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2.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(4): 81-82, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295324

RESUMO

Despite fast-tracked research, the precise origin, transmission and evolution of COVID-19 are still unknown. While the bat genus Rhinolophus is likely the primary source of the zoonotic-origin pathogen SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19, its transmission route into the human population is still being studied.[1,2] Coronaviruses (CoV) affect humans and various animal species. Bats were the original hosts of the CoV that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), for example, with masked palm civet cats and dromedaries, respectively, the intermediate hosts of those two viruses. Research is ongoing regarding intermediate species for SARS-CoV-2, but one possibility is the large stray cat and dog population around the live animal market in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic is thought to have started.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3923-3927, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009948

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the infection rate and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs, farmed in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. Fresh fecal specimens were collected from individual cages of farmed minks (n = 214), blue foxes (n = 35), and raccoon dogs (n = 39) and examined using nested PCR based on the Cryptosporidium spp. small subunit rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 35 cages (12.2%, 35/288), with a higher infection rate detected in raccoon dogs (20.5%) compared with minks (12.1%) and blue foxes (2.9%). Sequence analysis showed that Cryptosporidium canis was the only species identified in blue foxes and raccoon dogs, while in the 26 Cryptosporidium-positive mink specimens, Cryptosporidium mink genotype (n = 17), C. canis (n = 7), and Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 2) were identified. Further analysis based on the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene determined that both C. parvum isolates belonged to the subtype IIdA15G1, while eight of the 17 Cryptosporidium mink genotype isolates were a novel subtype that we have named XeA5G1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum subtype IIdA15G1 infection in minks. Since all the Cryptosporidium species/genotypes identified in minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs from Xinjiang have been previously found in humans, our results suggest that these fur animals may play a role in the transmission of zoonotic Cryptosporidium.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Vison/parasitologia , Cães Guaxinins/parasitologia , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
8.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 358, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957995

RESUMO

COVID-19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) during late 2019. It has spread across the globe affecting nearly 21 million people with a toll of 0.75 million deaths and restricting the movement of most of the world population during the past 6 months. COVID-19 became the leading health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. In addition to the considerable COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in humans, several cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animal hosts (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) have been reported. Thus, the concern of pet owners is increasing. Moreover, the dynamics of the disease requires further explanation, mainly concerning the transmission of the virus from humans to animals and vice versa. Therefore, this study aimed to gather information about the reported cases of COVID-19 transmission in animals through a literary review of works published in scientific journals and perform genomic and phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from animal hosts. Although many instances of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, caution and further studies are necessary to avoid the occurrence of maltreatment in animals, and to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of the disease in the environment, humans, and animals. Future research in the animal-human interface can help formulate and implement preventive measures to combat the further transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Gatos , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
9.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 243-249, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921279

RESUMO

Several cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection transmitted from human owners to their dogs have recently been reported. The first ever case of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from a human owner to a domestic cat was confirmed on March 27, 2020. A tiger from a zoo in New York, USA, was also reportedly infected with SARS-CoV-2. It is believed that SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted to tigers from their caretakers, who were previously infected with this virus. On May 25, 2020, the Dutch Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality reported that two employees were infected with SARS-CoV-2 transmitted from minks. These reports have influenced us to perform a comparative analysis among angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) homologous proteins for verifying the conservation of specific protein regions. One of the most conserved peptides is represented by the peptide "353-KGDFR-357 (H. sapiens ACE2 residue numbering), which is located on the surface of the ACE2 molecule and participates in the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Multiple sequence alignments of the ACE2 proteins by ClustalW, whereas the three-dimensional structure of its binding region for the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by means of Spanner, a structural homology modeling pipeline method. In addition, evolutionary phylogenetic tree analysis by ETE3 was used. ACE2 works as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein between humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes. The three-dimensional structure of the KGDFR hosting protein region involved in direct interactions with SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD of the mink ACE2 appears to form a loop structurally related to the human ACE2 corresponding protein loop, despite of the reduced available protein length (401 residues of the mink ACE2 available sequence vs 805 residues of the human ACE2). The multiple sequence alignments of the ACE2 proteins shows high homology and complete conservation of the five amino acid residues: 353-KGDFR-357 with humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes. Where the information revealed from our examinations can support precision vaccine design and the discovery of antiviral therapeutics, which will accelerate the development of medical countermeasures, the World Health Organization recently reported on the possible risks of reciprocal infections regarding SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Vison , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Tigres
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15876, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985525

RESUMO

Over 35 fur colours have been described in American mink (Neovison vison), only six of which have been previously linked to specific genes. Moyle fur colour belongs to a wide group of brownish colours that are highly similar to each other, which complicates selection and breeding procedures. We performed whole genome sequencing for two American minks with Moyle (m/m) and Violet (a/a m/m /p/p) phenotypes. We identified two frame-shift mutations in the gene encoding Ras-related protein-38 (RAB38), which regulates the trafficking of tyrosinase-containing vesicles to maturing melanosomes. The results highlight the role of RAB38 in the biogenesis of melanosomes and melanin and the genetic mechanism contributing to hair colour variety and intensity. These data are also useful for tracking economically valuable fur traits in mink breeding programmes.


