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1.
Ann Sci ; 76(2): 184-209, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879392

RESUMO

This article studies the theory of animal seeds as purely material entities in the early seventeenth-century medical writings of Antonio Ponce Santacruz, royal physician to the Spanish king Philipp IV. Santacruz adopts the theory of the eduction of substantial forms from the potentiality of matter, according to which new kinds of causal powers can arise out of material composites of a certain complexity. Santacruz stands out among the late Aristotelian defenders of eduction theory because he applies the concept of an instrument of direction developed by the medieval Avicenna commentator Gentile da Foligno and gives a novel turn to this concept by interpreting animal seeds as separate instruments. The article situates Santacruz's theory in the context of early modern debates about the concept of the eduction of forms, as well as in the context of early modern debates about the concept of separate instruments. Particular attention is paid to Santacruz's responses to the biological views of Julius Caesar Scaliger and Thomas Feyens. Santacruz's response to Scaliger turns out to be central for his explication of the eduction relation, and Santacruz's response to Feyens turns out to be central for his explication of the nature of instrumental causation.


Assuntos
Vida , Espiritualidade , Vitalismo/história , Animais , História do Século XVII , Humanos
2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 68, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386943

RESUMO

Louis Pasteur's defeat of belief in spontaneous generation has been a classical rationalist example of how the experimental approach of modern science can reveal superstition. Farley and Geison (Bull Hist Med 48:161-198, 1974) told a counter-story of how Pasteur's success was due to political and ideological support rather than superior experimental science. They claimed that Pasteur violated proper norms of scientific method, and that the French Academy of Science did not see this, or did not want to. Farley and Geison argued that Pouchet's experiments were as valid as those of Pasteur. In this paper I argue that the core of the scientific debate was not general theories for or against spontaneous generation but the outcome of specific experiments. It was on the conduct of these experiments that the Academy made judgements favorable to Pasteur. Claude Bernard was a colleague of Pasteur, supportive and sometimes critical. I argue that Bernard's fact-oriented methodology of "experimental medicine" is a better guide to explaining the controversy than the hypothetic-deductive view of scientific method typical of logical empiricism.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Empirismo/história , Vitalismo/história , França , História do Século XIX , Projetos de Pesquisa
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 64, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353475

RESUMO

This is an introduction to a collection of articles on the conceptual history of epigenesis, from Aristotle to Harvey, Cavendish, Kant and Erasmus Darwin, moving into nineteenth-century biology with Wolff, Blumenbach and His, and onto the twentieth century and current issues, with Waddington and epigenetics. The purpose of the topical collection is to emphasize how epigenesis marks the point of intersection of a theory of biological development and a (philosophical) theory of active matter. We also wish to show that the concept of epigenesis existed prior to biological theorization and that it continues to permeate thinking about development in recent biological debates.


Assuntos
Filosofia/história , Vitalismo/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(3): 50, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136154

RESUMO

In biology the term "vitalism" is usually associated with Hans Driesch's doctrine of the entelechy: entelechies were nonmaterial, bio-specific agents responsible for governing a few peculiar biological phenomena. Since vitalism defined as such violates metaphysical materialism (or physicalism), the received view refutes the doctrine of the entelechy as a metaphysical heresy. But in the early twentieth century, a different, non-metaphysical evaluation of vitalism was endorsed by some biologists and philosophers, which finally led to a logical refutation of the doctrine of the entelechy. In this non-metaphysical evaluation, first, vitalism was not treated as a metaphysical heresy but a legitimate response to the inadequacy of mechanistic explanations in biology. Second, the refutation of vitalism was logically rather than metaphysically supported by contemporary biological knowledge. The entelechy was not a valid concept, because vitalists could neither formulate vital laws (to attribute determinate consequences to the entelechy), nor offer convincing examples of experimental indeterminism (to confirm the perpetual inadequacy of mechanistic explanations).


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Metafísica/história , Vitalismo/história , História do Século XX , Conhecimento
5.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 26: 2, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29372046

RESUMO

Since its inception, the chiropractic profession has been divided along ideological fault lines. These divisions have led to a profession wide schism, which has limited mainstream acceptance, utilisation, social authority and integration. The authors explore the historical origins of this schism, taking time to consider historical context, religiosity, perpetuating factors, logical fallacies and siege mentality. Evidence is then provided for a way forward, based on the positioning of chiropractors as mainstream partners in health care.


