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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e20841, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide reliable estimates for dietary antioxidant vitamin (vitamins A, C, and E) intake and their effect on fracture risk at various sites. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify prospective cohort studies published throughout October 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 13 prospective cohort studies involving 384,464 individuals were selected for this meta-analysis. The summary RR indicated that increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98; P = .015). When stratified by the vitamin types, increased vitamin E intake was found to be associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95; P = .025), whereas increased vitamin A and C intake did not affect this risk. Increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk, irrespective of fracture sites (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94; P < .001); however, it did not affect hip fracture risk. Furthermore, increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk in men (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96; P = .017) and combined men and women (RR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.93; P = .002); however, it did not affect fracture risk in women. CONCLUSION: Fracture risk at any site is significantly reduced with increased antioxidant vitamin intake, especially vitamin E intake and in men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009422, 2020 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended for people with cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and also searched international online trial registries for any ongoing clinical trials that were not identified during our register search. Date of last search of the Register: 11 August 2020. Date of last search of international online trial registries: 20 July 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any preparation of vitamin E supplementation to placebo or no supplement, regardless of dosage or duration. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors extracted outcome data from each study (published information) and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. They assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Four studies with a total of 141 participants were included in the review, two of these were in children (aged six months to 14.5 years), and two did not specify participants' age. All studies used different formulations and doses of vitamin E for various durations of treatment (10 days to six months). Two studies compared the supplementation of fat-soluble as well as water-soluble formulations to no supplementation in different arms of the same study. A third study compared a water-soluble formulation to a placebo; and in the fourth study a fat-soluble formulation of vitamin E was assessed against placebo. There was limited detail about randomisation and blinding in the included studies which compromises the quality of the evidence base for the review. The heterogeneous mix of the formulations with differing biovailabilities among these studies also limits the generalisability of the data to the wider cystic fibrosis population. None of the studies in either comparison report the review's primary outcomes of vitamin E total lipid ratio or the incidence of vitamin E-specific deficiency disorders, or the secondary outcomes lung function or quality of life. Water-soluble vitamin E Water-soluble vitamin E may improve serum vitamin E levels compared with control at six months, one study (45 participants), mean difference (MD) 19.74 umol/L (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.48 to 26.00) (low-quality evidence). Similar results were also seen at one month, two studies (32 participants), MD 17.66 umol/L (95% CI 10.59 to 24.74) and at three months, one study (45 participants), MD 11.61 umol/L (95% CI 4.77 to 18.45). Only one study (45 participants) reported weight (secondary outcome of growth and nutritional status) at one and six months, but showed no difference between treatment and control at either time point. Fat-soluble vitamin E Two studies (36 participants) reported higher levels of serum vitamin E at one month with fat-soluble vitamin E compared with control, MD 13.59 umol/L (95% CI 9.52 to 17.66); however, at three months one study (36 participants) showed no difference between treatment and control. No studies in this comparison reported on growth or nutritional status. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E supplementation may lead to an improvement in vitamin E levels in people with cystic fibrosis, although evidence we assessed was low quality. No data on other outcomes of interest were available to allow conclusions about any other benefits of this therapy. In future, larger studies are needed, especially in people already being treated with enteric-coated pancreatic enzymes and supplemented with vitamin E, to look at more specific outcome measures such as vitamin E status, lung function and nutritional status. Future studies could also look at the optimal dose of vitamin E required to achieve maximal clinical effectiveness.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina E/sangue , Vitamina E/química , Deficiência de Vitamina E/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/química , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
3.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 174, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548786

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a foremost type of cancer problem in which asialoglycoprotein receptors are overexpressed. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptor-targeted nanoformulation (galactose-conjugated TPGS micelles) loaded with docetaxel (DTX) was developed to achieve its site-specific delivery for HCC therapy. The pharmaceutical characteristics like shape morphology, average particle size and zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release kinetics of developed system were evaluated. DTX-loaded galactosylated TPGS (DTX-TPGS-Gal) micelles and TPGS micelles (DTX-TPGS) were having 58.76 ± 1.82% and 54.76 ± 1.42% entrapment of the DTX, respectively. In vitro drug release behavior from micelles was controlled release. Cytotoxicitiy (IC50) of DTX-TPGS-Gal formulation on HepG2 cell lines was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower (6.3 ± 0.86 µg/ml) than DTX-TPGS (9.06 ± 0.82 µg/ml) and plain DTX (16.06 ± 0.98 µg/ml) indicating higher efficacy of targeted formulation. Further, in vivo biodistribution studies in animal model showed maximum drug accumulation at target site, i.e., the liver in the case of DTX-TPGS-Gal as compared with non-targeted one. It is concluded from the findings that TPGS-Gal micelles can be utilized for targeted drug delivery of cytotoxic drugs towards HCC with minimized side effects. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Docetaxel/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Galactose/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Vitamina E/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Galactose/administração & dosagem , Galactose/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/farmacocinética
4.
Mutat Res ; 850-851: 503150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247559