Assuntos
Pelo Animal/anatomia & histologia , Genômica , Vison/anatomia & histologia , Vison/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Pigmentação
11.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e65, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes major economic losses in fur-bearing animal production. The control of most AMDV outbreaks is complex due to the difficulties of establishing the source of infection based only on the available on-farm epidemiological data. In this sense, phylogenetic analysis of the strains present in a farm may help elucidate the origin of the infection and improve the control and biosecurity measures. OBJECTIVES: This study had the following aims: characterize the AMDV strains from most outbreaks produced at Spanish farms between 2012-2019 at the molecular level, and assess the utility of the combined use of molecular and epidemiological data to track the possible routes of infection. METHODS: Thirty-seven strains from 17 farms were partially sequenced for the NS1 and VP2 genes and analyzed phylogenetically with other strains described worldwide. RESULTS: Spanish AMDV strains are clustered in four major clades that generally show a good geographical correlation, confirming that most had been established in Spain a long time ago. The combined study of phylogenetic results and epidemiological information of each farm suggests that most of the AMDV outbreaks since 2012 had been produced by within-farm reservoirs, while a few of them may have been due to the introduction of the virus through international trade. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of phylogenetic inference, together with epidemiological data, helps assess the possible origin of AMDV infections in mink farms and improving the control and prevention of this disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/genética , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vison , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/virologia , Animais , França/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3549-3553, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783071

RESUMO

From a longitudinal survey conducted on 30 Danish mink farms in 2016, 11.0% of faecal samples (456/4140) were positive for Cystoisospora laidlawi oocysts by microscopy, with 60% (189/315) of mink being positive at least once during the study period. Morphological analysis of sporulated oocysts identified Cystoisospora oocysts measuring 34.3 × 29.5 µm with an oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.2. The morphological features of the oocysts were identical to Isospora laidlawi previously morphological identified in farmed mink from Denmark and elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences (1221 bp) from three positive mink indicated that Cystoisospora from mink shared the highest genetic similarity to C. canis from a Canadian dog (99.6%). The phylogenetic analysis placed Cystoisospora from mink in a clade with other Cystoisospora isolates.


Assuntos
Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Vison/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Isospora/classificação , Isospora/citologia , Isospora/genética , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/citologia , Oocistos/genética , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
13.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 2065-2071, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613291

RESUMO

Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is a parvovirus that causes acute enteritis in mink. The capsid protein VP2 of MEV is a major immunogenicity that is important for disease prevention. In this study, this protein was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells using a recombinant baculovirus system and was observed to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) with a high hemagglutination (HA) titer (1:216). A single-dose injection of VLPs (HA titer, 1:256) resulted in complete protection of mink against virulent MEV challenge for at least 180 days. These data suggest that these MEV VLPs could be used as a vaccine for the prevention of viral enteritis in mink.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Enterite Viral do Vison/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Enterite do Vison/imunologia , Animais , Baculoviridae/genética , Baculoviridae/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica , Vison/imunologia , Vison/virologia , Enterite Viral do Vison/imunologia , Enterite Viral do Vison/virologia , Vírus da Enterite do Vison/genética , Vírus da Enterite do Vison/patogenicidade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Virulência
15.
Vet Pathol ; 57(5): 653-657, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663073

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, caused respiratory disease outbreaks with increased mortality in 4 mink farms in the Netherlands. The most striking postmortem finding was an acute interstitial pneumonia, which was found in nearly all examined mink that died at the peak of the outbreaks. Acute alveolar damage was a consistent histopathological finding in mink that died with pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung. Clinically, the outbreaks lasted for about 4 weeks but some animals were still polymerase chain reaction-positive for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs after clinical signs had disappeared. This is the first report of the clinical and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vison/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594583

RESUMO

Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Vison , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Países Baixos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia
18.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 26, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus halichoeri infections have been reported in grey seals, a European badger, a Stellar sea lion and humans, but its presence in companion and fur animals is unknown. Since 2010, S. halichoeri-like bacteria (SHL) have been isolated from fur animals and dogs in Finland. Our aim was to retrospectively investigate laboratory records for SHL from canine and fur animal infections, characterize the isolates and compare their genetic relatedness in relation to three reference strains: CCUG 48324T, originating from a grey seal, and strains 67100 and 61265, originally isolated from humans. RESULTS: A total of 138 and 36 SHLs from canine and fur animal infections, respectively, were identified in the laboratory records. SHL was commonly associated with skin infections, but rarely as the only species. A set of 49 canine and 23 fur animal SHLs were further characterized. MALDI-TOF confirmed them as being S. halichoeri. The growth characteristics were consistent with the original findings, but isolates were catalase positive. In total, 17 distinct API 20 Strep patterns were recorded among all 75 isolates tested, of which pattern 5563100 was the most common (n = 30). Antimicrobial resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was common in canine isolates, but rare in fur animal isolates. Three clusters were observed by PFGE, and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed 98.1-100% similarities with the human strains and 98.1-99.5% with the seal strain. A phylogenetic tree of concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB revealed closely related isolates with two clades. Fifteen canine isolates were identical to the human strains based on concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus halichoeri appears to be quite a common bacterial species in the skin of dogs and fur animals. The clinical significance of S. halichoeri is uncertain, as it was rarely isolated as a monoculture. No apparent temporal or spatial clustering was detected, but isolates from different sources were genetically very similar. Because many canine isolates were genetically similar to the human reference strains, transmission between dogs and humans may be possible. WGS sequencing of strains from different sources is needed to further investigate the epidemiology and virulence of S. halichoeri.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Raposas , Vison , Cães Guaxinins , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/genética , Animais , Cães , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus/química , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/fisiologia
19.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553059

RESUMO

Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Vison , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Países Baixos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia
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