas al ABCDEF. Criterios de inclusión: Estudios que describieran acciones e intervenciones que incluyan a cuidadores y familiares en la UCI para la prevención del delirium en adultos, realizados en los últimos 5 años, disponibles en texto completo, en español, portugués e inglés.Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de alcance utilizando las palabras clave «Critical Care, Delirium, Family, Primary Prevention» en 11 bases de datos (PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, Cochrane Library, TRIP Data base, EBSCO, Ovid Nursing, Springer, Scopus, Dialnet, Scielo, Lilacs) y otras fuentes (Open Gray, Google Scholar), entre los meses de agosto-octubre de 2019; 8 estudios se consideraron relevantes y fueron analizados.Resultados: Los resultados fueron descritos en 3 categorías: flexibilidad vs. restricción de visitas en la UCI, reorientación como estrategia de prevención y síndrome post-UCI en la familia.Conclusión: Las visitas extendidas, el desarrollo de actividades mediadas por la familia y la reorientación son estrategias no farmacológicas que reducen la incidencia del delirium en la UCI y ofrecen múltiples beneficios para el paciente y su familiar/cuidador.


Introduction: Delirium is cognitive impairment related to negative inpatient outcomes in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), family interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of this condition.Objective: To identify strategies that include the family in the prevention of delirium in the adult intensive care unit that can be integrated into ABCDEF. Inclusion criteria: Studies describing actions and interventions involving caregivers and family members in the ICU for the prevention of delirium, conducted in the last five years, available in full text, in English and Spanish, Portuguese and in adults.Methods: A scope review was conducted using the keywords “Critical Care, Delirium, Family, Primary Prevention” in 11 databases (PubMed, Virtual Health Library, Cochrane Library, TRIP Data base, EBSCO, Ovid Nursing, Springer, Scopus, Dialnet, Scielo, Lilacs) and other sources (Open Gray, Google Scholar), between August - October 2019; 8 studies were considered relevant and were analysed.Results: The results were described in 3 categories: flexibility vs. restriction of visits in the ICU, Reorientation as a prevention strategy and post-ICU syndrome in the family.Conclusion: Extended visits, development of family-mediated activities, and redirection are non-pharmacological strategies that reduce the incidence of delirium in the ICU and offer multiple benefits to the patient and family/caregiver.


