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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of bone health in the group of women over 40 years old. Lifestyle factors such as past and present physical activity, past and present sun exposure, current dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, nutritional status as measured by BMI, family history of osteoporosis and current hormonal status were analysed. METHODS: The study involved 500 women over 40 years old. All examined women was the same ethnicity- European origin. Methods used: densitometry method (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, nutrition questionnaire, past and present sun exposure questionnaire. Past and present physical activity, past and present sun exposure and sufficient level of calcium in the diet proved to be the most important factors determining mineralization of bone tissue of women. In order to indicate an independent association of the correct bone tissue mineralization with individual factors, multivariate analysis was used-logistic regression. RESULTS: The norm BMD in the distal part of the forearm was strongly influenced: recommended dietary calcium intake (OR = 5.95; p = 0.003), moderately (OR = 1.88; p = 0.053) and high (OR = 14.0; p<0.001) past physical activity, sufficient (OR = 4.97; p<0.001) and high (OR = 18.9; p = 0.004) level of present physical activity, sufficient past (OR = 5.15; p<0.001) and sufficient present sun exposure (OR = 10.0; p<0.001). The chance for the BMD prox norm was also increased several times: high past physical activity (OR = 68.4; p<0.0001) and sufficient past sun exposure (OR = 10.6; p<0.001), moderate past activity (OR = 4.20; p<0.001), sufficient (OR = 6.13; p<0.001) and high (OR = 10.0; p<0.001) present physical activity, sufficient present sun exposure (OR = 9.09; p<0.0001), recommended intake of calcium (OR = 9.57; p<0.001) and vitamin D (OR = 2.68; p = 0.052). Whereas e significantly lower likelihood for the BMD prox norm was found in women with the oldest hormonal status (postmenopausal period) (OR = 0.18; p<0.001), with osteoporosis in the family (OR = 0.37; p<0.001) and living in an agglomeration (OR = 0.68; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Interventions to increase physical activity, especially outdoors, may help reduce risk of osteoporosis, fractures and subsequent healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Exercício Físico , Estado Nutricional , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Luz Solar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Vitamina D/farmacologia
2.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 261-264, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981283

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of liraglutide combined with vitamin D on high-fat-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mice and its potential mechanism. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were divided into control group, NAFLD model group, liraglutide group, vitamin D group and liraglutide combined with vitamin D group. Each group consisted of 10 mice. The control group was fed with normal diet for 12 weeks; the model group was fed with high-fat diet for 12 weeks; the liraglutide group, vitamin D group and combined group were fed with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, From the 9th week, the three groups of mice were intraperitoneally injected with liraglutide (0.6 mg/kg), vitamin D(250 mg/(kg·d) ) by gavage, and combination. After 12 weeks of feeding, the blood and liver tissues of mice in each group were collected for biochemical and pathological examination, and the phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver tissues of mice in each group was detected by immunoblotting. Results: Liraglutide or vitamin D alone or in combination could improve liver lipid accumulation (triglycerides: 6.0±0.7 vs 3.8±0.3, 3.9±0.3 and 2.1±0.2, all P<0.05; cholesterol: 1.4±0.5 vs 0.9±0.2, 0.8±0.2 and 0.5±0.1, all P<0.05) and steatosis (NAFLD activity score: 2.4±0.3 vs 1.0±0.2, 0.9±0.1 and 0.6±0.1, all P<0.05) in NAFLD mice. In addition, compared with liraglutide or vitamin D group, liraglutide combined with vitamin D treatment was more effective, and might be related to the regulation of insulin resistance and AMPK phosphorylation. Conclusion: The results showed that vitamin D could enhance the therapeutic effect of liraglutide on NAFLD induced by high fat, and may be related to the regulation of insulin resistance and AMPK phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Liraglutida , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Vitamina D , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 227-253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918222