Assuntos
Quiroprática/educação , Terapias Complementares/classificação , Saúde Holística/classificação , Vitalismo/história , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Quiroprática/classificação , Quiroprática/história , Quiroprática/tendências , Terapias Complementares/história , Previsões , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , História do Século XX , Saúde Holística/história , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Filosofia Médica , Sociologia Médica , Estudantes de Medicina
6.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 38(4): 20, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27854052

RESUMO

When "general physiology" emerged as a basic field of research within biology in the early nineteenth century, Henri Ducrotay de Blainville (1777-1850) on the one hand and Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858) on the other appealed to chemical analysis to account for the properties and operations of organisms that were observed to differ from what was found in inorganic compounds. Their aim was to establish laws of vital organization that would be based on organic chemical processes, but would also be of use to explain morphological and functional differences among life forms. The intent of this paper is to specify for each of these leading physiologists the different presuppositions that provided theoretical frameworks for their interpretation of what they conceived of as laws of organization underpinning the dynamics of vital phenomena. Blainville presumed that the properties of organic compounds depended on the chemical properties of their constitutive molecules, but combined according to patterns of functional development, and that the latter could only be inferred from an empirical survey of modes of organization across the spectrum of life forms. For Müller, while all vital processes involved chemical reactions, in the formative and functional operations of organisms, these reactions would result from the action of life forces that were responsible for the production of organic combinations and thus for vital and animal functions. As both physiologists set significant methodological patterns for their many disciples and followers, their respective quasi-reductionist and anti-reductionist positions need to be accounted for.


Assuntos
Fisiologia/história , Vitalismo/história , Animais , França , Alemanha , História do Século XIX
7.
Vesalius ; 21(1): 80-5, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592086

RESUMO

A very large number of articles about vitalism have been published since 1894 in the journal Science. Vitalism is a theory according to which living organisms appear to possess something more than inanimate objects. The "vital principle" is minted in 1778 by Barthez in "Les nouveaux éléments de la science de l'homme", (Stahl talks of phlogiston for chemistry). In their view, the life of the whole is not the simple sum of the life of the components. Such a view was hatched in response to the Cartesian mechanist interpretation of living matter as proposed by Galileo and Descartes. Vitalist intuition was revived in the XXth century by new researchers such as Henri Bergson ("l'élan vital" or 'vital force') in France and Hans Driesch ("entelechy") in Germany. Could this view of life now be making a comeback in biology?


Assuntos
Biologia Sintética/história , Vitalismo/história , França , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
8.
Physis Riv Int Stor Sci ; 50(1-2): 165-215, 2015.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156092

RESUMO

By means of the analysis of three works (Dell'anima de' bruti [Of the soul of beasts], Sofilo Molossio, and Sofilo senza maschera [Sofilo without a mask]) of Alessandro Pascoli (1669-1757), the psysician and philosopher from Perugia, the article reconstructs his fluctuating thought with regard to the problem of sensation in animals, indicated as the problem of the "soul of beasts." Regarding this question, Pascoli oscillates between, on the one hand, the Cartesian theory, which considered animals similar to mechanical automatons, devoid of the capacity to experience sensations (that is say, devoid of "sensitivity"); and, on the other hand, the Church's scholastic-peripatetic doctrine that attributed to animals the capacity to feel, thus affirming the presence in them of a "sensitive soul," considered -as compared with the human one -imperfect, material, and mortal. In expounding the reasons and argumentations of the Cartesians, on the one hand, and of the ecclesiastic teachings, on the other, Pascoli manifests a substantial convergence with the former, but also the need, inasmuch as Catholic professor of medicine at the Sapienza University of Rome, to not deny the possibility of the latter. In this tormented and contorted alternation of opinions, between the thesis of the animal-machine and that of the animal gifted with a sensitive soul, he introduces conceptual elements that, further developed, will end up by conducting to the ideas of "vital property" and of "vital principle" typical of the vitalistic thought of the 18th and 19th centuries.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Catolicismo/história , Mamíferos/psicologia , Filosofia/história , Vitalismo/história , Animais , Comportamento Animal/ética , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Vida , Teoria Psicológica , Religião e Ciência
9.
J Hist Biol ; 48(1): 37-66, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099169