Assuntos
Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Inativação Metabólica , Enfermagem , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Visitas a Pacientes
12.
Aust Crit Care ; 35(4): 375-382, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe family visitation policies, facilities, and support in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: A survey was distributed to all Australian and New Zealand ICUs reporting to the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcomes and Resources Evaluation Critical Care Resources (CCR) Registry in 2018. Data were obtained from the survey and from data reported to the CCR Registry. For this study, open visiting (OV) was defined as allowing visitors for more than 14 h per day. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study included all Australian and New Zealand ICUs reporting to CCR in 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were family access to the ICU and visiting hours, characteristics of the ICU waiting area, and information provided to and collected from the relatives. FINDINGS: Fifty-six percent (95/170) of ICUs contributing to CCR responded, representing 44% of ANZ ICUs and a range of rural, metropolitan, tertiary, and private ICUs. Visiting hours ranged from 1.5 to 24 h per day, with 68 (72%) respondent ICUs reporting an OV policy, of which 64 (67%) ICUs were open to visitors 24 h a day. A waiting room was part of the ICU for 77 (81%) respondent ICUs, 74 (78%) reported a separate dedicated room for family meetings, and 83 (87%) reported available social worker services. Most ICUs reported facilities for sleeping within or near the hospital. An information booklet was provided by 64 (67%) ICUs. Only six (6%) ICUs required personal protective equipment for all visitors, and 76 (80%) required personal protective equipment for patients with airborne precautions. CONCLUSIONS: In 2018, the majority of ANZ ICUs reported liberal visiting policies, with substantial facilities and family support.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Visitas a Pacientes , Austrália , Família , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Políticas , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Nurs Crit Care ; 27(3): 450-459, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relevance to clinical practice The findings from the study highlighting family involvement, high-quality communication and flexible visiting policy as central aspects of family care may inspire clinicians to identify aspects of everyday family care in their ICUs calling for further improvement. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe family involvement, communication practices and visiting policies in adult ICUs. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. METHOD: A questionnaire consisting of 11 sections was developed, pilot tested and e-mailed to 196 ICUs. The participants were intensive care nurses in adult ICUs in four Nordic countries. RESULTS: The survey was conducted in October to December 2019. The response rate was 81% (158/196) of the invited ICUs. Most of the units had fewer than 11 beds. Family participation in patient care, including involvement in ward rounds and presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, varied between the countries, whereas most families in all countries were involved in decision-making. Family conferences were generally initiated by staff or family members. Children under 18 did not always receive information directly from the staff, and parents were not advised about how to inform their children. Although most respondents described open visiting, restrictions were also mentioned in free-text comments. CONCLUSIONS: The level of family care in ICUs in the four Nordic countries is generally based on nurses' discretion. Although most Nordic ICUs report having an open or flexible visiting policy, a wide range of potential restrictions still exists. Children and young relatives are not routinely followed up. Family members are included in communication and decision-making, whereas family involvement in daily care, ward rounds and family-witnessed resuscitation seem to be areas with a potential for improvement.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Visitas a Pacientes , Adulto , Criança , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Família , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Aust Crit Care ; 35(4): 383-390, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family-centred critical care recognises the impact of a loved one's critical illness on his relatives. Open visiting is a strategy to improve family satisfaction and psychological outcomes by permitting unrestricted or less restricted access to visit their family member in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, increased family presence may result in increased workload and a risk of burnout for ICU staff. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate ICU staff perceptions regarding visiting hours and family access in Australian and New Zealand ICUs. Secondary outcomes included an evaluation of current visiting policies, witnessed events in ICUs, and barriers to implementing open visiting policies. DESIGN: A web-based survey open to all healthcare workers in Australia and New Zealand ICUs was distributed through local, state-based, and national critical care networks. Open visiting was defined as ICUs open for visiting >14 h per day. MAIN RESULTS: We received 1255 valid responses. Most respondents were nurses (n = 930, 74.1%) with a median critical care experience of 10 y. Most worked in open visiting ICUs (n = 749, 59.7%). Reported visiting hours varied greatly with a median of 20 h per day (interquartile range: 10-24 h). Open visiting was perceived as beneficial for the relatives, but less so for patients and staff (relatives: n = 845, 67.3%, patients: n = 561, 44.7%, staff: n = 257, 20.5%, p < 0.0001). Respondents from closed visiting units and nurses identified more risks from open visiting than other professional groups. Generally, staff preferred not to change from their current practice. CONCLUSION: We report that staff perceived open visiting as beneficial for relatives, but also identified risks to themselves, including increased workload, a risk of burnout, and a risk of occupational violence. Reluctance to change highlights the importance of addressing staff perceptions when implementing an open visiting policy.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Visitas a Pacientes , Austrália , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Nova Zelândia , Políticas , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 68: 103139, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide insights into visiting policies and family-centred care practices with a focus on children as visitors in Intensive Care Units in German-speaking countries. METHODS/DESIGN: Online-survey with a mixed methods approach. Leading clinicians (n = 1943) from German-speaking countries were invited to participate. Outcomes included the percentage of intensive care units with open visiting policies, age restrictions, family-centred care activities and barriers. SETTING: Paediatric, mixed and adult units RESULTS: In total, 19.8% (n = 385) of the clinicians responded. Open visiting times were reported by 36.3% (n = 117), with significant differences between paediatric (79.2%), adult (21.3%) and mixed-age (41.2%) units (p < 0.01). Two-thirds of clinicians stated that their units had no age restrictions for children as visitors (n = 221, 68.4%). The family-centred care activities most frequently implemented were open visiting times and dissemination of information. Significantly more German units have open visiting policies and more Swiss units allow children as visitors, compared to the other countries (both p < 0.001). Barriers to family-centred care were concerns about children being traumatized, infection and workload. CONCLUSION: The majority reported that family-centred care policies had been implemented in their units, including open visiting policies, allowing children as visitors without age restriction and other family-centred care activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Família , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Visitas a Pacientes
20.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210088, 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339881

