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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 325-334, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meat fraud and adulteration incidents occur frequently in almost all regions of the globe, especially with the increase in the world's population. To ensure the authenticity of meat products, we developed a 10-plex xMAP assay to simultaneously detect ten animal materials: bovine, caprine, poultry, swine, donkey, deer, horse, dog, fox and mink. RESULTS: This method was investigated by analyzing DNA extracts from raw muscle, muscle mixtures, meat products and animal feeds. Our results indicated that the species of interest can be identified, differentiated and detected down to 1 g kg-1 in binary mixtures or 0.01-0.001 ng of genomic DNA from specific species. Testing of 125 commercial samples showed a 97.4% coincidence rate with the method used in routine testing in our lab. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the method established in this study could detect ten animal materials simultaneously within 3 h, which provides a new, useful tool for animal ingredient analysis in meat products and animal feeds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cervos , Cães , Raposas , Cabras , Cavalos , Vison , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 656-660, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Free-living animals can play an important role as a reservoir of Toxoplasma gondi;, however, data concerning this issue in Poland are still limited.The aim of study was to assess the occurrence of T. gondii infection by using molecular methods in free-living animals in selected regions of Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tissues samples of 396 animals (foxes, muskrats, birds, martens, badgers, polecats, raccoons, minks, raccoon dogs, otters, small rodents and insectivores, and grass snakes were collected from various regions of Poland. After samples digestion, DNA was isolated using QIAmp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen). DNA extraction from small rodents and insectivores samples was performed without digestion. Next, nested PCR (B1 gene) and, for a part of nested PCR positive amplicons, RFLP PCR, were performed according to the method by Grigg and Boothroyd (2001). The other part of nested PCR positive DNA isolates were genotyped using 5 genetic markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'- and 3'), SAG3, BTUB and GRA6, based on the method by Dubey et al. (2006). These PCR products were sequenced and compared with the NCBI database using Blast. RESULTS: In total, in 50 of the 396 examined animals DNA of T. gondii was detected (12.6%). The highest percentages of positive results in PCR was obtained in martens (40.9%) and badgers (38.5%), lower in birds (27.3%) and the lowest in foxes (7.4%). The RFLP and multilocus PCR analysis showed the dominance of T. gondii clonal type II (or II/III). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate the frequent T. gondii infection among free-living animals in Poland, especially martens and badgers, which may indirectly indicate that these animals contribute to the spread of the parasite in the sylvatic environment in Poland. The genotyping analysis showed the dominance of T. gondii clonal type II (or II/III).


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Genótipo , Vison/parasitologia , Mustelidae/parasitologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Cães Guaxinins/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
3.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol ; 57(4): 157-158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743418

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) is an important regulator of many cellular and immunological functions. It is often deposited in extracellular matrices in a latent form. This commentary is to draw attention to the likelihood that preparing cell-free matrices from tissue cultures by high pH buffers, such as ammonium hydroxide, can activate the TGF-ß. Therefore, cells subsequently seeded onto such matrices may respond to the presence of active TGF-ß in addition to interactions with macromolecular extracellular matrix components.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Hidróxido de Amônia/química , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Matriz Extracelular/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Vison , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/química
4.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2691-2698, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428916

RESUMO

Aleutian mink disease virus is one of the greatest threats to modern mink farming. The disease reduces fecundity and causes high mortality among kits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of methisoprinol in counteracting the effects of Aleutian disease, both by inhibiting replication of the virus and by mitigating the harmful effects of the disease on the fecundity and weight of infected animals. The study included 300 individuals with confirmed infection, divided according to antibody titres into three experimental groups, which received a 20% methisoprinol solution, and three control groups, which did not receive the immunostimulant. In the mink from the experimental groups, the number of copies of the genetic material of the virus in the spleens and lymph nodes was one order of magnitude lower than in the case of the control groups. Mink receiving the supplement also showed higher fecundity (on average 5.83 in the experimental groups and 4.83 in the control groups), and the weight of their offspring before slaughter was over 200 g higher. Given the lack of effective methods for immunoprophylaxis and treatment, methisoprinol supplementation can be an effective means of counteracting the effects of AMDV on persistently infected farms.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inosina Pranobex/farmacologia , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/mortalidade , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/genética , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Linfonodos/virologia , Vison/virologia , Baço/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3917841, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346516

