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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 279, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case fatality ratio (CFR) among all age groups during the 2016-2018 measles outbreak in Romania was increased compared with previous outbreaks. To identify risk factors for measles death, we conducted a case-control study among infants and children hospitalized for measles. METHODS: National surveillance data were used to identify hospitalized cases of laboratory-confirmed or epidemiologically linked measles in infants and children aged < 59 months with rash onset from January 2016 to July 2018. We abstracted medical records of 50 fatal cases ("cases") and 250 non-fatal cases ("controls") matched by age, sex, district of residence, and urban/rural place of residence. We calculated univariable and multivariable matched odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk factors. RESULTS: Ninety-three percent of case-patients and controls had not received a valid dose of a measles-containing vaccine; only 5 % received Vitamin A supplementation once diagnosed with measles. In the univariable analysis, cases were more likely than controls to have had a healthcare-related exposure to measles manifesting as inpatient admission for pneumonia during the 7 to 21 day measles incubation period (OR: 3.0; 95% CI [1.2, 7.2]), to have had a history of malnutrition (OR: 3.4; 95% CI [1.1, 9.9]), and to have had pneumonia as a complication of measles (OR:7.1; 95% CI [2.0-24.8]). In the multivariable analysis, pneumonia as a measles complication remained a risk for death (OR: 7.1; 95% CI [1.4-35.3]). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing infection prevention and control practices, ensuring immunization of healthcare workers, and hospitalizing only severe measles cases may minimize the risk of nosocomial measles transmission. Implementing World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for Vitamin A supplementation, improving immunization of children to prevent influenza, pneumococcal, and other bacterial respiratory diseases may decrease complications and deaths due to measles in Romania.


Assuntos
Sarampo/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/patologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/mortalidade , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23101, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of vitamin A supplementation on the bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the role of supplemental vitamin A in preterm infants were searched. The Medline et al databases were manually searched from inception to April 30, 2020. Related outcomes including incidence of BPD, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), sepsis and mortality were assessed with Review Manager 5.3 software, and Random-effect model was applied for all conditions. RESULTS: A total of 9 RCTs with 1409 patients were included. The analyzed results showed that the incidence of BPD in vitamin A group was significantly less than that of control group (OR = 0.67, 95%CI [0.52-0.88]). There was no significant difference in the incidence of ROP (OR = 0.65, 95%CI [0.29-1.48]), NEC (OR = 0.88, 95%CI [0.59-1.30]), IVH (OR = 0.90, 95%CI [0.65-1.25]), sepsis (OR = 0.84, 95%CI [0.64-1.09]) and mortality (OR = 0.98, 95%CI [0.72-1.34]) among two groups. CONCLUSION: Vitamin A supplementation is beneficial to the prophylaxis of BPD in premature infants, further studies on the administration approaches and dosages of vitamin A in premature infants are warranted.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that intramuscular vitamin A reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare enteral water-soluble vitamin A with placebo supplementation to reduce the severity of BPD in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial in infants <28 weeks' gestation who were to receive either enteral water-soluble vitamin A (5000 IU per day) or a placebo. Supplementation was started within 24 hours of introduction of feeds and continued until 34 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). The primary outcome was the severity of BPD, assessed by using the right shift of the pulse oximeter saturation versus the inspired oxygen pressure curve. RESULTS: A total of 188 infants were randomly assigned. The mean ± SD birth weight (852 ± 201 vs 852 ± 211 g) and gestation (25.8 ± 1.49 vs 26.0 ± 1.39 weeks) were comparable between the vitamin A and placebo groups. There was no difference in the right shift (median [25th-75th percentiles]) of the pulse oximeter saturation versus inspired oxygen pressure curve (in kilopascals) between the vitamin A (11.1 [9.5-13.7]) and placebo groups (10.7 [9.5-13.1]) (P = .73). Enteral vitamin A did not affect diagnosis of BPD or other clinical outcomes. Plasma retinol levels were significantly higher in the vitamin A group versus the placebo group on day 28 and at 34 weeks' PMA. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral water-soluble vitamin A supplementation improves plasma retinol levels in extremely preterm infants but does not reduce the severity of BPD.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 939-947, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biochemical vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is believed to be a serious public health problem (low serum retinol prevalence >20%) in Indian children, justifying universal high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in Indian children younger than 5 y the risk of biochemical VAD from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey, as well as dietary vitamin A inadequacy and excess over the tolerable upper limit of intake (TUL) from national and subnational surveys, factoring in fortification and VAS. METHODS: Child serum retinol data, corrected for inflammation, were examined to evaluate national- and state-level prevalence of VAD. Simultaneously, dietary intakes from the National Sample Survey Office and the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau were examined for risk of dietary vitamin A deficiency against its average requirement (AR) derived for Indian children. Theoretical estimates of risk reduction with oil and milk vitamin A fortification were evaluated along with the risk of exceeding the TUL, as well as when combined with intake from VAS. RESULTS: The national prevalence of biochemical VAD measured in 9563 children was 15.7% (95% CI: 15.2%, 16.3%), and only 3 states had prevalence significantly >20%. The AR of vitamin A was 198 and 191 µg/d for boys and girls; the risk of dietary inadequacy was ∼70%, which reduced to 25% with oil and milk fortification. Then, the risk of exceeding the TUL was 2% and 1% in 1- to 3-y-old and 4- to 5-y-old children, respectively, but when the VAS dose was added to this intake in a cumulative 6-mo framework, the risk of exceeding the TUL rose to 30% and 8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The national prevalence of VAD risk is below 20% in Indian children. Because there is risk of excess intake with food fortification and VAS, serious consideration should be given to a targeted approach in place of the universal VAS program in India.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina A/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Vitamina A/sangue
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1209-1216, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198313