RESUMO

The sustained interdisciplinary debate about neovitalism between two Johns Hopkins University colleagues, philosopher Arthur O. Lovejoy and experimental geneticist H. S. Jennings, in the period 1911-1914, was the basis for their theoretical reconceptualization of scientific knowledge as contingent and necessarily incomplete in its account of nature. Their response to Hans Driesch's neovitalist concept of entelechy, and his challenge to the continuity between biology and the inorganic sciences, resulted in a historically significant articulation of genetics and philosophy. This study traces the debate's shift of problem-focus away from neovitalism's threat to the unity of science - "organic autonomy," as Lovejoy put it - and toward the potential for development of a nonmechanististic, nonrationalist theory of scientific knowledge. The result was a new pragmatist epistemology, based on Lovejoy's and Jennings's critiques of the inadequacy of pragmatism's account of scientific knowledge. The first intellectual move, drawing on naturalism and pragmatism, was based on a reinterpretation of science as organized experience. The second, sparked by Henri Bergson's theory of creative evolution, and drawing together elements of Dewey's and James's pragmatisms, produced a new account of the contingency and necessary incompleteness of scientific knowledge. Prompted by the neovitalists' mix of a priori concepts and, in Driesch's case, and adherence to empiricism, Lovejoy's and Jennings's developing pragmatist epistemologies of science explored the interrelation between rationalism and empiricism.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Vitalismo/história , Empirismo/história , História do Século XX , Estados Unidos
10.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 48 Pt B: 151-61, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25081834

RESUMO

The organism is neither a discovery like the circulation of the blood or the glycogenic function of the liver, nor a particular biological theory like epigenesis or preformationism. It is rather a concept which plays a series of roles--sometimes overt, sometimes masked--throughout the history of biology, and frequently in very normative ways, also shifting between the biological and the social. Indeed, it has often been presented as a key-concept in life science and the 'theorization' of Life, but conversely has also been the target of influential rejections: as just an instrument of transmission for the selfish gene, but also, historiographically, as part of an outdated 'vitalism'. Indeed, the organism, perhaps because it is experientially closer to the 'body' than to the 'molecule', is often the object of quasi-affective theoretical investments presenting it as essential, sometimes even as the pivot of a science or a particular approach to nature, while other approaches reject or attack it with equal force, assimilating it to a mysterious 'vitalist' ontology of extra-causal forces, or other pseudo-scientific doctrines. This paper does not seek to adjudicate between these debates, either in terms of scientific validity or historical coherence; nor does it return to the well-studied issue of the organism-mechanism tension in biology. Recent scholarship has begun to focus on the emergence and transformation of the concept of organism, but has not emphasized so much the way in which organism is a shifting, 'go-between' concept-invoked as 'natural' by some thinkers to justify their metaphysics, but then presented as value-laden by others, over and against the natural world. The organism as go-between concept is also a hybrid, a boundary concept or an epistemic limit case, all of which partly overlap with the idea of 'nomadic concepts'. Thereby the concept of organism continues to function in different contexts--as a heuristic, an explanatory challenge, a model of order, of regulation, etc.--despite having frequently been pronounced irrelevant and reduced to molecules or genes. Yet this perpetuation is far removed from any 'metaphysics of organism', or organismic biology.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Formação de Conceito , Vida , Filosofia , Vitalismo , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Biologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Metafísica/história , Filosofia/história , Vitalismo/história
11.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 48 Pt A: 12-20, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25168014

RESUMO

The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Vida , Natureza , Filosofia/história , Vitalismo/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Alemanha , Historiografia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
12.
Br J Hist Sci ; 47(173 Pt 2): 281-304, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941735