RESUMO

In this study, the prevalence, phenotypes, and clonal relationships of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from minks were investigated. In July 2017, a total of 62 fresh faecal swab samples were randomly collected from one large-scale mink farm in Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. In all the samples, 50 E. coli strains were isolated and then assigned to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility test, detection of antimicrobial resistance genes and the Class 1 integrons, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Four pathogenic serotypes were identified among all the isolates, while the most common serotype was enterohemorrhagic E. coli O104:H4 (6.0 %). Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that most isolates were susceptible to cefoxitin (96.0 %) and amikacin (82.0 %), while most isolates were resistant to ampicillin (92.0 %) and tetracycline (90.0 %). An analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed that 7 isolates (14.0%) carried 4 types of Class 1 integron cassette, including dfrA27+aadA2+qnrA (57.1%), dfrA17+aadA5 (14.3%), dfrA12+aadA2 (14.3%), and dfrA1+aadA1 (14.3%). PCR screening showed that 14 antibiotic resistance genes were presented in 50 isolates, while the most prevalent resistance gene was qnrS, which was detected in 60.0 % of isolates, followed by sul2 (40.0%) and oqxA (38.0%). MLST analysis showed that 32 sequence types (STs) were identified, while ST46 was the predominant genotype among all isolates. Clonal complex 3 (CC3) was dominant. Compared with 340 human E. coli STs reported in China, the ST10 clonal complex, known as the largest human clonal complex, was also found in the 50 mink E. coli isolates. Meanwhile, mink-derived strain ST206 formed a new clonal complex, CC206, which was different from human ST strains. Our results showed that farmed minks could be reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli with Class 1 integron cassettes and resistance genes, which were likely to pose a threat to public health. Therefore, continuous inspections and monitoring of E. coli in minks are essential for detecting and controlling emerging E. coli with different serovars as well as antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Vison/microbiologia , Agricultura , Amicacina/farmacologia , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Cefoxitina/farmacologia , China , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Vison/genética , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
6.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 485(1): 56-58, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197596

RESUMO

The ultrastructure of the nephron subcellular organelles was studied in healthy mink kidneys. The data obtained were compared with the results of transmission electron microscopy. The renal cell nanomorphology proved to be similar when electronograms and the atomic force microscopy images were analyzed. The methods used enabled us to visualize the glomerular capillary endotheliocytes with cytolemma pits in the area of fenestrae that provide blood filtration; in the proximal nephron part, on the apical pole of the epithelial cells, brush-border soft microvilli were observed. The microvilli were characterized by a well-organized structure along their entire length and the membrane integrity. The data obtained show morphological parameters of the healthy mink organ and can be helpful in diagnosing of nephropathology.


Assuntos
Vison/anatomia & histologia , Néfrons/ultraestrutura , Animais , Células Endoteliais/ultraestrutura , Microvilosidades/ultraestrutura
7.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 26, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is a severe syndrome, with world-wide occurrence, affecting farmed mink (Neovison vison) kits during the lactation period. Kits affected by PWD often display clinical signs such as: yellow-white diarrhea, greasy skin, and dehydration. In severe cases the kits eventually die. It is common practice to treat PWD using antimicrobials; however the effect is not well documented. Due to the multifactorial etiology of PWD vaccine development is not feasible. The role played by the immune status of the mink kits with respect to their susceptibility to PWD is not well studied. To elucidate the possible association between PWD and total IgG serum concentration in young kits we analyzed blood collected from kits from 100 litters on two mink farms during the same breeding period, one farm being a case farm with high prevalence of PWD, and the other being a control farm with no cases of PWD. RESULTS: Kits affected by PWD had a significantly reduced weight gain compared to unaffected control kits. Litters born later in the breeding period came down with PWD at an earlier age than litters born at the start of the breeding period. We found that PWD affected kits had significantly lower concentrations of serum IgG compared to unaffected kits at 13-15 days of age (the last blood sampling point of the study). CONCLUSION: The results in this study suggest that PWD affected kits less efficiently absorbed IgG from maternal milk or had a lower intake of maternal milk, potentially contributing to the exacerbation of disease. A lower intake of IgG and/or less absorption from maternal milk could also pre-dispose kits for PWD. Future studies will be needed to elucidate if the circulating level of IgG is directly related to protection against disease and to investigate if administration of IgG could be helpful in alleviating and/or preventing PWD in mink kits.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/imunologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vison/imunologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/sangue , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/patologia , Vison/sangue , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 121-129, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207535