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la hipertensión arterial resistente (HAR) se asocia a un alto riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares debido al estrés oxidativo. Los estudios han demostrado los efectos beneficiosos de los antioxidantes dietéticos sobre la salud cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: analizar y correlacionar el perfil bioquímico y antropométrico, y la ingesta de micronutrientes antioxidantes en pacientes con HAR. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: los pacientes se sometieron a una evaluación bioquímica y antropométrica para calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC), el perímetro de la cintura (PCI), el perímetro de la cadera (PCA), el índice cintura-cadera (ICC) y la ingesta de micronutrientes -vitaminas A, C y E, selenio y zinc- utilizando una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo alimentario y el recordatorio de 24 horas. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando el software SPSS Statistics 20, con un valor de p < 0,05 como significativo. RESULTADOS: estudiamos a 60 individuos con HAR de 62,83 ± 10,73 años. El IMC medio fue de 31,01 ± 5,60 kg/m²; el PCI de 98,12 ± 15,04 cm, el PCA de 110,55 ± 13,16 cm y el ICC de 0,879 ± 0,084. Respecto al perfil bioquímico, el colesterol total medio fue de 187,65 ± 48,29 mg/dL, los triglicéridos de 136,38 ± 99,91 mg/dL, el HDL-col de 49,00 ± 10,99 mg/dL, el LDL-col de 112,01 ± 41,89 mg/dL, la glucemia de 105,37 ± 14,81 mg/dL y la hemoglobina glucosilada del 6,29 ± 1,76 %. La ingesta de antioxidantes fue: vitamina A: 241,47 ± 191,87 μg/d; vitamina C: 147,02 ± 192,94 mg/d; vitamina E: 1,99 ± 1,82 mg/d; selenio: 36,80 ± 34,56 μg/d, y zinc: 9,91 ± 6,64 mg/d, y el 91,38 %, 46,55 %, 93,10 %, 67,24 % y 46,55 % de la muestra se encontraron por debajo de lo recomendado, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: se observó una ingesta insuficiente de antioxidantes en los pacientes con HAR, que presentan una alta prevalencia de obesidad, especialmente de adiposidad visceral y alteraciones del perfil lipídico, afecciones que requieren un mayor uso de estos micronutrientes. Se sugiere la necesidad de una planificación dietética dirigida a estos pacientes para mejorar la calidad de vida y la respuesta al tratamiento antihipertensivo


