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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) plays critical roles in prenatal and postnatal development; however, limited information is available regarding maternal VA metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of pregnancy and lactation on VA metabolism and kinetics in rats, hypothesizing that changes in physiological status would naturally perturb whole-body VA kinetics. METHODS: Eight-week old female rats (n = 10) fed an AIN-93G diet received an oral tracer dose of 3H-labeled retinol to initiate the kinetic study. On d 21 after dosing, six female rats were mated. Serial blood samples were collected from each female rat at selected times after dose administration until d 14 of lactation. Model-based compartmental analysis was applied to the plasma tracer data to develop VA kinetic models. RESULTS: Our compartmental model revealed that pregnancy resulted in a gradual increase in hepatic VA mobilization, presumably to support different stages of fetal development. Additionally, the model indicates that during lactation, VA derived from dietary intake was the primary source of VA delivered to the mammary gland for milk VA secretion. CONCLUSION: During pregnancy and lactation in rats with an adequate VA intake and previous VA storage, the internal redistribution of VA and increased uptake from diet supported the maintenance of VA homeostasis.


Assuntos
Lactação/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina A/prevenção & controle , Vitamina A/farmacocinética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Administração Oral , Ração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Modelos Biológicos , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/fisiopatologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nutritional status of vitamin A in lactating mothers and infants is still not optimistic. Due to the dietary habits and dietary restrictions of postpartum customs in China, vitamin A supplementation has been advocated as a potential strategy to improve vitamin A status of lactating mothers with inadequate dietary vitamin A intake. Existing clinical trials are limited to single or double high-dose maternal administrations. However, in China, vitamin A supplements are readily available in the form of daily oral low-dose supplements, and the effect of these is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily oral low-dose vitamin A supplementation on the retinol levels in the serum and breast milk of lactating mothers and the health status of infants in China. METHODS: Lactating mothers who met the inclusion criteria and planned to continue exclusive breastfeeding were randomly assigned to receive either daily oral vitamin A and D drops (one soft capsule of 1800 IU vitamin A and 600 IU vitamin D2), or a matching placebo for 2 months. Before and after the intervention, dietary intake was investigated by instant photography, and the retinol concentration in maternal serum and breast milk was determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During the trial, the health status of infants was diagnosed by a paediatrician or reported by lactating mothers. A total of 245 participants completed the study, with 117 in the supplementation group and 128 in the control group. RESULTS: After the 2-month intervention, maternal serum retinol concentrations increased in the supplementation group with no change in the control group. Although breast milk retinol concentrations decreased significantly in both groups, the decrease in the supplementation group was significantly lower than that in the control group. However, maternal vitamin A supplementation was not associated with a lower risk of infant febrile illness, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, and eczema. CONCLUSIONS: Daily oral low-dose vitamin A supplementation is helpful in improving maternal vitamin A status, despite having no effect on infant health status through breast milk.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , China , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina A/efeitos adversos , Vitamina A/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279378

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant balance as well as lysosomal and anti-protease activities in ovarian cancer since it has been emphasized that the crucial inducing factor of carcinogenesis may be reactive oxygen/nitrogen species or, more precisely, oxidative stress-induced inflammation. The study involved 15 women with ovarian cancer, aged 59.9 ± 7.8 years, and 9 healthy women aged 56.3 ± 4.3 years (controls). The study material was venous blood collected from fasting subjects. In erythrocytes, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, as well as concentrations of conjugated dienes (CDs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were investigated. CD, TBARS, and vitamins A and E plasma concentrations were also determined. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity and concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, as well as activities of acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, cathepsin D, and α1-antitrypsin, were studied in serum. The vitamin E and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations as well as arylsulfatase activity were lower in the women with cancer compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.03, p = 0.001, respectively). In contrast, cathepsin D activity was lower in the controls (p = 0.04). In the peripheral blood of the women with cancer, oxidant-antioxidant and lysosomal disturbances were observed.