RESUMO

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields have been classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and this has raised some concern about its health effects on employees extensively exposed to these fields at thermal power plants. In this study, the effect of using vitamin E and C supplements have been examined on employees working at a thermal power plant. In this randomized controlled, double-blind clinical trial, 81 employees from different parts of the thermal power plant were enrolled between July and November 2017, and divided into four groups: Group 1 received vitamin E (400 units/day), Group 2: vitamin C (1000 mg/day), Group 3: vitamin E + C and Group 4: no intervention. DNA damage was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes using comet assay and apoptosis, using flow cytometry. Based on the results, tail intensity and tail length in the vitamin E group, and all comet assay indices in the vitamin E + C and vitamin C groups (except DNA damage index) significantly decreased after the intervention, while the comet assay indices did not change significantly in the control group. None of the flow cytometry indices including early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis changed after intervention in either group. The use of antioxidant vitamins such as E and C, can increase the activity of the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system, and protect DNA from damage caused by exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. But, taking these vitamins has no effect on apoptosis. It seems that consumption of vitamin E affected all investigated comet assay indices and can be probably considered as the best intervention.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/patologia , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Centrais Elétricas
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 278-288, abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056435

RESUMO

This experiment was designed to study the effects of oral administration of artemether which is the most rapid-acting class of antimalarial drugs and the possible protective effect of vitamin E taken with it on the liver of albino rats. A total of twenty-four adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups. Group one served as a control and rats in group two exposed to oral intake of artemether daily for fifteen days. The third and fourth groups treated with artemether plus low and high doses of vitamin E respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed, and the livers were obtained and processed for histological, biochemical and statistical studies. Histological study of the hepatocytes of rats exposed to artemether showed nearly complete disintegration of most cellular contents except few numbers of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Also, the cytoplasm of these cells had few lysosomes, many vacuoles and irregular nuclei with abnormal distribution of chromatin and were shown. The hepatic sinusoids were dilated and filled with blood and vacuoles and bile ductules were abnormal in its structure. Treatment with low and high doses of vitamin E in concomitant with artemether ameliorated the hepatic histopathological lesions and its parenchyma attained nearly normal structure. As far as biochemical changes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in rats treated with artemether were significantly elevated as compared to the control. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in the liver in rats treated with artemether. However, vitamin E ameliorated the rise in ALT and AST with decreased MDA concentration and levels of SOD as compared to the corresponding artemether group values. Results of the present suggest that artemether has a harmful and stressful effect on hepatic tissue and the treatment with vitamin E may alleviate this toxicity.


Este experimento fue diseñado para estudiar los efectos de la administración oral de arteméter, la clase de medicamentos antipalúdicos de acción rápida, y el posible efecto protector de la vitamina E en el hígado de ratas albinas. Se utilizaron un total de 24 ratas albinas machos adultas y se dividieron en cuatro grupos. El grupo uno sirvió como control y las ratas en el grupo dos recibieron la dosis oral de arteméter diariamente durante 15 días. Los grupos tres y cuatro fueron tratados con arteméter, más dosis bajas y altas de vitamina E, respectivamente. Al final del experimento, se sacrificaron las ratas y se obtuvieron y procesaron los hígados para estudios histológicos, bioquímicos y estadísticos. El estudio histológico de los hepatocitos de ratas expuestas a arteméter mostró una desintegración casi completa de la mayoría de los contenidos celulares, excepto algunos mitocondrias y retículo endoplásmico rugoso. Además, el citoplasma de estas células tenía pocos lisosomas, muchas vacuolas y núcleos irregulares con distribución anormal de cromatina. Los sinusoides hepáticos estaban dilatados y llenos de sangre y vacuolas, y los conductos biliares tenían una estructura anormal. El tratamiento con dosis bajas y altas de vitamina E en forma concomitante con arteméter mejoró las lesiones histopatológicas hepáticas y su parénquima alcanzó una estructura casi normal. En cuanto a los cambios bioquímicos, la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y la aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) en ratas tratadas con arteméter se elevaron significativamente en comparación con el control. Los niveles de superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y malondialdehído (MDA) aumentaron significativamente en el hígado en ratas tratadas con arteméter. Sin embargo, la vitamina E mejoró el aumento de ALT y AST con una disminución de la concentración de MDA y los niveles de SOD en comparación con los valores correspondientes del grupo de arteméter. Los resultados del presente estudio sugieren que el arteméter tiene un efecto dañino y estresante sobre el tejido hepático y el tratamiento con vitamina E puede aliviar esta toxicidad.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Artemisininas/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimaláricos/toxicidade
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 461-471, abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056463