INTRODUCTION: resistant arterial hypertension (HAR) is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular events due to oxidative stress. Research has shown the beneficial effects of dietary antioxidants on cardiovascular health. OBJECTIVE: to analyze and correlate the biochemical, anthropometric profile and intake of antioxidant micronutrients of patients with HAR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the patients underwent a biochemical assessment, and an anthropometric assessment to calculate body mass index (IMC), waist circumference (PCI), hip circumference (PCA), waist-to-hip ratio (ICC), and micronutrient intake assessment: vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc, estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS Statistics 20 software. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: sixty individuals with HAR were studied, with a mean age of 62.83 ± 10.73 years. Mean IMC was 31.01 ± 5.60 kg/m², PCI, 98.12 ± 15.04 cm, PCA, 110.55 ± 13.16 cm, and ICC, 0.879 ± 0.084. Regarding the biochemical profile, mean total colesterol was 187.65 ± 48.29 mg/dL, triglycerides, 136.38 ± 99.91 mg/dL; HDL-col, 49.00 ± 10.99 mg/dL; LDL-col, 112.01 ± 41.89 mg/dL; glucose, 105.37 ± 14.81 mg/dL, and glycated hemoglobin, 6.29 ± 1.76 %. The average daily intake of antioxidants was: vitamin A, 241.47 ± 191.87 μg/d; vitamin C, 147.02 ± 192.94 mg/d; vitamin E, 1.99 ± 1.82 mg/d; selenium, 36.80 ± 34.56 μg/d, and zinc, 99.91 ± 6.64 mg/d, where 91.38 %, 4 6.55 %, 93.10 %, 67.24 %, and 46.55 % of the sample were below the recommended intakes, respectively. CONCLUSION: inadequate antioxidant intake was observed in these patients with HAR, with a high prevalence of obesity, especially visceral adiposity and alterations in lipid profile, conditions that require a greater usage of these micronutrients. We suggest there is a need for dietary planning for these patients to improve their quality of life and their response to antihypertensive treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/análise , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antropometria , Hipertensão/complicações , Antioxidantes/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Antioxidantes , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e20841, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide reliable estimates for dietary antioxidant vitamin (vitamins A, C, and E) intake and their effect on fracture risk at various sites. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify prospective cohort studies published throughout October 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 13 prospective cohort studies involving 384,464 individuals were selected for this meta-analysis. The summary RR indicated that increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98; P = .015). When stratified by the vitamin types, increased vitamin E intake was found to be associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95; P = .025), whereas increased vitamin A and C intake did not affect this risk. Increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk, irrespective of fracture sites (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94; P < .001); however, it did not affect hip fracture risk. Furthermore, increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk in men (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96; P = .017) and combined men and women (RR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.93; P = .002); however, it did not affect fracture risk in women. CONCLUSION: Fracture risk at any site is significantly reduced with increased antioxidant vitamin intake, especially vitamin E intake and in men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
7.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 112(8): 620-626, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: dietary β-carotene and vitamin A intake have shown some potential effect in the development of esophageal cancer. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association of β-carotene and vitamin A intake on the risk of esophageal cancer. METHODS: the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Wanfang Med online databases were systematically searched to collect the relevant articles regarding the impact of β-carotene and vitamin A intake on esophageal cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were combined using the Review Manager Version 5.3 software. RESULTS: this meta-analysis included 14 articles. The highest category of β-carotene intake may significantly reduce the risk of esophageal cancer compared with the lowest category (OR = 0.62, 95 % CI = 0.50-0.77). Similar significant results were found in American and European populations but not in other populations with β-carotene intake. An inverse association was found between vitamin A intake and esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.79, 95 % CI = 0.63-0.99). No potential publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: our study suggested that dietary β-carotene and vitamin A intake may reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. More relevant studies are needed to further explore this association, as there were some limitations in our análisis


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , beta Caroteno/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1497-1503, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131476

RESUMO

Avaliou-se o efeito da utilização de níveis crescentes de vitamina A sobre os parâmetros ósseos de codornas de corte de 15 a 35 dias de idade. Foram utilizadas 1520 codornas, não sexadas, com peso médio inicial de 85±4,25g, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, totalizando oito tratamentos com cinco repetições e 38 codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de oito níveis de suplementação de vitamina A (0; 4.500; 6.000; 7.500; 9.000; 10.500; 12.000 e 13.500UI/kg da dieta). O período experimental foi de 15 a 35 dias de idade. Os ossos analisados apresentaram uma redução linear para o índice de Seedor, resistência óssea e teor de cinzas do fêmur e da tíbia de acordo com os níveis de suplementação de vitamina A. A suplementação de vitamina A para codornas de corte de 15 a 35 dias de idade mostrou resultados negativos para a qualidade óssea, com a necessidade de mais estudos sobre seu antagonismo com a vitamina D.(AU)