RESUMO

In the 1930s, two concepts excited the European biological community: the organizer phenomenon and organicism. This essay examines the history of and connection between these two phenomena in order to address the conventional 'rise-and-fall' narrative that historians have assigned to each. Scholars promoted the 'rise-and-fall' narrative in connection with a broader account of the devitalizing of biology through the twentieth century. I argue that while limited evidence exists for the 'fall of the organizer concept' by the 1950s, the organicism that often motivated the organizer work had no concomitant fall--even during the mid-century heyday of molecular biology. My argument is based on an examination of shifting social networks of life scientists from the 1920s to the 1970s, many of whom attended or corresponded with members of the Cambridge Theoretical Biology Club (1932-1938). I conclude that the status and cohesion of these social networks at the micro scale was at least as important as macro-scale conceptual factors in determining the relative persuasiveness of organicist philosophy.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Apoio Social , Vitalismo/história , Inglaterra , Genética/história , História do Século XX
13.
World Neurosurg ; 82(5): 906-11, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24928363

RESUMO

The word "schwannoma" is pervasive throughout the neurosurgical community. However, little is known about the origin of the cell of "Schwann cell," the manifestation of the tumor's nomenclature, or the prominent physicians who studied its etiopathogenesis. Schwann was a founding father of cellular theory and one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century. He not only proposed cell theory but also discovered the "secondary" nerve cell and hypothesized its possible function in myelination. It took a century to confirm Schwann's hypothesis. In 1954, Geren, aided by the electron microscope, demonstrated that the cell of Schwann is responsible for nerve myelination. Concurrently, researchers worked to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of peripheral nerve neoplasms. Several attempts were made; Older, Virchow, and von Recklinghausen were the first pioneers who worked on the classification of these neoplasms. However, Masson first used the word "schwannoma" to describe peripheral nerve neoplasms other than neuromas. His French colleague Nageotte used the term "peripheral-glioma" to denote these tumors. These schwannomas were considered to have a malignant course. In 1932, Penfield attempted to classify peripheral nerve neoplasms into 3 categories: peripheral fibroblastoma, peripheral glioma, and neurofibroma of von Recklinghausen. He classified "Verocay's neurinoma," "Masson's schwannoma," and "cerebellopontine angle" tumors as perineural fibroblastoma. He believed that these tumors have a non-nerve cell, non-Schwann cell origin. He classified the tumors arising from the Schwann cell sheath as peripheral gliomas and articulated, "If any tumors are to be called schwannomas, these should be." The neurofibroma of von Recklinghausen was recognized as a separate entity, as described by von Recklinghausen himself. Murray and Stout proposed that schwannomas are essentially benign in nature clarifying the abstruseness of the benign or malignant nature of schwannoma.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular/história , Neurilemoma/história , Neurobiologia/história , Células de Schwann , Terminologia como Assunto , Vitalismo/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
14.
Gesnerus ; 71(2): 290-307, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25707100

RESUMO

The distinction between 'mechanical' and 'teleological' has been familiar since Kant; between a fully mechanistic, quantitative science of Nature and a teleological, qualitative approach to living beings, namely 'organisms' understood as purposive or at least functional entities. The beauty of this distinction is that it apparently makes intuitive sense and maps onto historico-conceptual constellations in the life sciences, regarding the status of the body versus that of the machine. I argue that the mechanism-teleology distinction is imprecise and flawed using examples including the 'functional' features present even in Cartesian physiology, the Oxford Physiologists' work on circulation and respiration, the fact that the model of the 'body-machine' is not a mechanistic reduction of organismic properties to basic physical properties but is focused on the uniqueness of organic life; and the concept of 'animal economy' in vitalist medicine, which I present as a 'teleomechanistic' concept of organism (borrowing a term of Lenoir's which he applied to nineteenth-century embryology)--neither mechanical nor teleological.


Assuntos
Filosofia/história , Fisiologia/história , Animais , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Vida , Natureza , Vitalismo/história
15.
Acta Physiol Hung ; 100(1): 124-32, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23232706