Assuntos
Lisossomos/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Idoso , Catalase/sangue , Catepsina D/sangue , Dinoprosta/sangue , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202697

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease that causes severe pulmonary damage and hyperinflammation. Vitamin A is a crucial factor in the development of immune functions and is known to be reduced in cases of acute inflammation. This prospective, multicenter observational cross-sectional study analyzed vitamin A plasma levels in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, and 40 hospitalized patients were included. Of these, 22 developed critical disease (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [ARDS]/Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]), 9 developed severe disease (oxygen supplementation), and 9 developed moderate disease (no oxygen supplementation). A total of 47 age-matched convalescent persons that had been earlier infected with SARS-CoV-2 were included as the control group. Vitamin A plasma levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reduced vitamin A plasma levels correlated significantly with increased levels of inflammatory markers (CRP, ferritin) and with markers of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (reduced lymphocyte count, LDH). Vitamin A levels were significantly lower in hospitalized patients than in convalescent persons (p < 0.01). Of the hospitalized patients, those who were critically ill showed significantly lower vitamin A levels than those who were moderately ill (p < 0.05). Vitamin A plasma levels below 0.2 mg/L were significantly associated with the development of ARDS (OR = 5.54 [1.01-30.26]; p = 0.048) and mortality (OR 5.21 [1.06-25.5], p = 0.042). Taken together, we conclude that vitamin A plasma levels in COVID-19 patients are reduced during acute inflammation and that severely reduced plasma levels of vitamin A are significantly associated with ARDS and mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Estado Terminal , Estudos Transversais , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hospitalização , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(3 May-Jun): 359-370, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the current status of micronutrient deficiencies (MD) and anemia in Mexican children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum data from 1 382 pre-school-age chil-dren (1-4 years) and 3 590 school-age children (5-11 years) Ensanut 2018-19 participants were analyzed. Iron deficiency (ID), vitamin B12 deficiency (B12D), vitamin A depletion (VADp), and anemia were identified. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations between socio-demographic characteristics of children and MD. RESULTS: Anemia was present in 28.9 and 19.2% of the children aged 1-4 and 5-11, respectively; in ID 10 and 5.1%; B12D, in 5.1 and 4.8%, and VADp, in 4.7 and 4.3%. 18.5% of the preschool-age children and 13% of the school-age children had at least one MD associated to anemia. CONCLUSIONS: MD and anemia affect the younger children in larger proportion. Fortification and supplementation programs should be reinforced to avoid the long-term consequences of MD.


Assuntos
Anemia , Ferro , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina A , Vitamina B 12 , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/sangue , México/epidemiologia , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue
6.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069568

RESUMO

The available data on the association between micronutrients in the blood and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited. To investigate the clinical implications of this relationship, we sought to identify the difference in the serum levels of vitamins A and E according to NAFLD status using data from the seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In this cross-sectional study of the Korean population, NAFLD and its severity were defined using prediction models. Differences in the prevalence and severity of NAFLD were analyzed according to serum retinol (vitamin A) and alpha (α)-tocopherol (vitamin E) levels. Serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol were positively correlated with the prevalence of NAFLD. In most prediction models of the NAFLD subjects, serum retinol deficiency was significantly correlated with advanced fibrosis, while serum α-tocopherol levels did not differ between individuals with or without advanced fibrosis. Similar trends were also noted with cholesterol-adjusted levels of α-tocopherol. In summary, while circulating concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol were positively associated with the presence of NAFLD, advanced liver fibrosis was only correlated with serum retinol levels. Our findings could provide insight into NAFLD patient care at a micronutrient level.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Vitamina A/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Vitamina E/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063790