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: compreender, por meio do brinquedo terapêutico dramático, o significado, para o irmão, de visitar a criança hospitalizada em terapia intensiva. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, modalidade fenomenológica, que utilizou o brinquedo terapêutico dramático para acessar às experiências dos irmãos. Foi realizada em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica do interior do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Participaram das sessões de brinquedo terapêutico 11 irmãos menores de 10 anos, as quais foram analisadas à luz da Teoria do Amadurecimento. Resultados: os irmãos, tendo um lugar para brincar, dramatizaram situações, anteriormente, vividas, de seu cotidiano e da visita à criança hospitalizada. Ao viver, criativamente, revelaram que brincar é fazer a integração das experiências do "eu", favorecendo o continuar a ser diante da situação vivida. Conclusões e implicações para a prática: o Brinquedo Terapêutico Dramático compreendido à luz de um referencial teórico possibilitou que o irmão significasse a visita como uma experiência de integração do "eu", revelando emoções, desejos e preferências do cotidiano. Nesse sentido, o cuidado ao irmão da criança hospitalizada define-se pela oferta do brincar livre, para que ele demonstre o sentimento de continuar a ser em suas interações com o mundo, no qual o contexto hospitalar tornou parte da realidade.


Resumen Objeto: Comprender por medio del juego terapéutico dramático el significado, para el hermano, de la visita al niño hospitalizado en Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Método: Investigación cualitativa, modalidad fenomenológica, que utilizó el juego terapéutico dramático para comprender la experiencia del hermano. Se realizó en Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica del interior del Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Participaron de las sesiones de juego terapéutico 11 hermanos con menos de 10 años, quienes fueron analizados a la luz de la Teoría de la Maduración. Resultados: Los hermanos, al tener un lugar para jugar, dramatizaron situaciones anteriormente vividas, de su cotidiano y de la visita al niño hospitalizado. Al vivir de forma creativa, revelaron que jugar es permitir la integración de las experiencias del "yo", lo que favorece el concepto de seguir siendo, ante la situación vivida. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica: El Juego Terapéutico Dramático comprendido a la luz de un referencial teórico hizo posible que el hermano entendiera la visita como una experiencia de integración del "yo", revelando emociones, deseos y preferencias cotidianas. En este sentido, el cuidado del hermano del niño hospitalizado se define por la oferta de juego libre, para que pueda demostrar su sentimiento de seguir siendo en sus interacciones con el mundo, en el que el contexto hospitalario se ha convertido en parte de la realidad.


Abstract Objective: to understand, by means of dramatic therapeutic play, the meaning, for the sibling, of visiting the child hospitalized in intensive care. Method: a qualitative research, phenomenological modality, which used the dramatic therapeutic play to access the siblings' experiences. It was carried out in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in the countryside of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven siblings under ten years of age participated in the therapeutic play sessions, which were analyzed in the light of the Theory of Maturation. Results: the siblings, having a place to play, dramatized previously lived situations, from their daily life and from the visit to the hospitalized child. By living creatively, they revealed that playing is to integrate the experiences of the "I", favoring the continuity of being in the face of the situation lived. Conclusions and implications for practice: the Dramatic Therapeutic Play understood in the light of a theoretical framework allowed the sibling to mean the visit as an experience of integration of the "I", revealing emotions, desires and preferences of daily life. In this sense, the care for the brother of the hospitalized child is defined by the offer of free play, so that he demonstrates the feeling of continuing to be in his interactions with the world, in which the hospital context has become part of reality.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Visitas a Pacientes/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Criança Hospitalizada , Irmãos/psicologia , Relações entre Irmãos , Saúde da Criança , Criatividade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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