This study evaluated the effect of using increasing levels of vitamin A on bone parameters in meat-type quails from 15 to 35 days old. A total of 1520 unsexed quail with an average initial weight of 85g distributed in a completely randomized design, totaling eight treatments with five replicates and 38 quails per experimental unit were used. The treatments consisted of eight vitamin supplementation levels A (0; 4,500; 6,000; 7,500; 9,000; 10,500; 12,000 and 13,500IU / kg diet). The experimental period was 15 to 35 days of age. The bones analyzed showed a linear reduction to the Seedor index, bone strength and ash content of the femur and tibia according to vitamin supplementation levels Vitamin A supplementation for cutting quails from 15 to 35 days of age showed negative results for bone quality, with the need for more studies on its antagonism to vitamin D.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Densitometria/veterinária
9.
Trials ; 21(1): 614, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study will evaluate the main hypothesis that supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E significantly improves the severity and mortality rate in ICU patients with COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a randomized, single-blinded, two-arm (1:1 ratio) parallel group clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: We are conducting this study in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex in Tehran, Iran. The inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) aged between 20 and 60 years, (2) both male and female patients with COVID-19, (3) clinical or definitive diagnosis (using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test), (4) patients have not participated in other clinical trials, and (5) no renal or hepatic abnormalities. The exclusion criteria are as follows: (1) patients with specific and rare viral diseases such as HIV and (2) patients who have been undergoing chemotherapy for the past month. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Duration of intervention: 7 days from randomization Intervention in the treatment group: Vitamin A 25,000 IU daily Vitamin D 600,000 IU once during study Vitamin E 300 IU twice daily Vitamin C is taken four times per day B vitamins are taken as a daily Soluvit [which included thiamine nitrate 3.1 mg, sodium riboflavin phosphate 4.9 mg (corresponding to vitamin B2 3.6 mg), nicotinamide 40 mg, pyridoxine hydrochloride 4.9 mg (corresponding to vitamin B6 4.0 mg), sodium pantothenate 16.5 mg (corresponding to pantothenic acid 15 mg), sodium ascorbate 113 mg (corresponding to vitamin C 100 mg), biotin 60 µg, folic acid 400 µg, and cyanocobalamin 5 µg] The control group will not receive any supplements or placebo. All supplements are made in Iran except for Soluvit (from Fresenius Kabi, New Zealand). MAIN OUTCOMES: 1. Weight, height, and BMI 2. Severity of pulmonary involvement according to CT scan 3. Respiratory support (invasive or non-invasive) 4. Percentage of oxygen saturation (SpO2 level) 5. Serum levels of WBC, CRP, ESR, IL6, IFN-G, and TNF-α 6. The patient's body temperature 7. The presence or absence of involvement of organs other than the lungs (e.g., heart, liver, kidneys) 8. Duration of hospitalization 9. Mortality rate RANDOMIZATION: At baseline, eligible patients were randomly assigned to a 1:1 ratio to one of two groups: intervention and control. Block randomization is used based on the gender of patients. BLINDING (MASKING): Patients are unaware of being placed in the intervention or control groups after signing consent. All treatment staff will be aware of which group each of the patients is in due to the specific conditions of the ICU and the absence of placebo for the control group. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The researchers plan to include 60 patients in total, with 30 patients in each group. TRIAL STATUS: This is the first version of the protocol which started on April 2, 2020. Recruitment began April 2, 2020, and is expected to be complete by July 4, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20200319046819N1 . Registered on April 4, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol (Fig. 1, Table 1).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
10.
J Nutr ; 150(8): 2183-2190, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food fortification is implemented to increase intakes of specific nutrients in the diet, but contributions of fortified foods to nutrient intakes are rarely quantified. OBJECTIVES: We quantified iron, vitamin A, and iodine intakes from fortified staple foods and condiments among women of reproductive age (WRA). METHODS: In subnational (Nigeria, South Africa) and national (Tanzania, Uganda) cross-sectional, clustered household surveys, we assessed fortifiable food consumption. We estimated daily nutrient intakes from fortified foods among WRA by multiplying the daily apparent fortifiable food consumption (by adult male equivalent method) by a fortification content for the food. Two fortification contents were used: measured, based on the median amount quantified from individual food samples collected from households; and potential, based on the targeted amount in national fortification standards. Results for both approaches are reported as percentages of the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended nutrient intake (RNI). RESULTS: Fortified foods made modest contributions to measured iron intakes (0%-13% RNI); potential intakes if standards are met were generally higher (0%-65% RNI). Fortified foods contributed substantially to measured vitamin A and iodine intakes (20%-125% and 88%-253% EAR, respectively); potential intakes were higher (53%-655% and 115%-377% EAR, respectively) and would exceed the tolerable upper intake level among 18%-56% of WRA for vitamin A in Nigeria and 1%-8% of WRA for iodine in Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified foods are major contributors to apparent intakes of vitamin A and iodine, but not iron, among WRA. Contributions to vitamin A and iodine are observed despite fortification standards not consistently being met and, if constraints to meeting standards are addressed, there is risk of excessive intakes in some countries. For all programs assessed, nutrient intakes from all dietary sources and fortification standards should be reviewed to inform adjustments where needed to avoid risk of low or excessive intakes.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 827-835, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129486