RESUMO

Exposure of skin cells to UV radiation results in DNA damage, which if inadequately repaired, may cause mutations. UV-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species also cause local and systemic suppression of the adaptive immune system. Together, these changes underpin the development of skin tumours. The hormone derived from vitamin D, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and other related compounds, working via the vitamin D receptor and at least in part through endoplasmic reticulum protein 57 (ERp57), reduce cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and oxidative DNA damage in keratinocytes and other skin cell types after UV. Calcitriol and related compounds enhance DNA repair in keratinocytes, in part through decreased reactive oxygen species, increased p53 expression and/or activation, increased repair proteins and increased energy availability in the cell when calcitriol is present after UV exposure. There is mitochondrial damage in keratinocytes after UV. In the presence of calcitriol, but not vehicle, glycolysis is increased after UV, along with increased energy-conserving autophagy and changes consistent with enhanced mitophagy. Reduced DNA damage and reduced ROS/RNS should help reduce UV-induced immune suppression. Reduced UV immune suppression is observed after topical treatment with calcitriol and related compounds in hairless mice. These protective effects of calcitriol and related compounds presumably contribute to the observed reduction in skin tumour formation in mice after chronic exposure to UV followed by topical post-irradiation treatment with calcitriol and some, though not all, related compounds.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Animais , Calcitriol/química , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Humanos , Vitamina D/química , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 257-283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918223

RESUMO

Nonmelanoma skin cancers including basal and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and BCC) represent a significant clinical problem due to their relatively high incidence, imposing an economic burden to healthcare systems around the world. It is accepted that ultraviolet radiation (UVR: λ = 290-400 nm) plays a crucial role in the initiation and promotion of BCC and SCC with UVB (λ = 290-320 nm) having a central role in this process. On the other hand, UVB is required for vitamin D3 (D3) production in the skin, which supplies >90% of the body's requirement for this prohormone. Prolonged exposure to UVB can also generate tachysterol and lumisterol. Vitamin D3 itself and its canonical (1,25(OH)2D3) and noncanonical (CYP11A1-intitated) D3 hydroxyderivatives show photoprotective functions in the skin. These include regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, induction of anti-oxidative responses, inhibition of DNA damage and induction of DNA repair mechanisms, and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies in animals have demonstrated that D3 hydroxyderivatives can attenuate UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancerogenesis and inhibit growth of SCC and BCC. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms of action have been suggested. In addition, vitamin D3 itself inhibits hedgehog signaling pathways which have been implicated in many cancers. Silencing of the vitamin D receptor leads to increased propensity to develop UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancers. Other targets for vitamin D compounds include 1,25D3-MARRS, retinoic orphan receptors α and γ, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and Wnt signaling. Most recently, photoprotective effects of lumisterol hydroxyderivatives have been identified. Clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial role of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of actinic keratosis. In summary, recent advances in vitamin D biology and pharmacology open new exciting opportunities in chemoprevention and treatment of skin cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/química , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(10): 2115-2131, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel human-infecting coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, had emerged. The WHO has classified the epidemic as a "public health emergency of international concern". A dramatic situation has unfolded with thousands of deaths, occurring mainly in the aged and very ill people. Epidemiological studies suggest that immune system function is impaired in elderly individuals and these subjects often present a deficiency in fat-soluble and hydrosoluble vitamins. METHODS: We searched for reviews describing the characteristics of autoimmune diseases and the available therapeutic protocols for their treatment. We set them as a paradigm with the purpose to uncover common pathogenetic mechanisms between these pathological conditions and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we searched for studies describing the possible efficacy of vitamins A, D, E, and C in improving the immune system function. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces strong immune system dysfunction characterized by the development of an intense proinflammatory response in the host, and the development of a life-threatening condition defined as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). This leads to acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), mainly in aged people. High mortality and lethality rates have been observed in elderly subjects with CoV-2-related infection. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamins may shift the proinflammatory Th17-mediated immune response arising in autoimmune diseases towards a T-cell regulatory phenotype. This review discusses the possible activity of vitamins A, D, E, and C in restoring normal antiviral immune system function and the potential therapeutic role of these micronutrients as part of a therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/imunologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Ácido Ascórbico/imunologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Vitamina A/imunologia , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/imunologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/farmacologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and its effect on adverse clinical outcomes, and parameters of immune function and mortality due to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: The hospital data of 235 patients infected with COVID-19 were analyzed. RESULTS: Based on CDC criteria, among our study patients, 74% had severe COVID-19 infection and 32.8% were vitamin D sufficient. After adjusting for confounding factors, there was a significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity, inpatient mortality serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and an increase in lymphocyte percentage. Only 9.7% of patients older than 40 years who were vitamin D sufficient succumbed to the infection compared to 20% who had a circulating level of 25(OH)D< 30 ng/ml. The significant reduction in serum CRP, an inflammatory marker, along with increased lymphocytes percentage suggest that vitamin D sufficiency also may help modulate the immune response possibly by reducing risk for cytokine storm in response to this viral infection. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is recommended that improving vitamin D status in the general population and in particular hospitalized patients has a potential benefit in reducing the severity of morbidities and mortality associated with acquiring COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Irã (Geográfico) , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/normas
7.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(10): 781-783, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796238