RESUMO

Background: While the current national prevalence rate of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is estimated to be less than 1%, it is suggested that it varies between different ethnic groups and races within the U.S. We assessed the prevalence of VAD in pregnant women of different ethnic groups and tested these prevalence rates for associations with the vitamin A-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies in each ethnic group. Methods: We analyzed two independent datasets of serum retinol levels with self-reported ethnicities and the differences of allele frequencies of the SNPs associated with vitamin A metabolism between groups in publicly available datasets. Results: Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic pregnant women showed high VAD prevalence in both datasets. Interestingly, the VAD prevalence for Hispanic pregnant women significantly differed between datasets (p = 1.973 × 10-10, 95%CI 0.04-0.22). Alleles known to confer the risk of low serum retinol (rs10882272 C and rs738409 G) showed higher frequencies in the race/ethnicity groups with more VAD. Moreover, minor allele frequencies of a set of 39 previously reported SNPs associated with vitamin A metabolism were significantly different between the populations of different ancestries than those of randomly selected SNPs (p = 0.030). Conclusions: Our analysis confirmed that VAD prevalence varies between different ethnic groups/races and may be causally associated with genetic variants conferring risk for low retinol levels. Assessing genetic variant information prior to performing an effective nutrient supplementation program will help us plan more effective food-based interventions.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/etnologia , Vitamina A/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alelos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2837-2844, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A is necessary for an adequate immune response to infections. Infection also alters vitamin A biomarkers, which interferes with assessment of vitamin A deficiency and thus impairs clinical management. Here we apply multiple strategies to adjust vitamin A biomarkers for inflammation during acute infection and evaluate associations between adjusted vitamin A status and immunologic response markers. METHODS: We measured biomarkers in pediatric patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Guayaquil, Ecuador at paired acute and convalescent visits. Four adjustment strategies were applied to retinol-binding protein (RBP) concentrations: Thurnham correction factor (TCF), BRINDA regression correction (BRC), CRP-only adjustment factor (CRP), and proof-of-concept for a proposed interleukin 6 regression model (IL-6 RM). Adjusted RBP concentrations were compared between visits using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess associations between adjusted vitamin A status and immunologic response markers. RESULTS: A sample of 57 participants completed the acute visit 1, and 18 of these individuals completed the convalescent visit 2. The IL-6 RM was the only strategy resulting in adjusted RBP concentrations that were not significantly different between paired visits (p = 0.20). Following RBP adjustment, 0.0% of participants were classified as vitamin A deficient (RBP ≤ 0.70 µmol/L) and 14.0% were classified as vitamin A insufficient (RBP ≤ 1.05 µmol/L). Adjusted vitamin A insufficiency was associated with an increase in macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1α, p = 0.03) and a pro-inflammatory immune response profile (p = 0.03) during the acute visit. CONCLUSIONS: We introduce a strategy for adjusting vitamin A in the context of clinical illness based on IL-6 concentrations that will need to be validated in larger studies. Assessment of vitamin A during infection allows for further understanding of how vitamin A status modulates immunopathology and enables targeted strategies for vitamin A supplementation in the context of infection among children in settings with high burdens of undernutrition and infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Febre/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807563

RESUMO

Retinol Binding Protein (RBP) is responsible for the transport of serum retinol (SR) to target tissue in the body. Since RBP is relatively easy and cheap to measure, it is widely used in national Micronutrient Surveys (MNS) as a proxy for SR to determine vitamin A status. By regressing RBP concentration against SR concentration measured in a subset of the survey population, one can define a population-specific threshold concentration of RBP that indicates vitamin A deficiency (VAD). However, the relationship between RBP and SR concentrations is affected by various factors including inflammation. This study, therefore, aimed to re-define the population-specific cut-off for VAD by examining the influence of inflammation on RBP and SR, among pre-school children (PSC) from the 2015-16 Malawi MNS. The initial association between RBP and SR concentrations was poor, and this remained the case despite applying various methods to correct for inflammation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the threshold of 0.7 µmol/L to define VAD for SR concentrations. Applying this threshold to the RBP concentrations gave a VAD prevalence of 24%, which reduced to 10% after inflammation adjustments following methods developed by the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA). Further research is required to identify why SR and RBP were poorly associated in this population. Future MNS will need to account for the effect of inflammation on RBP to measure the prevalence of VAD in Malawi.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/análise , Deficiência de Vitamina A/diagnóstico , Vitamina A/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Modelos Lineares , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921931