RESUMO

O colágeno é sintetizado e segregado no espaço extracelular e organizados em fibrilas estriadas de acordo com o tipo de tecido. Utilizaram-se 24 coelhos brancos da raça Nova Zelândia, com idade de 12 meses e com 3,0kg de peso corporal, para avaliar a porcentagem de colágeno das feridas cutâneas tratadas com plasma rico em plaquetas de equino e pomada contendo gentamicina, sulfanilamida, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A. Os animais foram separados em quatro grupos de igual número e submetidos à remoção de pele na região das linhas médias dorsal torácica (feridas tratadas) e lombar (feridas controle). As feridas torácicas foram tratadas com plasma rico em plaqueta de equino e pomada contendo gentamicina, sulfanilamida, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A, e as do grupo controle somente com a pomada. Dos animais do grupo I, foi coletado tecido cutâneo, para a avaliação histológica e a ultraestrutural, com três dias de pós-operatório; dos animais do grupo II, com sete dias; do grupo III, com 14 dias; e do grupo IV, com 21 dias. Decorrido o período de avaliação de cada grupo, foi coletado fragmento de pele para avaliação da porcentagem de colágeno, bem como do diâmetro e da densidade da fibrila de colágeno por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O tratamento com PRP de equino associado à aplicação tópica da pomada mostrou-se eficaz na maturação das fibrilas colágenas e na antecipação do processo cicatricial.(AU)


Collagen is synthesized and secreted into the extracellular space and organized into striated fibrils according to the tissue type. This study evaluated the concentration of collagen in rabbit skin wounds treated with equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and ointment containing gentamicin, sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, urea, and vitamin A. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits aged 2 to 12 months and weighing 3.0kg were included. The animals were allocated equally into four groups and the skin was removed from the thoracic dorsal midline (treated wound) and lumbar (control wound) regions. The thoracic wounds were treated with equine PRP and ointment containing gentamicin, sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, urea, and vitamin A, and the control group was treated with the ointment alone. For histological and ultrastructural assessment, cutaneous tissue was collected on postoperative days 3 (group I), 7 (group II), 14 (group III), and 21 (group IV). After the evaluation period, in each group, a skin fragment was collected for analysis of the collagen concentration, as well as the collagen fibril diameter and density by transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that treatment with equine PRP combined with topical application of the ointment was effective in facilitating the maturation of collagen fibrils and the wound healing process.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Sulfadiazina/administração & dosagem , Sulfanilamidas/administração & dosagem , Ureia/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Cavalos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19764, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands that occurs in adolescent men and women. In recent years, the incidence of acne has increased year by year, so it is of great significance to find a precise and effective treatment and further explore its possible mechanism of action. The purpose of this study will be to explore a treatment method that has both traditional Chinese medicine characteristics and significant effects, and provides a higher level of evidence for acupuncture for acne vulgaris. It also provides patients with more treatment options. METHODS/DESIGN: The study will be a randomized controlled trial divided into 2 parallel groups. This pragmatic randomized controlled trial will recruit 66 patients who are diagnosed with acne vulgaris. 30-minutes acupuncture sessions will be provided to patients assigned to the intervention group. All participants will continue to receive conventional treatment. The selection of outcomes will be evaluated by the skin lesions score scale. DISCUSSION: This trial may provide evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of acupuncture for patients with acne vulgaris. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTR2000030427.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/terapia , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392254