RESUMO

Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink kits (PWD), also known as "sticky kits" is a multifactorial syndrome of considerable concern in the mink production. Evidence based treatment protocols are not available, and treatment is therefore empirical and often based on the use of antimicrobials. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of 3 alternative treatments to a standard antibiotic treatment, to characterize the study groups microbiologically, and finally to compare the intestinal microbiota of the different treatment groups at the age of 42 days. In total, 226 one to three week old mink kits with PWD from 36 litters were treated with either 1) Lactobacillus reuteri, 2) benzylpenicillin, 3) Ringer lactate or 4) amoxicillin (controls). Effects of the treatments were measured as weight gain from day 0 to day 15 and mortality. Multivariable linear mixed model regression showed no significant difference in weight gain between probiotic-, penicillin or fluid-treated mink kits and the amoxicillin treated controls. There was also no significant difference in mortality risk between the treatment groups. Bacterial culture and next generation sequencing of the viral contents showed that the study groups were uniform with a high frequency of Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) bacteria, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus hirae, Mamastrovirus and Sapovirus which were representative for mink kits with PWD. 16S sequencing results of the bacterial microbiota, when the kits were 42 days old were dominated by clostridia in all groups and showed no clear differences in the bacterial composition between the different treatment groups.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vison , Probióticos/farmacologia , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/virologia , Lactobacillus reuteri/química , Masculino , Penicilina G/farmacologia , Lactato de Ringer/farmacologia
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 757-765, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002290

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate the values of morphological traits of myocardium in American minks. The study was conducted on 342 male mink hearts and 416 female mink hearts. Mink coat coloration resulting from mutation or crossbreeding of mutational variants with each other and sex were assumed as a source of variation. Carcass, lung and heart weights, heart height, width, depth and circumference, as well as left and right ventricular wall weights and thickness at two locations were determined. The values of 10 indices characterising the relative size of the heart were estimated. The results showed no normal distribution of the heart traits examined. The greatest average heart weight was characteristic of male mutational colour variant minks (17.40 ± 2.34 g). These hearts were heavier by more than 8 % than those of male standard colour variant minks. The hearts of male mutational colour variant minks were characterised by the greatest left and right ventricle weights (P≤0.01) compared to those of male standard colour variant minks, in which in turn the greatest left and right ventricle wall thickness was larger than that in standard colour variant minks. It was found that a greater difference calculated between mean left ventricle wall thickness and mean right ventricle wall thickness in standard colour variant minks may provide more evidence of its adaptation to a greater effort, referring thus to their evolutionary history than to the occurrence of signs of multistage myocardial hypertrophy.


El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar los valores de los rasgos morfológicos del miocardio en el visón americano. El estudio se realizó en 342 corazones de visón macho y 416 corazones de visón hembra. La coloración de la capa de visón resultante de la mutación o el cruce de variantes mutacionales entre sí, y el sexo se asumieron como una fuente de variación. Se determinaron los pesos de la canal, los pulmones y el corazón, la altura del corazón, el ancho, la profundidad y la circunferencia, así como los pesos y el grosor de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho en dos ubicaciones. Se estimaron los valores de 10 índices que caracterizan el tamaño relativo del corazón. Los resultados no mostraron una distribución normal de los rasgos de los corazones examinados. El mayor peso promedio del corazón fue característico de los visones de variante de color mutacional macho (17,40 ± 2,34 g). Estos corazones eran más pesados en más de un 8 % que los de los visones con variante de color estándar machos. Los corazones de los visones de variante de color mutacional macho se caracterizaron por los mayores pesos de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho (P≤0,01) en comparación con los de los visones de color estándar machos, en los que a su vez el mayor grosor de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho fue mayor que el de las variantes de colores estándar. Se observó que una mayor diferencia entre los grosores medio de las paredes de los ventrículos izquierdo y derecho en las variantes de color estándar, puede proporcionar más pruebas de su adaptación a un mayor esfuerzo, refiriéndose así a su historial evolutivo, pese a la aparición de signos de hipertrofia miocárdica multietapa.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Vison/anatomia & histologia , Vison/genética , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Mutação
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035421