RESUMO

We evaluated the iodine nutritional status and related factors among school-age children based on the 2016 National Nutrition and Health Surveillance of Children and Lactating Women; 3808 children from Hebei, Guangxi, and Zhejiang province were included in the study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), body mass index (BMI), vitamin A (VA), and vitamin D (VD) were measured. The abnormal rate of UIC and TSH were assessed. Relationships between UIC/TSH and the possible factors were analyzed. The overall median UIC was 185.14 µg/L, and the median UIC of children aged 8-10 was 164.60 µg/L. Prevalence of iodine deficiency and excess was 13.84% and 14.36%, respectively, and 12.87% of children showed TSH excess. UIC, as well as the abnormal rates of iodine deficiency (ID) and TSH, were significantly different among the three provinces. The median UICs and excess rates increased with age, reaching 211.45 µg/L and 21.35% at age of 14~, while TSH showed the opposite trend. Overweight children tended to have lower UIC and higher TSH. Higher UIC and TSH were found in VA sufficient group (p < 0.01). Further, the VD deficient group had a higher TSH compared to the sufficient group (p < 0.01). Moreover, UI and TSH distribution was obviously different among different vitamin A/D status (p < 0.05). Although the median UIC of school-age children was optimal, there were pockets of inadequate and excessive UI in the three provinces. Compared to the national IDD monitoring results in 2014, the iodine nutritional status of children was greatly improved. Considerations of region, age, BMI, VA, or VD are needed in the future iodine evaluation and surveillance.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Iodo/metabolismo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/urina , Masculino , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/urina , Magreza/sangue , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/urina , Tireotropina/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue
11.
J Nutr ; 151(5): 1341-1346, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The retinol isotope dilution (RID) method has been used to evaluate vitamin A (VA) status in healthy adults and children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and to assess the efficacy of various VA interventions. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to examine whether dried serum spots (DSS) can be applied to RID when conducting VA total body store (TBS) assessments in community settings. METHODS: Four days after an oral dose of 0.4 mg [13C10]retinyl acetate was administered to Filipino children (12-18 mo), a single blood draw was divided to isolate both serum and plasma. Serum (40 µL) was spotted and dried on Whatman 903 cards and shipped at ambient temperature whereas liquid plasma (LP) was frozen at -80°C and shipped on dry ice. The VA tracer to tracee ratio from DSS and LP was quantified by LC-MS/MS. Comparisons between DSS and LP paired samples (n = 72) were made for [13C10]retinol specific activity (SAp) by Pearson's correlation and for VA TBS by Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: The sum of 3 coextracted DSS were required to consistently detect [13C10]retinol above the LC-MS/MS limit of quantitation (LOQ). [13C10]retinol SAp from DSS was highly correlated with SAp from LP (r = 0.945; P < 0.01). A comparison of methods for TBS determination using Bland-Altman analysis indicated agreement with an intraindividual difference of 24.7 µmol (4.6%). Mean total liver reserve (TLR) values from DSS and LP were 1.7 µmol/g (± 0.6 SD) and 1.6 µmol/g (± 0.6 SD), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: VA TBS can be determined from DSS thereby reducing the logistics and cost of maintaining a cold chain by shipping samples at ambient temperature and, thus, making the RID technique more feasible in LMIC community settings. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03030339.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Soro , Deficiência de Vitamina A/diagnóstico , Vitamina A/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Diterpenos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Lactente , Isótopos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Filipinas , Plasma/química , Refrigeração , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ésteres de Retinil/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Temperatura , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue
12.
Food Chem ; 353: 129445, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714110