RESUMO

Ervin Bauer is one of the first theoretical biologists distancing his ideas both from vitalism and mechanicism. He formulated the principle of permanent non-equilibrium of living systems (Bauer's principle) in terms of thermodynamics in 1920. Bauer's scientific path can be divided into three periods. In the early 1920s he proposed his principle as an axiom that cannot be derived from contemporary natural sciences. In the late 1920s he reformulated it in a way that it could be subjected to experimental testing. Summarizing his views in the 1930s in his book, Theoretical Biology, he tried to show that his axiom is indeed the fundamental principle of biology. This later view was anachronistic in spite of many striking insights of Bauer. The energetic formulation of Bauer's principle is, however, a realistic characterization of living organisms and it can be derived from the theory of open systems - in fact it contributed to the formulation of that theory. Bauer's principle can be incorporated into non-linear thermodynamics of irreversible processes.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Vitalismo/história , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Termodinâmica
16.
Medizinhist J ; 48(2): 186-216, 2013.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25188999

RESUMO

Johann Christian Reil's (1759-1813) importance lies in his theoretical approach to medicine. Following Kant in his early work, he attempts to combine medical experience with an underlying conceptual structure. This attempt is directed against both the chaotic empiricism of traditional medicine and speculative theories such as vitalism. The paper starts from his early reflections on the concept of a life force, which he interprets in the way of a non-reductive materialism. In the following, the basic outlines of his Theory of Fever will be shown. The Theory is a systematic attempt at finding a new foundation for diagnosis and therapy on the basis of the concept of fever, which is understood as modification of vital processes. The paper ends with a discussion of his later work, which has remained controversial so far. It shows that the combination of practical empiricism and scientific theory remained rather unstable in this early phase of the development of modern medicine.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Empirismo/história , Febre/história , Filosofia Médica/história , Fisiologia/história , Vitalismo/história , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
17.
Nuncius ; 27(1): 81-109, 2012.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23035396

RESUMO

The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ética Médica/história , Alimentos , Higiene/história , Literatura Moderna/história , Princípios Morais , Vitalismo/história , França , História do Século XVIII
18.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 43(3): 710-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22578376

RESUMO

Between 1724 and 1760, in the frontier area of the Habsburg empire waves of a hitherto unknown epidemic disease emerged: vampirism. In remote villages of southeastern Europe, cases of unusual deaths were reported. Corpses did not decay and, according to the villagers, corporeal ghosts were haunting their relatives and depriving them of their vital force. Death occurred by no later than three to four days. The colonial administration, alarmed by the threat of an epidemic illness, dispatched military officers and physicians to examine the occurrences. Soon several reports and newspaper articles circulated and made the untimely resurrection of the dead known to the perplexed public, Europe-wide. "Vampyrus Serviensis", the Serbian vampire, became an intensively discussed phenomenon within academe, and thereby gained factual standing. My paper depicts the geopolitical context of the vampire's origin within the Habsburg states. Secondly, it outlines the epistemological difficulties faced by observing physicians in the field. Thirdly, it delineates the scholarly debate on the apparent oxymoron of the living dead in the era of enlightened reason. Fourthly, the early history of vampirism shows that ghosts and encounters with the undead are not superstitious relics of a pre-modern past, or the Enlightenment's other, but intimate companions of Western modernity.


Assuntos
Cadáver , Morte , Epidemias/história , Folclore , Observação , Superstições/história , Vitalismo/história , Academias e Institutos/história , Europa (Continente) , Medo , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Sistemas Políticos/história , Sérvia
19.
Ann Sci ; 69(1): 1-26, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22530381

RESUMO

The paper follows the lives of Mateu Orfila and François Magendie in early nineteenth-century Paris, focusing on their common interest in poisons. The first part deals with the striking similarities of their early careers: their medical training, their popular private lectures, and their first publications. The next section explores their experimental work on poisons by analyzing their views on physical and vital forces in living organisms and their ideas about the significance of animal experiments in medicine. The last part describes their contrasting research on the absorption of poisons and the divergences in their approaches, methods, aims, standards of proof, and intended audiences. The analysis highlights the connections between nineteenth-century courtrooms and experimental laboratories, and shows how forensic practice not only prompted animal experimentation but also provided a substantial body of information and new research methods for dealing with major theoretical issues like the absorption of poisons.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/história , Ciências Forenses/história , Venenos/história , Toxicologia/história , Vitalismo/história , Animais , França , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Jurisprudência/história
20.
Isis ; 102(2): 322-9, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21874692

RESUMO

Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/tendências , Engenharia Genética/tendências , Vitalismo/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , História da Medicina , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Medicina/tendências
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