RESUMO

Embryo implantation in the mink follows the pattern of many carnivores, in that preimplantation embryo diapause occurs in every gestation. Details of the gene expression and regulatory networks that terminate embryo diapause remain poorly understood. Illumina RNA-Seq was used to analyze global gene expression changes in the mink uterus during embryo diapause and activation leading to implantation. More than 50 million high quality reads were generated, and assembled into 170,984 unigenes. A total of 1684 differential expressed genes (DEGs) in uteri with blastocysts in diapause were compared to the activated embryo group (p < 0.05). Among these transcripts, 1527 were annotated as known genes, including 963 up-regulated and 564 down-regulated genes. The gene ontology terms for the observed DEGs, included cellular communication, phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix and G-protein couple receptor activity. The KEGG pathways, including PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, focal adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions were the most enriched. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and hub nodes such as VEGFA, EGF, AKT, IGF1, PIK3C and CCND1 with high degrees of connectivity represent gene clusters expected to play an important role in embryo activation. These results provide novel information for understanding the molecular mechanisms of maternal regulation of embryo activation in mink.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Feminino , Vison , Gravidez , Transcriptoma/genética , Útero/fisiologia
11.
Arch Virol ; 164(7): 1771-1780, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076910

RESUMO

A number of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1) isolates have been reported from avian and non-avian hosts worldwide with varying clinical consequences. In this regard, robust surveillance coupled with advanced diagnostics, genomic analysis, and disease modelling has provided insight into the molecular epidemiology and evolution of this virus. The genomic and evolutionary characteristics of AAvV 1 isolates originating from avian hosts have been well studied, but those originating from non-avian hosts have not. Here, we report a comparative genomic and evolutionary analysis of so-far reported AAvV 1 isolates originating from hosts other than avian species (humans, mink and swine). Phylogenetic analysis showed that AAvV 1 isolates clustered in five distinct genotypes (I, II, VI, VII and XIII). Further analysis revealed clustering of isolates into clades distant enough to be considered distinct subgenotypes, along with a few substitutions in several significant motifs. Although further investigation is needed, the clustering of AAvV 1 strains isolated from non-avian hosts into novel subgenotypes and the presence of substitutions in important structural and biological motifs suggest that this virus can adapt to novel hosts and therefore could have zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Infecções por Avulavirus/epidemiologia , Avulavirus/genética , Avulavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Avulavirus/classificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Vison , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Suínos
12.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(2): 122-132, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097874

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is a fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Very little is known about P. aeruginosa in relation to genotype and the mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance in mink. A total of 110 P. aeruginosa samples were collected from mink from Chinese mink farms between 2007 and 2015. Samples underwent molecular genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility and its mechanism were investigated at the molecular level. The PFGE identified 73 unique types and 15 clusters, while MLST identified 43 (7 new) sequence types (ST) and 12 sequence type clonal complexes (STCC). Sequence types and PFGE showed persistence of endemic clones in cities Wendeng (Shandong, China) and Dalian (Liaoning, China), even in different timelines. The MLST also revealed the gene correlation of the mink P. aeruginosa across different time and place. The ST1058 (n = 14), ST882 (n = 11), and ST2442 (n = 10) were the predominant types, among which ST1058 was the only one found both in Shandong province and Dalian (Liaoning, China). The MLST for P. aeruginosa infection in mink was highly associated with that in humans and other animals, implying possible transmission events. A small proportion of mink exhibited drug resistance to P. aeruginosa (9/69, 13%) with resistance predominantly to fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, and ß-lactamase. Eight strains had mutations in the quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDR). High proportions (65%; 72/110) of the fosA gene and 2 types of glpt deletion for fosmycin were detected. Furthermore, in the whole genome sequence of one multidrug resistant strain, we identified 27 genes that conferred resistance to 14 types of drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hemorragia/veterinária , Vison/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/veterinária , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , China , DNA Bacteriano , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genoma Bacteriano , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Sorotipagem
13.
Life Sci ; 229: 210-218, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102746