RESUMO

It is well-known that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may cause adverse health impacts. However, there are few investigations assessing the association between PAH exposure and the nutritional status of the general population. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to assess the correlation between PAH metabolites and nutritional biomarkers in the U.S. general population. From the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 4,545 eligible participants were included in this cross-sectional study. To assess PAH exposure, ten urinary PAH metabolites were measured. Eleven serum nutritional biomarkers including carotenoids and vitamins were measured. The association between PAH metabolites and serum nutritional biomarkers was investigated using multivariate linear regression models. Increased 2-hydroxyfluorene was inversely correlated with elven serum nutritional biomarkers: α-carotene (ß = -0.529, p < 0.001), ß-cryptoxanthin (ß = -0.968, p < 0.001), cis-ß carotene (ß = -0.149, p < 0.001), lutein and zeaxanthin (ß = -1.188, p < 0.001), retinyl palmitate (ß = -0.145, p < 0.001), retinyl stearate (ß = -0.025, p = 0.006), total lycopene (ß = -1.074, p < 0.001), trans-ß carotene (ß = -2.268, p < 0.001), trans-lycopene (ß = -0.466, p < 0.003), retinol (ß = -0.694, p = 0.004) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (ß = -1.247, p = 0.007). Increased 3-hydroxyfluorene was inversely correlated with eleven serum nutritional biomarkers: α-carotene (ß = -0.740, p < 0.001), ß-cryptoxanthin (ß = -1.377, p < 0.001), cis-ß carotene (ß = -0.205, p < 0.001), lutein and zeaxanthin (ß = -1.521, p < 0.001), retinyl palmitate (ß = -0.209, p < 0.001), retinyl stearate (ß = -0.034, p = 0.014), total lycopene (ß = -1.20, p = 0.007), trans-ß carotene (ß = -3.185, p < 0.001), trans-lycopene (ß = -0.490, p = 0.039), retinol (ß = -1.366, p < 0.001) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (ß = -2.483, p < 0.001). Increased 1-hydroxypyrene was inversely correlated with eight serum nutritional biomarkers: α-carotene (ß = -0.601, p = 0.001), ß-cryptoxanthin (ß = -1.071, p = 0.001), cis-ß carotene (ß = -0.170, p = 0.001), lutein and zeaxanthin (ß = -1.074, p < 0.001), retinyl palmitate (ß = -0.214, p = 0.005), retinyl stearate (ß = -0.041, p = 0.043), total lycopene (ß = -1.664, p = 0.011) and retinol (ß = -1.381, p = 0.011). These results demonstrate that PAH exposure is significantly correlated with decreased levels of serum nutritional biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carotenoides/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diterpenos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Luteína/sangue , Licopeno/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Ésteres de Retinil/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Zeaxantinas/sangue , beta Caroteno/sangue
13.
J Nutr ; 151(4): 1029-1037, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is prevalent in preschool-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) given to women during pregnancy and lactation and their children from 6 to 18 mo of age on women's plasma and milk retinol concentrations in Malawi, and children's plasma retinol concentration in Malawi and Ghana. METHODS: Pregnant women (≤20 wk of gestation) were randomized to receive daily: 1) iron and folic acid (IFA) during pregnancy only; 2) multiple micronutrients (MMN; 800 µg retinol equivalent (RE)/capsule), or 3) SQ-LNS (800 µg RE/20g) during pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum. Children of mothers in the SQ-LNS group received SQ-LNS (400 µg RE/20 g) from 6 to 18 mo of age; children of mothers in the IFA and MMN groups received no supplement. Plasma retinol was measured in mothers at ≤20 and 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum, and in children at 6 and 18 mo of age. Milk retinol was measured at 6 mo postpartum. VA status indicators were compared by group. RESULTS: Among Malawian mothers, geometric mean (95% CI) plasma retinol concentrations at 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum were 0.97 µmol/L (0.94, 1.01 µmol/L) and 1.35 µmol/L (1.31, 1.39 µmol/L), respectively; geometric mean (95% CI) milk retinol concentration at 6 mo postpartum was 1.04 µmol/L (0.97, 1.13 µmol/L); results did not differ by intervention group. Geometric mean (95% CI) plasma retinol concentrations for Malawian children at 6 and 18 mo of age were 0.78 µmol/L (0.75, 0.81 µmol/L) and 0.81 µmol/L (0.78, 0.85 µmol/L), respectively, and for Ghanaian children they were 0.85 µmol/L (0.82, 0.88 µmol/L) and 0.88 µmol/L (0.85, 0.91 µmol/L), respectively; results did not differ by intervention group in either setting. CONCLUSIONS: SQ-LNS had no effect on VA status of mothers or children, possibly because of low responsiveness of the VA status indicators.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Malaui/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Mães , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Prevalência , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Nutr ; 151(4): 1025-1028, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements (VAS) can temporarily affect VA status. Hence, micronutrient surveys might need to be timed around VAS campaigns to accurately estimate VA deficiency (VAD) prevalence. Little is known about optimal timing of micronutrient surveys when the modified-relative-dose-response (MRDR) is used as a VA indicator. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between days since the end of a VAS campaign and MRDR values in children aged 12-23 mo in Uganda. METHODS: We pooled data from 2 cross-sectional, population-based surveys in eastern Uganda conducted in 2015-2016 (n = 118 children). We estimated the prevalence of VAD (MRDR ≥0.060). Days since the end of a VAS campaign ("days since VAS") was calculated as the interview date minus the end date of the VAS campaign. The MRDR value was assessed using HPLC. We excluded children whose MRDR values were below the limit of detection (<0.007). We used linear regression to evaluate the association between days since VAS and log-transformed MRDR. In adjusted analyses, we controlled for potential confounders. Statistical analyses accounted for the surveys' complex design. RESULTS: The prevalence of VAD was 5.2% (95% CI: 1.1%, 9.3%). Mean days since VAS was 54.1 d (range 39-68 d). Days since VAS was not associated with log-transformed MRDR in unadjusted analyses ($\hat{\beta } = \ $0.0055; 95% CI: -0.009, 0.020; P = 0.45) or adjusted analyses ($\hat{\beta } = $ -0.0073; 95% CI: -0.024, 0.010; P = 0.39). CONCLUSIONS: MRDR measurement through a nutrition survey began as early as 1.3 mo after the end of a VAS campaign in eastern Uganda. Days since the end of a VAS campaign was not associated with MRDR in Ugandan children aged 12-23 mo. Future studies should consider longitudinal designs and evaluate time since VAS and MRDR in children of different ages and in regions with higher VAD prevalence.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina A/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia
15.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(8): 906-915, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467913