RESUMO

This experiment was designed to study the administration of normal doses of one of recent antimalarial drug and coadministration of vitamin E on the kidney tissue. A total twenty-four adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups: the first one served as a control, the second received artemether orally for three days consecutively. The rats of the third and fourth groups received the same dose of artemether concomitantly with 50 and 100 mg/kg vitamin E orally daily for 2 weeks. After the last dose, the rats were sacrificed and the kidney tissues with blood samples obtained and processed for light, electron microscopic and biochemical analysis. Histologically, artemether treated kidneys showed atrophied glomeruli with widened urinary space and kidney tubules were degenerated with disturbed contour and some vacuoles inside it. Ultrastructurally, the glomeruli of this group showed hypertrophic endothelial cells, irregularity of its basement membrane, disrupted foot processes and filtration slits. The kidney tubule cells showed loss of basal infoldings, cytoplasmic vacuolation, polymorphic damaged swollen mitochondria a loss of its microvilli towards its capillary lumen. Artemether plus vitamin E of the rat kidney groups showed improvement of morphological changes compared to the changes seen in artemether alone. These data were confirmed by biochemical findings with marked improvement of blood urea and creatinine levels and increase of anti-oxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the vitamin E treated groups. The results of this study revealed that vitamins E can improve the adverse changes of artemether of rat renal tissue.


Este proyecto fue diseñado para estudiar la administración de dosis normales de uno de los medicamentos antipalúdicos y de la administración de vitamina E en el tejido renal. Se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas machos adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: el primero sirvió como control, el segundo recibió arteméter por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. Las ratas del tercer y cuarto grupos recibieron la misma dosis de arteméter concomitantemente con 50 y 100 mg / kg de vitamina E por vía oral diariamente durante 2 semanas. Después de la última dosis, las ratas fueron sacrificadas y se obtuvo el tejido renal de cada muestra los cuales fueron procesados para análisis con microscopías de luz y electrónica, además de exámenes bioquímicos. Histológicamente, los riñones tratados con arteméter mostraron atrofia glomerular con espacio urinario ensanchado y túbulos renales degenerados con contorno alterado y algunas vacuolas en su interior. Ultraestructuralmente, los glomérulos de este grupo mostraron células endoteliales hipertróficas, irregularidad de su membrana basal, procesos alterados del pie y hendiduras de filtración. Las células del túbulo renal mostraron pérdida de inflexiones basales, vacuolación citoplasmática, mitocondrias dañadas y pérdida de sus microvellosidades hacia la luz capilar. Arteméter más vitamina E en los grupos de riñón de rata mostraron una mejora de los cambios morfológicos, en comparación con los cambios observados en arteméter solamente. Estos datos fueron confirmados por hallazgos bioquímicos con una marcada mejoría de los niveles de urea y creatinina en sangre y un aumento de las actividades enzimáticas antioxidantes de la glutatión peroxidasa y la superóxido dismutasa en los grupos tratados con vitamina E. Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que la vitamina E puede mejorar los cambios adversos del arteméter del tejido renal de la rata.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Artemeter/toxicidade , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Microscopia Eletrônica , Biomarcadores/análise , Ratos Wistar , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Rim/ultraestrutura , Antimaláricos/toxicidade
7.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(8): 953-967, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is an unmet medical need for an effective anti-fibrotic treatment for NASH with advanced fibrosis. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the current and novel agents for the treatment of NASH with fibrosis. They also consider the potential future strategies of combination therapies. EXPERT OPINION: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist (obeticholic acid [OCA]) significantly ameliorated hepatic fibrosis in NASH stage 2/3 fibrosis in an interim analysis of phase 3 trial. Because OCA has several drawbacks such as itching and elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), non-bile acid FXR agonists are now under development. Selonsertib (apoptosis signaling kinase 1 inhibitor), emricasan (an irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor), and simtsuzumab (a monoclonal antibody against lysyl oxidase-like 2) were discontinued because of no efficacy over placebo. Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor α/δ agonists, C-C motif chemokine receptor-2/5 antagonists, and thyroid ß receptor agonist are ongoing in phase 3 trials. A variety of agents including fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 and FGF-19 agonists, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, are also expected. Among antidiabetic agents, semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 RA, is ongoing for NASH stage 1-3 fibrosis in a phase 2 trial. Furthermore, the combination of GLP-RA/glucagon receptor agonist and GLP-RA/gastrointestinal peptide agonist are promising future options.