RESUMO

A 7-year-old boy presented with diffuse bone pain. FDG PET/CT was performed to find the possible underlying malignant cause of hypercalcemia. The images demonstrated multiple foci of abnormal FDG activity at the sites of periosteal reaction. In addition, calcium deposit was noted in the basal ganglia, stomach, and the colon. History taking revealed that the patient had routinely taken an over-the-counter "supplement" that contains a high dose of vitamin D. One week after calcitonin therapy and stopping the supplement, the patient became symptom free. This case suggests that hypervitaminosis D might cause hypermetabolic periosteal reaction on FDG PET/CT imaging.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Transtornos Nutricionais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Osteogênese , Periósteo/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Artefatos , Transporte Biológico , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Nutricionais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Periósteo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/farmacologia
8.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(4): 338-341, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736832

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome caused by a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 named COVID-19 and declared as a pandemic. This paper reviews the possibility of repurposing angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonists and vitamin D to treat COVID-19. ACE2 protein found on the cell membranes is the target of SARS-CoV-2 for entering into the host cells. Viral spike protein-binding with ACE2 down-regulates it. As ACE2 is known to protect the lung from injuries, SARS-CoV-2-induced ACE2 deficiency may expose patients to lung damage. AT1R antagonists and vitamin D increase the expression of ACE2 independently. Besides, vitamin D suppresses the compensatory increase in renin levels following the inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system by AT1R antagonists. Therefore, a combination of AT1R antagonists and vitamin D may offer protection against COVID-19 induced lung injury.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Internalização do Vírus , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
9.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 322, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847594

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. As of May 18, 2020, there have been more than 4.7 million cases and over 316,000 deaths worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by a highly infectious novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to an acute infectious disease with mild-to-severe clinical symptoms such as flu-like symptoms, fever, headache, dry cough, muscle pain, loss of smell and taste, increased shortness of breath, bilateral viral pneumonia, conjunctivitis, acute respiratory distress syndromes, respiratory failure, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), sepsis, etc. While physicians and scientists have yet to discover a treatment, it is imperative that we urgently address 2 questions: how to prevent infection in immunologically naive individuals and how to treat severe symptoms such as CRS, acute respiratory failure, and the loss of somatosensation. Previous studies from the 1918 influenza pandemic have suggested vitamin D's non-classical role in reducing lethal pneumonia and case fatality rates. Recent clinical trials also reported that vitamin D supplementation can reduce incidence of acute respiratory infection and the severity of respiratory tract diseases in adults and children. According to our literature search, there are no similar findings of clinical trials that have been published as of July 1st, 2020, in relation to the supplementation of vitamin D in the potential prevention and treatment for COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the potential role of vitamin D extra-renal metabolism in the prevention and treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, helping to bring us slightly closer to fulfilling that goal. We will focus on 3 major topics here: 1. Vitamin D might aid in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection: Vitamin D: Overview of Renal and Extra-renal metabolism and regulation. Vitamin D: Overview of molecular mechanism and multifaceted functions beyond skeletal homeostasis. Vitamin D: Overview of local immunomodulation in human infectious diseases. Anti-viral infection. Anti-malaria and anti-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 2. Vitamin D might act as a strong immunosuppressant inhibiting cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19: Vitamin D: Suppression of key pro-inflammatory pathways including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). 3. Vitamin D might prevent loss of neural sensation in COVID-19 by stimulating expression of neurotrophins like Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Vitamin D: Induction of key neurotrophic factors. .