RESUMO

Retinol-binding protein (RBP), retinol, and modified-relative-dose response (MRDR) are used to assess vitamin A status. We describe vitamin A status in Ugandan children and women using dried blood spot (DBS) RBP, serum RBP, plasma retinol, and MRDR and compare DBS-RBP, serum RBP, and plasma retinol. Blood was collected from 39 children aged 12-23 months and 28 non-pregnant mothers aged 15-49 years as a subsample from a survey in Amuria district, Uganda, in 2016. DBS RBP was assessed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit, serum RBP using an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and plasma retinol/MRDR test using high-performance liquid chromatography. We examined (a) median concentration or value (Q1, Q3); (b) R2 between DBS-RBP, serum RBP, and plasma retinol; and (c) Bland-Altman plots. Median (Q1, Q3) for children and mothers, respectively, were as follows: DBS-RBP 1.15 µmol/L (0.97, 1.42) and 1.73 (1.52, 1.96), serum RBP 0.95 µmol/L (0.78, 1.18) and 1.47 µmol/L (1.30, 1.79), plasma retinol 0.82 µmol/L (0.67, 0.99) and 1.33 µmol/L (1.22, 1.58), and MRDR 0.025 (0.014, 0.042) and 0.014 (0.009, 0.019). DBS RBP-serum RBP R2 was 0.09 for both children and mothers. The mean biases were -0.19 µmol/L (95% limits of agreement [LOA] 0.62, -0.99) for children and -0.01 µmol/L (95% LOA -1.11, -1.31) for mothers. DBS RBP-plasma retinol R2 was 0.11 for children and 0.13 for mothers. Mean biases were 0.33 µmol/L (95% LOA -0.37, 1.03) for children, and 0.29 µmol/L (95% LOA -0.69, 1.27) for mothers. Serum RBP-plasma retinol R2 was 0.75 for children and 0.55 for mothers, with mean biases of 0.13 µmol/L (95% LOA -0.23, 0.49) for children and 0.18 µmol/L (95% LOA -0.61, 0.96) for mothers. Results varied by indicator and matrix. The serum RBP-retinol R2 for children was moderate (0.75), but poor for other comparisons. Understanding the relationships among vitamin A indicators across contexts and population groups is needed.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Vitamina A/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1322-1331, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) estimated average requirements (EARs) for women and children are extrapolated from rats and adult males. The retinol isotope dilution (RID) test can sensitively characterize VA status and intake requirements. OBJECTIVES: These studies evaluated current EARs for children 4-8 y and women 19-30 y old. METHODS: Zambian children (n = 133, ages 5-7 y), US women (n = 51, ages 19-27 y), and Indonesian women (n = 29, ages 19-30 y) were provided diets or supplements containing 30%-155% of VA EARs for 42-90 d. RID was performed before and after the intervention to quantify changes in total body VA stores (TBSs) and total liver VA reserves (TLRs). Linear regression was performed between VA intake and change in TBSs or TLRs. RESULTS: Baseline mean ± SD TLRs were hypervitaminotic in Zambian children (1.13 ± 0.41 µmol VA/g liver), optimal in US women (0.46 ± 0.32 µmol/g VA/g liver), and deficient to marginal in Indonesian women (0.10 ± 0.08 µmol VA/g liver). VA intakes, resulting in no change in TBSs or TLRs, were 185 (95% CI: 18, 288) or 257 (95% CI: 124, 411) and 285 or 330 (CIs undefined) µg retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/d in the Zambian and US trials, respectively, but inconclusive in Indonesian women. The regression was not significant in either group of women. CONCLUSIONS: Point estimates of VA intakes to maintain stores were below the current EARs of 275 (children) and 500 (women) µg RAE/d despite the TLRs being higher than the EARs were formulated to maintain (i.e., 0.07 µmol VA/g liver). Interventions based on these EARs may need to be scaled back. Lack of change in VA stores in women taking lower doses may result from physiological adaptation resulting in lower VA utilization. Longer, larger, and controlled studies are needed to accurately define EARs for VA.These trials were registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04123210 and NCT01814891.


Assuntos
Necessidades Nutricionais , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Estados Unidos , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 915-927, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162081

RESUMO