Assuntos
Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análogos & derivados , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/agonistas , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/agonistas , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 86-99, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342851

RESUMO

The common cold had resulted in significant economic and social burden worldwide. The effect of vitamin C on preventing common cold in healthy adults has been investigated extensively, but not that of other micronutrients. Thus, we aim to assess the effects of providing micronutrients singly through oral means, on cold incidence, and/or management (in terms of cold duration and symptom severity) in healthy adults from systematically searched randomized controlled trials. From four electronic databases, 660 identified studies were screened and data were extracted from 20 studies (zinc, 10; vitamin D, 8; and vitamins A and E, 2). The quality of selected studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and certainty in the outcomes was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. The review found that micronutrients supplementation, except vitamin C, may not prevent cold incidence or reduce symptom severity among healthy adults. However, zinc supplementation was observed to potentially reduce cold duration by 2.25 days (when zinc is provided singly, 95% CI: -3.39, -1.12). This suggests that zinc supplementation may reduce the overall burden due to common cold among healthy adults.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Incidência , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
9.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 30(3): 430-438, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064920

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A prospective, open-label study in 20 professional swimmers evaluated the efficacy and safety of an ophthalmic solution containing crosslinked hyaluronic acid, coenzyme Q10, and vitamin E TPGS in releasing eye irritation and restoring ocular surface damages after prolonged exposure to chlorinated water. METHODS: Individually, one eye was instilled with the ophthalmic solution and the other used as a comparator. Eye drops were self-administered three times a day for 2 months. Tear film breakup time (primary endpoint), Schirmer I test, beating of eyelashes/min, tear osmolarity, corneal and conjunctival staining with fluorescein, Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, subject satisfaction, visual acuity (secondary endpoints), and Efron Grading Scale were evaluated at screening/baseline (V1), week 1 (V2), week 2 (V3), week 4 (V4), and week 8 (V5). RESULTS: After 2 months, breakup time test significantly improved in the treated eyes (+1.67 s) compared to control (-3.00 s) (p = 0.0002). Corneal and conjunctival surfaces of treated eyes recovered significantly compared to control eyes when assessed by fluorescein staining (p < 0.0001), Ocular Surface Disease Index (p < 0.05), and visual analog scale (p = 0.0348) scores. Improvements were also observed with Schirmer I test, beating of eyelashes, and tear osmolarity, despite without statistical significance. Efron Grading Scale was consistent with the other tests. The ocular tolerability was excellent. CONCLUSION: The adequate combination of crosslinked hyaluronic acid, coenzyme Q10, and vitamin E TPGS, contained in the ophthalmic solution VisuXL®, has been shown to protect ocular surface from potential damages originating from prolonged exposure to chlorinated water. VisuXL may represent a compelling treatment in other situations beyond dry eye syndrome.


Assuntos
Cloraminas/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Hiperemia/tratamento farmacológico , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Administração Oftálmica , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hiperemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Soluções Oftálmicas , Concentração Osmolar , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Piscinas , Lágrimas/química , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(4): 365-389, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017273