RESUMO

AIMS: Hair follicles play a critical role in the process of hair growth. The dermal papilla cells (DPCs) are an important component in the hair follicle regeneration and growth. This study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on the growth of cultured mink hair follicles and DPCs. MAIN METHODS: The mink hair follicles were treated with ginsenoside Rb1 for 9 days and their lengths were measured every three days. Real-time PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of vascularization endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) and TGF-ß1. In addition, the levels of proteins were detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by immunofluorescence staining of proliferation marker Ki-67 and cell cycle analysis was performed on flow cytometry. Moreover, cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. KEY FINDINGS: Ginsenoside Rb1 promoted the growth of hair follicles, and proliferation and migration of DPCs. Ginsenoside Rb1 improved the expression levels of VEGFA and VEGF-R2, while attenuated the TGF-ß1 expression both in hair follicles and DPCs. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rb1 facilitated the activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in hair follicles and DPCs. SIGNIFICANCE: The results reveals a crucial role of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in ginsenoside Rb1-induced growth of hair follicles and DPCs.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Folículo Piloso/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Vison , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Cicatrização
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 45-47, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955822

RESUMO

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is widely distributed in the Danish pig production. Spillover to the mink production is hypothesized to occur via contaminated pig by-products used in the production of mink feed. The aim of the present longitudinal experimental cohort study was to confirm the potential of LA-MRSA being transmitted to naïve mink after exposure to contaminated feed, and to study the persistence of the bacterium on the animals after ceased exposure to contaminated feed. LA-MRSA-negative mink (n = 28) were housed in pairs in 14 mesh cages. Twenty-four mink (12 cages) received around 5.1 × 108 cfu/mink in the feed for five days, while four mink (two cages) were kept as negative controls and fed with LA-MRSA negative feed. Twenty-four hours after initiation of spike, all 28 mink were tested LA-MRSA-positive by paw swabs. After cease of the spiking period, one mink per cage were moved to a clean housing facility to study the potential effect of environmental contamination in persistence of the LA-MRSA. All mink were re-tested three times per week for the subsequent 26 days to study whether the mink cleared off the bacterium. The results showed that LA-MRSA can be transmitted to paws and pharynx on mink after exposure to contaminated feed and that LA-MRSA may spread indirectly through contaminated environmental sites. Mink tend to clear off LA-MRSA, however, the bacterium may persist on mink for more than 26 days.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Vison/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Dinamarca , Fazendas , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Faringe/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 80-86, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955829

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify the animal prevalence and environmental reservoir of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in mink farms. LA-MRSA on mink constitutes a human health hazard to farmers and farm workers, who handle the animals and are at risk of bites and scratches from colonized sites. The primary route of LA-MRSA colonization of mink is suspected to be by ingestion of contaminated pig by-products. We performed a cross-sectional study with repeated measurements during May-July 2017. A total of 644 mink carcasses (542 mink kits and 102 breeding animals) from five Danish farms were sampled. From each carcass, pharynx was swabbed and the right forepaw dissected. In addition, environmental samples covering feed, air, glove, cages (top and between) and nest boxes were collected on the farms. MRSA was selectively cultured from each sample and suspect colonies were assessed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI-TOF) for species confirmation. Further, from each farm, three isolates from mink and one isolate per positive environmental site were sent for whole genome sequencing. We isolated LA-MRSA from mink in four out of the five farms, but LA-MRSA bacterium was detected on all farms. On farms with LA-MRSA positive animals, the overall apparent animal prevalence ranged from 20% [13;29] CI95% to 29% [22;38]CI95%. LA-MRSA was isolated from kits before weaning, most likely due to a contaminated environment or transfer from the dam. Further, the apparent prevalence of LA-MRSA in kits tended to increase during the first months of age. On farms where LA-MRSA was isolated from mink, LA-MRSA was also isolated from the environment. LA-MRSA was isolated from all environmental sites tested (i.e. glove, on top of and between the cages and in the nest boxes), apart from air. The negative air samples contrast with the high concentrations of LA-MRSA in air found in the pig production. Hence, the risk of human exposure to LA-MRSA on mink-farms tends to be associated mainly with direct contact with contaminated environmental sites and the handling of colonized mink. All sequenced isolates were confirmed as LA-MRSA CC398 and genetically similar to clones previously isolated from the Danish pig production, supporting the hypothesis of LA-MRSA being transmitted by contaminated pig by-products.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Fazendas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Vison/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Microbiologia Ambiental , Gado/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Suínos/microbiologia
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 1987-1995, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877764