The effectiveness of using serum vitamin concentrations as biomarkers to predict diseases in dairy cows during the periparturient period is not well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between serum ß-carotene, retinol, and α-tocopherol concentrations and periparturient cow diseases in commercial dairies. We measured serum concentrations of these vitamin-active compounds at dry-off and during close-up (approximately 3 wk before calving) and early lactation (approximately 7 d post-calving), and we examined their association with clinical diseases in the first 30 d in milk. Diseases were diagnosed by trained personnel and recorded using database software. Blood samples were taken from 353 cows from 5 different farms over a 3-yr period. Blood samples were analyzed for ß-carotene, retinol, α-tocopherol, and cholesterol. We built separate mixed logistic regression models for each disease outcome: hyperketonuria, lameness, mastitis, uterine diseases (retained placenta or metritis), and an aggregate outcome. For the aggregate outcome, a cow was considered positive if she had one or more of the following: hyperketonuria, lameness, mastitis, uterine disease, pneumonia, milk fever, or displaced abomasum. Concentrations of all 3 fat-soluble vitamins decreased significantly in early lactation relative to the 2 prepartum sampling times. Serum retinol concentrations at close-up and early lactation were negatively associated with odds of developing postpartum hyperketonuria. At early lactation, cows with uterine disease had lower serum retinol concentrations than cows without uterine disease. Similarly, lower serum retinol concentrations were associated with greater odds of having any one disease in the aggregate outcome. First-test 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield was positively correlated with increased serum α-tocopherol and negatively correlated with ß-carotene concentrations. This study demonstrates the potential for serum ß-carotene, retinol, and α-tocopherol to serve as biomarkers for disease risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Leite , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , beta Caroteno/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Lactação , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
18.
J Nutr ; 151(1): 255-263, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) affects ∼19 million pregnant women worldwide. The extent of VAD in Zambian women of reproductive age is unknown owing to lack of survey inclusion or the use of static serum retinol concentrations, a low-sensitivity biomarker. OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study employed isotopic techniques to determine VA status with serum and milk among women aged 18-49 y (n = 197) either lactating with infants aged 0-24 mo or nonlactating with or without infants. METHODS: Assistants were trained and piloted data collection. Demographic data, anthropometry, and relevant histories were obtained including malaria and anemia. For retinol isotope dilution (RID), baseline fasting blood and casual breast milk samples were collected before administration of 2.0 µmol 13C2-retinyl acetate and 24-h dietary recalls. On day 14, blood (n = 144) and milk (n = 66) were collected. Prevalence of total liver VA reserves (TLR) ≤0.10 µmol/g was defined as VAD with comparison to the DRI assumption of 0.07 µmol/g as minimally acceptable for North Americans. RESULTS: When a 20% adjustment for dose lost to milk was made in the RID equation for lactation, mean total body VA stores (TBS) for lactating women were 25% lower than for nonlactating women (P < 0.01), which was not the case without adjustment (P = 0.3). Mean ± SD TLR for all women were 0.15 ± 0.11 µmol/g liver. Using retinol purified from breast milk instead of serum for RID analysis yielded similar TBS and TLR, which were highly correlated between methods (P < 0.0001). Serum retinol ≤0.70 µmol/L had 0% sensitivity using either VAD liver cutoff and milk retinol ≤1.0 µmol/L had 42% sensitivity for VAD at 0.10 µmol/g. CONCLUSIONS: Determining accurate VA status among women of reproductive age, especially lactating women, forms a basis for extrapolation to the general population and informing policy development and program implementation.