RESUMO

Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae have been marketed as an excellent choice for providing calcium to reptiles without the need of dusting or gut loading. However, previous studies have indicated that they have limited calcium digestibility and are deficient in fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E). In this feeding and digestibility trial, 24 adult male leopard geckos were fed one of three diets for 4 months: 1) whole, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; 2) needle pierced, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; or 3) whole, non-gut loaded larvae. Fecal output from the geckos was collected daily and apparent digestibility was calculated for dry matter, protein, fat, and minerals. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients among groups. Most nutrients were well digested by the leopard geckos when compared to previous studies, with the exception of calcium (digestibility co-efficient 43%), as the calcium-rich exoskeleton usually remained intact after passage through the GI tract. Biochemistry profiles revealed possible deficits occurring over time for calcium, sodium, and total protein. In regards to vitamin A digestibility, plasma and liver vitamin A concentrations were significantly higher in the supplemented groups (plasma- gut loaded groups: 33.38 ± 7.11 ng/ml, control group: 25.8 ± 6.72 ng/ml, t = 1.906, p = 0.04; liver- gut loaded groups: 28.67 ± 18.90 µg/g, control group: 14.13 ± 7.41 µg/g, t = 1.951, p = 0.03). While leopard geckos are able to digest most of the nutrients provided by BSF larvae, including those that have been gut loaded, more research needs to be performed to assess whether or not they provide adequate calcium in their non-supplemented form.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Lagartos/fisiologia , Simuliidae , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/farmacocinética , Dieta , Digestão , Larva/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Simuliidae/química , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/farmacocinética
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8092, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415141

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported that vitamin A administration in the birth stage of calves could promote preadipocyte and muscle development. However, the metabolic change after vitamin A administration remains unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to perform metabonomics analyses to investigate the effect of vitamin A in Korean native calves. Ten newborn calves (initial average body weight: 30.4 kg [SD 2.20]) were randomly divided into two groups treated with or without vitamin A supplementation (0 IU vs. 25,000 IU vitamin A/day) for two months until weaning. Metabolic changes in the serum and longissimus dorsi muscle of calves were investigated using GC-TOF-MS and multivariate statistical analysis. As a result, ten metabolic parameters in the serum and seven metabolic parameters in the longissimus dorsi muscle were down-regulated in the vitamin A treatment group compared to those in the control group (VIP value > 1.0, p < 0.05). Both serum and longissimus dorsi muscle showed lower levels of cholesterol and myo-inositol in the vitamin A treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that vitamin A supplementation in the early growth period of calf could maintain the preadipocyte status, which can contribute to future adipogenesis in the intramuscular fat production of Korean native cattle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Masculino
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373260
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 86-99, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342851