RESUMO

Danish and European legislation recommend mink breeding programs that include selection for "confidence," defined as exploratory activity in a standardized behavioral test. Although this recommendation may improve mink welfare, farmers may consider this criterion risky due to possible negative consequences on other traits. The overall objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of exploratory/fearful behavior and to identify genetic correlations with other traits of major economic importance in mink fur production. Various aspects of social influence on exploratory/fearful behavior, such as effects of the mother and litter siblings before weaning, the mother's age, and cage mates after weaning, were analyzed. In total, 26,371 1-yr-old Brown mink (Neovison vison) individuals born during the period of 2013 to2016 were included in the study. Exploratory/fearful behavior was the main trait analyzed. The production traits analyzed were live pelt quality and body weight. Both of these traits were assessed during live grading in November. Pelt length and quality were determined using the dried pelts of nonbreeders. Fertility data were obtained from the Fur Farm database. Linear mixed models were run using the restricted maximum-likelihood method. The genetic correlation between female and male behavior was 0.95 (SE = 0.06), indicating similar genetic backgrounds for both sexes (P = 0.40). For both sexes, the estimated heritability of behavior was 0.19 (SE = 0.03). We found no significant genetic correlation between behavior and production/fertility traits (P > 0.05). Common litter variance indicated a preweaning effect of litter mates and/or dam on postweaning temperament. There was a tendency for offspring from older mothers to explore more than offspring from 1-yr-old mothers. This trend was especially pronounced for males of 2-yr-old mothers (P = 0.05) and females of 4-yr-old mothers (P = 0.06). We conclude that confidence may be selected for among farm mink without detrimental effects on economically important production traits, such as pelt quality and fertility.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Fertilidade/genética , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Vison/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Fazendas , Feminino , Masculino , Vison/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vison/fisiologia , Parto/genética , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Temperamento , Desmame
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818831

RESUMO

In the present study, we cloned, sequenced, and explored the structural and functional characteristics of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-DQA gene from mink (Neovison vison) for the first time. The full-length sequence of DQA gene was 1147-bp-long, contained a coding region of 768-bp, which was predicted to encoding 255 amino acid residues. The comparison between DQA from mink (Neovison vison) and other MHC-DQA molecules from different animal species showed that nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of the mink DQA gene exhibited high similarity with the ferret (Mustela pulourius furo). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mink (Neovison vison) DQA is grouped with that of ferret (Mustela pulourius furo). The cloned sequence contained a 23-amino acid NH2-terminal signal sequence with the signal peptide cutting site located in amino acids 23⁻24, and had three Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr sequons. Three cysteine residues were also identified (Cys-85, Cys-121, and Cys-138). The 218 to 240 amino acids were predicted to be the transmembrane domains. The prediction of the secondary structure revealed three α-helixes and fourteen ß-sheets in Neovison vison DQA protein, while random coil was a major pattern. In this study, the whole CDS sequence of Neovison vison DQA gene was successfully cloned, which was valuable for exploring the function and antiviral molecular mechanisms underlying the molecule. The findings of the present study have laid the foundation for the disease resistance and breeding of mink.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Vison/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Glicosilação , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/química , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
18.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(3): 343-353, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826954