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/virologia
11.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 202: 105723, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603782

RESUMO

Vitamin D (VitD) has an anti-fibrotic effect on fibrotic lungs. It reduces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) on tumors. We aimed to investigate target proteins of VitD for the regression of EMT-mediated myofibroblast differentiation. A group of A549 cells were treated with 5 % cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and 5 %CSE + TGF-ß (5 ng/ml) to induce EMT. The others were treated with 50 nM VitD 30 min before %5CSE and TGF-ß treatments. All cells were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h following 5 %CSE and TGF-ß administrations. The expression of p120ctn and NEDD9 proteins acted on E-cadherin turnover in addition to activations of TGF-ß and Wnt pathways were examined in these cells and fibrotic human lungs. CSE and TGF-ß induced EMT by reducing E-cadherin, p-VDR, SMAD7 and DKK1, increasing α-SMA, p120ctn, Kaiso, NEDD9 and stimulating TGF-ß and Wnt/ß-catenin signalings in A549 cells. VitD administration reversed these alterations and regressed EMT. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed p-VDR interaction with ß-catenin and Kaiso in fibrotic and non-fibrotic human lungs. VitD pre-treatments reduced TGF-ß and Wnt/ß-catenin signalings by increasing p-VDR, protected from E-cadherin degradation and led to the regression of EMT in A549 cells treated with CSE and TGF-ß. Finally, VitD supplementation combined with anti-fibrotic therapeutics can be suggested for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, which may be developed by smoking, in cases of VitD deficiency.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fumaça , Produtos do Tabaco , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Diferenciação Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Fibrose Pulmonar , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo
13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(9): 1879-1881, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705585

RESUMO

In the search for factors affecting incidence and lethality of the current COVID-19 pandemic, recent association studies explored the possible role of vitamin D deficiency. Altogether, these studies, in most cases based on cross-sectional analyses, could not yet provide a convincing demonstration of a cause-effect relationship. In this editorial, the authors describe the scientific evidence underlying a possible role of vitamin D in the prevention and development of the pandemic, considering its immunomodulatory role and antiviral effects. They conclude that further studies are needed to (1) better explore possible associations between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 morbidity and lethality, and (2) assess if compensating such deficiency could avoid or mitigate the worst manifestations of COVID-19. They highlight the need for public health campaigns to promote consumption of vitamin D-rich foods and proper sunlight exposition or, when this is not possible, controlled pharmaceutical supplementation, especially in countries with high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(10): 1373-1380, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605780

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis. Little is known about the protective factors of this infection. Therefore, preventive health measures that can reduce the risk of infection, progression and severity are desperately needed. This review discussed the possible roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 and other acute respiratory tract infections and severity. Moreover, this study determined the correlation of vitamin D levels with COVID-19 cases and deaths in 20 European countries as of 20 May 2020. A significant negative correlation (p=0.033) has been observed between mean vitamin D levels and COVID-19 cases per one million population in European countries. However, the correlation of vitamin D with COVID-19 deaths of these countries was not significant. Some retrospective studies demonstrated a correlation between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity and mortality, while other studies did not find the correlation when confounding variables are adjusted. Several studies demonstrated the role of vitamin D in reducing the risk of acute viral respiratory tract infections and pneumonia. These include direct inhibition with viral replication or with anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory ways. In the meta-analysis, vitamin D supplementation has been shown as safe and effective against acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, people who are at higher risk of vitamin D deficiency during this global pandemic should consider taking vitamin D supplements to maintain the circulating 25(OH)D in the optimal levels (75-125nmol/L). In conclusion, there is not enough evidence on the association between vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity and mortality. Therefore, randomized control trials and cohort studies are necessary to test this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidade do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
15.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(2): G253-G260, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628073