Assuntos
Leite Humano/química , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina A/química , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Isótopos de Carbono , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(5): 2383-2390, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: OA is the most common form of arthritis worldwide and has a major impact on the quality of life among the older population. This study aimed at determining the potential causal effects of several serum nutritional factors on OA. METHODS: A total of seven serum nutritional factors were identified from genome-wide association studies. Summary statistics for OA were obtained from UK Biobank (194 153 for women and 166 988 for men) and a large genome-wide association studies meta-analysis based on the European population (455 221, 393 873 and 403 124 for overall, hip and knee OA, respectively). Two-sample Mendelian randomization approach was used to estimate the causal association between the selected nutritional factors and the risk of OA. RESULTS: The Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that serum calcium levels were inversely associated with overall OA (95% CI, 0.595, 0.850), hip OA (95% CI, 0.352, 0.799) and knee OA (95% CI, 0.461, 0.901). Serum retinol levels were also inversely associated with hip OA (95% CI, 0.257, 0.778). Moreover, sex-specific associations were observed between serum calcium levels (95% CI, 0.936, 0.998), iron levels (95% CI, 1.000, 1.012), selenium levels (95% CI, 0.923, 0.999) and OA in women. CONCLUSION: In this study, an inverse causal association between serum calcium levels and OA was established. Serum retinol levels were inversely associated with hip OA. In addition, we provide evidence for the causal effect of serum calcium, iron and selenium on the risk of OA in women.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Ferro/sangue , Osteoartrite/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 43(2): 151-163, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052059

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency triggers many diseases and is a worldwide nutrition problem. The Retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is an indicator of VA storage function, and the relationship between LRAT and blood pressure level and the regulation mechanism will be elucidated. METHODS: 160 children aged 6-12 years were included, and the serum VA and, the transcription levels of LRAT and RARs, were measured. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and WKY rats were treated with VA deficiency (VAD) or normal (VAN) fodder for 20 weeks. LRAT, retinoic acid, renin angiotensin system (RAS) biomarkers, and the structure and function of the heart for SHRs were measured. RESULTS: The serum retinol and serum retinol/BMI levels were lower in children in the low LRAT group (LRAT

Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Hipertensão , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Vitamina A , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina A/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina A/terapia , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/farmacologia
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