RESUMO

Although reservoir creation increases fish mercury (Hg) concentrations, little information exists on its effects on Hg concentrations in aquatic mammals. River otters (Lontra canadensis) and American mink (Neovison vison) are two aquatic mammals that have been used as model species for assessing Hg bioaccumulation in aquatic systems. We assessed Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in these two species within and outside of the Williston Reservoir (Peace-Williston (PW) watershed) in northern British Columbia (BC) and used these data to investigate potential explanatory factors (i.e., watershed, gender, trophic level (δ15N), and regional geology) influencing Hg concentrations. Hg concentrations in otter and mink inhabiting the Mackenzie watershed (outside the PW) were significantly lower than other watersheds in Northern BC. The general trend was the same for both species; the Peace-Williston having the highest and Mackenzie having the lowest Hg concentrations. For mink, the Peace-Williston watershed, higher trophic levels, and higher proportions of igneous/metamorphic bedrock were all significant influences on higher Hg concentrations (logistic regression). Higher trophic levels or proportions of of igneous/metamorphic bedrock, however, were not directly associated with the PW watershed suggesting there may be an impoundment effect. Baseline data on natural Hg inputs before planned anthropogenic changes occur is a critical first step to aiding interpretations of Hg-related effects on wildlife populations and their related ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , Vison , Lontras , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Pelo Animal/química , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Masculino , Tanques/química , Selênio/análise
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 85-92, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856435

RESUMO

Intranasal, with (INS) and without (IN) sedation, and oral inoculation were compared with intraperitoneal (IP) injection for establishing infection with a local isolate of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in 35 American mink. Blood samples were collected on 0, 21, 36 and 56 day post-inoculation (dpi). Antiviral-antibodies and viral DNA in plasma and tissues were measured by counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and PCR, respectively. The presence of AMDV DNA was tested by PCR in saliva, rectal and fecal samples collected on 0, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 36 and 56 dpi. Animals were killed at 56 dpi, samples of six organs were tested for antibody and AMDV DNA, and samples of the lungs, liver, kidneys and heart were subjected to histology. Viral DNA was detected in the spleen, lungs and lymph nodes of all inoculated mink on 56 dpi, indicating that all inoculation routes caused infection in mink. Viral DNA and antibodies were detected in plasma of all IP and INS inoculated mink by 36 dpi, but some animals which were inoculated orally or via IN remained seronegative by 56 dpi. It was concluded that INS route was the most effective method for establishing infection in mink without breaking the integrity of the animals' anatomical barriers. Viremia was short-lived in some mink, whereas antibody production persisted in seroconverted animals during the duration of the experiment. Saliva, rectal and fecal samples did not accurately detect infection. Histologic lesions of AD were observed on the four organs of most mink.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal/veterinária , Administração Oral , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/fisiologia , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/diagnóstico , Injeções Intraperitoneais/veterinária , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/virologia , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Vison , Virulência
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213873, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870528

RESUMO

Genomic selection can be considered as an effective tool for developing breeding programs in American mink. However, the genetic gains for economically important traits can be influenced by the accuracy of genomic predictions. The objective of this study was to investigate the prediction accuracies of traditional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), multi-step genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP) methods in American mink using simulated data with different levels of heritability, marker density, training set (TS) sizes and selection designs based on either phenotypic performance or estimated breeding values (EBVs). Under EBV selection design, the accuracy of BLUP predictions was increased by 38% and 44% for h2 = 0.10, 27% and 29% for h2 = 0.20, and 5.8% and 6% for h2 = 0.50 using GBLUP and ssGBLUP methods, respectively. Under phenotypic selection design, the accuracies of prediction by ssGBLUP method were 11.8% and 15.4% higher than those obtained by GBLUP for heritability of 0.10 and 0.20, respectively. However, the efficiency of ssGBLUP and GBLUP was not influenced by selection design at higher level of heritability (h2 = 0.50). Furthermore, higher selection intensity increased the bias of predictions in both pedigree-based and genomic evaluations. Regardless of selection design, TS sizes for GBLUP and ssGBLUP methods should be at least 3000 to achieve more accuracy than using BLUP for heritability of 0.50 and marker density of 10k and 50k. Overall, more accurate predictions were obtained using ssGBLUP method particularly for lowly heritable traits and low density of markers. Our results indicated that TS sizes should be optimized in accordance with heritability level, marker density, selection design and prediction method for genomic selection in American mink. The results provided an initial framework for designing genomic selection in mink breeding programs.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Genética Populacional , Genoma , Vison/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Genômica
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