RESUMO

25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-3ß-glucuronic acid (25OHD-Gluc) is produced in the liver and is a constituent of human blood and bile. Bacterial glucuronidases (GUS) in mammalian digestive microbiota cleave glucuronide conjugates, such as 25OHD-Gluc, and release the free aglycone (i.e., 25OHD) inside the intestinal lumen. We hypothesized that 25OHD-Gluc would elicit a VDR-dependent mRNA response in the colon after cleavage by gut microbiota. The activity of 25OHD-Gluc was investigated by measuring expression of cytochrome P450 24A1 (Cyp24) mRNA both in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, Caco2 cells responded to 25OHD-Gluc, whereas HT29 cells did not. When coincubated with GUS, both cell lines elicited a robust response as indicated by a 5 Ct (32-fold) increase in Cyp24 mRNA. In vitamin D-sufficient mice, we found that both oral and subcutaneous administration of 1 nmol 25OHD-Gluc induced expression of Cyp24 mRNA in the colon whereas 25OHD did not. In contrast, 25OHD, but not 25OHD-Gluc, was active in the duodenum. When the jejunum was surgically ligated to block flow of digesta to the colon, neither oral nor subcutaneous administration of 2 nmol 25OHD-Gluc was able to induce expression of Cyp24 in the colon. Our findings suggest that 25OHD-Gluc, a vitamin D metabolite found in bile, induces VDR-mediated responses in the colon by crossing the apical membrane of the colon epithelium.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that 25OHD-Gluc, an endogenously produced metabolite, is delivered to the colon via bile to induce vitamin D-mediated responses in the colon.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Glucuronídeos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vitamina D/química , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia
16.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(6): 848-858, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In anti-osteoporosis drug trials, vitamin D and calcium (Ca) are common supplements; however, the optimal dose of each is unclear. Using data from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled DIRECT trial, we assessed whether baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) level influences the efficacy of denosumab co-administered with vitamin D and Ca. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prespecified sub-analysis, subjects with primary osteoporosis who received denosumab or placebo, plus vitamin D (≥ 400 IU/day) and Ca (≥ 600 mg/day), were classified as 25(OH)D deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (≥ 20 to < 30 ng/mL), and sufficient (≥ 30 ng/mL). Study endpoints included absolute serum 25(OH)D level at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months; change in serum 25(OH)D and bone mineral density (BMD) status from baseline; and incidence of new vertebral fractures at 24 months. RESULTS: In 475 denosumab-treated and 481 placebo-treated subjects, proportions with deficient/insufficient/sufficient 25(OH)D at baseline were 53.1%/37.1%/9.9% and 50.9%/42.0%/7.1%, respectively. Supplementation significantly increased mean serum 25(OH)D levels; at 24 months, mean levels were > 30 ng/mL (sufficient) in both treatment groups. Increase in BMD over time was higher in the denosumab group vs. placebo group in all three vitamin D status groups. At month 24, denosumab-treated subjects with deficient/insufficient baseline 25(OH)D had a significantly lower risk of new vertebral fracture vs. placebo-treated subjects. CONCLUSION: Among DIRECT trial subjects supplemented with ≥ 400 IU/day of vitamin D and ≥ 600 mg/day of Ca, baseline 25(OH)D sufficiency may not influence the efficacy of denosumab in increasing BMD or preventing vertebral fractures.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Denosumab/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/farmacologia , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Denosumab/farmacologia , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/sangue , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/farmacologia
17.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(6): 859-867, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Older people aged over 75 are more prone to falls because physical functions become deteriorated along with aging, and also fracture risk is strongly correlated with age. We evaluated the effects of anti-osteoporosis agents, eldecalcitol (ELD) and alendronate (ALN) on physical functions by assessing dynamic and static postural balance in aged patients with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial has been conducted with 124 female patients aged 65 or over with osteoporosis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 0.75 µg of ELD once-a-day or 35 mg of ALN once-a-week for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in a postural balance index, adjusted composite equilibrium score (CES) of sensory organization test (SOT). The SOT equilibrium scores, leg muscle strength, and other physical functions were also evaluated. RESULTS: The Adjusted CES increased from baseline by 6.10% in the ELD group and 6.28% in the ALN group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The static postural balance at fixed platform were maintained in the ELD group, but declined in the ALN group. The dynamic postural balance at swaying platform and knee extension power increased from baseline in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ELD and ALN treatments may each be beneficial to improve postural balance control in older patients with osteoporosis via different mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alendronato/efeitos adversos , Alendronato/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Equilíbrio Postural/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525368