RESUMO

The common cold had resulted in significant economic and social burden worldwide. The effect of vitamin C on preventing common cold in healthy adults has been investigated extensively, but not that of other micronutrients. Thus, we aim to assess the effects of providing micronutrients singly through oral means, on cold incidence, and/or management (in terms of cold duration and symptom severity) in healthy adults from systematically searched randomized controlled trials. From four electronic databases, 660 identified studies were screened and data were extracted from 20 studies (zinc, 10; vitamin D, 8; and vitamins A and E, 2). The quality of selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and certainty in the outcomes was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. The review found that micronutrients supplementation, except vitamin C, may not prevent cold incidence or reduce symptom severity among healthy adults. However, zinc supplementation was observed to potentially reduce cold duration by 2.25 days (when zinc is provided singly, 95% CI: -3.39, -1.12). This suggests that zinc supplementation may reduce the overall burden due to common cold among healthy adults.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Incidência , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
17.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1982-1988, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency can result in hyporetinolemia and hepatic vitamin A (VA) sequestration. OBJECTIVES: We used model-based compartmental analysis to determine the impact of iron repletion on VA metabolism and kinetics in iron-deficient rats. METHODS: At weaning, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either a VA-marginal diet (0.35 mg retinol equivalent/kg) with adequate iron (35 ppm, control group [CN]) or reduced iron (3 ppm, iron-deficient group [ID-]), with an equivalent average body weight for each group. After 5 wk, n = 4 rats from each group were euthanized for baseline measurements of VA and iron indices, and the remaining rats (n = 6 CN, n = 10 ID-) received an intravenous injection of 3H-labeled retinol in an emulsion as tracer to initiate the kinetic study. On day 21 after dosing, half of the ID- rats were switched to the CN diet to initiate iron repletion, referred to as the iron-repletion group (ID+). From the time of dosing, 34 serial blood samples were collected from each rat over a 92-d time course. Plasma tracer and tissue tracee data were fitted to 6- and 4-compartment models, respectively, to analyze the kinetic behavior of VA in all groups. RESULTS: Our mathematical model indicated that ID- rats exhibited a nearly 6-fold decrease in liver VA secretion and >4-fold reduction in whole-body VA utilization, compared with CN rats, whereas these perturbed kinetic behaviors were notably corrected in ID+ rats, close to those from the CN group. CONCLUSIONS: Iron repletion can remove the inhibitory effect that iron deficiency exerts on hepatic mobilization of VA and restore retinol kinetic parameters to values similar to that of never-deficient CN rats. Together with improvements in iron and VA indices, our results suggest that restoration of an iron-adequate diet is sufficient to improve VA kinetics after a previous state of iron deficiency.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Deficiência de Vitamina A
18.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 43(5): 392-396, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241590

RESUMO

Measles is a contagious viral infection that usually affects children. The disease is caused by morbillivirus, a virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. The clinical picture is characterized by four phases: incubation, invasion, eruption and desquamation. Ophthalmologic manifestations in measles are rare, dominated by conjunctivitis and keratitis. Corneal involvement is the main concern; it varies from simple superficial punctate keratitis to corneal perforation. We report three cases of acute keratitis in young adults during an epidemic. The epithelial involvement was peripheral, central or diffuse. The outcome was favorable under symptomatic topical treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Virais/diagnóstico , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Blefarite/diagnóstico , Blefarite/tratamento farmacológico , Blefarite/virologia , Conjuntivite/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite/virologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/virologia , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Sarampo/tratamento farmacológico , Sarampo/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4214, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144294

RESUMO

Studies demonstrated that pneumonia can decrease vitamin A productions and vitamin A reduction/deficiency may promote asthma development. Our previous study showed that neonatal Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) infection promoted asthma development. Whether neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia induced asthma was associated with vitamin A levels remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia on vitamin A expressions, to explore the effects of vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia on adulthood asthma development. Non-lethal S. pneumoniae pneumonia was established by intranasal inoculation of neonatal (1-week-old) female BALB/c mice with D39. S. pneumoniae pneumonia mice were supplemented with or without all-trans retinoic acid 24 hours after infection. Vitamin A concentrations in lung, serum and liver were measured post pneumonia until early adulthood. Four weeks after pneumonia, mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA to induce allergic airway disease (AAD). Twenty-four hours after the final challenge, the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to assess AAD. We stated that serum vitamin A levels in neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia mice were lower than 0.7µmol/L from day 2-7 post infection, while pulmonary vitamin A productions were significantly lower than those in the control mice from day 7-28 post infection. Vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia significantly promoted Foxp3+Treg and Th1 productions, decreased Th2 and Th17 cells expressions, alleviated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammatory cells infiltration during AAD. Our data suggest that neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia induce serum vitamin A deficiency and long-time lung vitamin A reduction, vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia inhibit the progression of asthma by altering CD4+T cell subsets.


Assuntos
Asma/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Asma/etiologia , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/patologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139453

RESUMO

Antioxidant drugs form one of the mainstay therapies for pain management in chronic pancreatitis. Heightened oxidative stress and free radical activity is the target for the use of antioxidant therapy in chronic pancreatitis pain relief. One of the chief components of these drugs is beta-carotene, and vitamin A. Vitamin A is a proven hepatotoxic agent which can lead to liver injury ranging from acute hepatitis to cirrhosis. Here, we present a case of chronic pancreatitis who continued antioxidant therapy unsupervised for 7 years and developed vitamin A-induced acute liver failure, which was treated with prednisolone.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Vitamina A/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pancreatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
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