RESUMO

The study discusses the possible role of adequate vitamin D status in plasma or serum for preventing acute respiratory infections during the Covid-19 pandemic. Our arguments respond to an article, published in Italy, that describes the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in older Italian women and raises the possible preventive and therapeutic role of optimal vitamin D levels. Based on literature review, we highlight the findings regarding the protective role of vitamin D for infectious diseases of the respiratory system. However, randomized controlled trials are currently lacking. Adequate vitamin D status is obtained from sun exposure and foods rich in vitamin D. Studies in Brazil have shown that hypovitaminosis D is quite common in spite of high insolation. Authors recommend ecological, epidemiological and randomized controlled trials studies to verify this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
19.
Saudi Med J ; 41(6): 597-601, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess bone mineral density (BMD) of children with short stature using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and compare it to children with normal height. Methods: We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional controlled study between May 2018 and February 2019 at various pediatric clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In total, 219 children were included: 100 had short stature, and 119 were of normal height. Data were collected from one-on-one interviews, and BMD was measured using quantitative ultrasound. Results: Children with short stature had significantly lower BMD z-scores than children with normal height (pless than 0.05). The use of vitamin D supplements was related to higher BMD z-scores in children with short stature (p less than 0.05). A significant association was found between higher BMD z-scores, and both age (p=0.05) and height (p=0.02). Through a further division of children with short stature into those with and those without growth hormone deficiencies, we show that growth hormone deficiency was positively associated with lower BMD z-scores; however, the p-value was 0.06. Conclusions: Compared with children of normal height, those with short stature had lower BMD. Height, vitamin D supplementation, and age were all significantly correlated with higher BMD, while growth hormone deficiency was correlated with lower BMD.


Assuntos
Estatura , Densidade Óssea , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/farmacologia
20.
Adv Gerontol ; 33(2): 360-366, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593253

RESUMO

The aim of the work was to assess the dynamics of ultrasound parameters of renal blood flow in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)and initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during treatment with inactive vitamin D. The study included 264 patients with COPD of 2-4 degrees of severity in combination with CKD of 1-2 stages: 135 patients of the main group and 129 patients of the control group. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to the value of FEV1 and vitamin D level. In the main group, the native vitamin D was prescribed according to the scheme providing maintenance of vitamin D level >34,3 ng/ml during the year, in the control group - according to the recommendations of the Russian Association of Endocrinologists. An ultrasound of the kidneys with the calculation of the resistance index (RI) and albuminuria level were carried out in all patients at inclusion into the study and after its completion. A decrease in the severity of albuminuria from A3 to A2 was revealed in 24,1% (16), and an increase in GFR - in 42,9% (58) patients of all patients in the main group. A statistically significant decrease in the renal artery resistance index was recorded in the group of patients with moderate COPD (GOLD 2) and vitamin D deficiency in the main group (p<0,05). The maintaining of vitamin D levels more than 34,3 ng/ml over 12 months in patients with COPD in combination with CKD stage 1-2 was associated with a decrease in the severity of albuminuria, with an increase in GFR, and statistically significant decrease of resistance index in renal arteries of patients with moderate clinical course of COPD (GOLD 2) and lack of vitamin D.


Assuntos
Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Federação Russa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia
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