RESUMO

α-Tocopherol (α-T) is the major form of vitamin E (VE) in animals and has the highest activity in carrying out the essential antioxidant functions of VE. Because of the involvement of oxidative stress in carcinogenesis, the cancer prevention activity of α-T has been studied extensively. Lower VE intake or nutritional status has been shown to be associated with increased cancer risk, and supplementation of α-T to populations with VE insufficiency has shown beneficial effects in lowering the cancer risk in some intervention studies. However, several large intervention studies with α-T conducted in North America have not demonstrated a cancer prevention effect. More recent studies have centered on the γ- and δ-forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols (T3). In comparison with α-T, these forms have much lower systemic bioavailability but have shown stronger cancer-preventive activities in many studies in animal models and cell lines. γ-T3 and δ-T3 generally have even higher activities than γ-T and δ-T. In this article, we review recent results from human and laboratory studies on the cancer-preventive activities of different forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, at nutritional and pharmacological levels. We aim to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the preventive actions and discuss the possible application of the available information for human cancer prevention by different VE forms.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tocoferóis/administração & dosagem , Tocoferóis/classificação , Tocoferóis/farmacologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
11.
Complement Ther Med ; 48: 102267, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The decline and eventual cessation of estrogen production cause a variety of symptoms during menopause, affecting each woman differently. Most women reported severe hot flashes and night sweats during menopause. The present study aimed to determine and compare the efficacy of curcumin and vitamin E on hot flashes and anxiety (primary objectives), sexual function, menopausal symptoms and adverse effects (secondary objectives). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. The participants consisted of 93 postmenopausal women in Ahar city-Iran. They were assigned into three groups (two intervention groups and one control group). The first intervention group received oral capsule of curcumin (500 mg), the second intervention group was given oral tablets of vitamin E (200 IU/day), and the third group (control) received placebo twice a day for eight weeks. The participants completed the hot flash checklist one week before the intervention, and 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the intervention. They also filled out the Anxiety Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Greene Climacteric Scale before the intervention, and 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the intervention. One-way ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests were used for data analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of demographic characteristics, mean number of hot flashes, mean score of anxiety, sexual function index and menopausal symptoms before the intervention (p > 0.05). The mean age of participants was 51.7 years. Mean number of hot flashes in the curcumin group (adjusted mean difference = -10.7, 95%confidence interval = -3.6 to -17.9, P = 0.001) and in the vitamin E group (-8.7, -0.6 to -15.0, P = 0.029) was significantly lower than the placebo group after the intervention. The first significant effect of curcumin on hot flashes was observed after four weeks (P = 0.027). However, there was no significant difference between vitamin E group and placebo four weeks after intervention (P = 0.052) and the first significant effect of vitamin E on hot flashes was observed after eight weeks (P = 0.025). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of sexual function index, anxiety and menopausal symptoms (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that oral intake of curcumin and vitamin E significantly reduced hot flashes in postmenopausal women but had no significant effect on anxiety, sexual function and menopausal symptoms.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Fogachos/terapia , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Cápsulas , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
12.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 93(1): 37-48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718435

RESUMO

During early postnatal development, biomolecules are particularly exposed to the detrimental actions of unneutralized reactive oxygen species. These prooxidant molecules have been claimed to mediate the trade-off between growth and somatic maintenance. Vitamin E is a key exogenous antioxidant that plays an important role in protecting biological membranes against oxidative damage. However, evidence of the effect of vitamin E supplementation during early life on growth and oxidative status in wild populations is equivocal. We tested the effect of supplementing western bluebird nestlings (Sialia mexicana) with vitamin E on growth rate, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative damage to lipids. During the period of accelerated growth (5-8 d), bill growth rate was 21% higher in supplemented nestlings from nests with breeding helpers than in supplemented nestlings from unassisted nests. Vitamin E also boosted tarsus growth rate during the period of slow growth (11-18 d), and this effect was independent of the presence of breeding helpers. Differences in body size and mass, oxidative damage to lipids, and antioxidant capacity were not evident between supplemented and control nestlings at 18 d. Therefore, we conclude that vitamin E promoted faster bill and tarsus growth, but this transient effect disappeared as soon as the supplementation ceased. Our experimental study also supports the idea that tocopherols are rapidly metabolized, since we failed to detect any evident increase of vitamin E in supplemented nestlings at age 18 d. These results provide partial support for the hypothesis that growth rate is constrained by its costs in terms of increased susceptibility to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Comportamento de Nidação , Aves Canoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861047

RESUMO

The combination of poor diet and exposure to secondhand smoke may increase hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, but few studies have explored this interaction. We explored an interaction among 574 never-smoking adults from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. At baseline (age 59 ± 8 years), intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamin E and fiber were estimated using a modified food frequency questionnaire. At follow-up (age 64 ± 9 years), HbA1c and cotinine were measured. A product term between cotinine (above or below the median value) and each nutrient (high or low intake) was included in separate linear regression models with HbA1c as the outcome. HbA1c among those with high cotinine and low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intakes were higher than would be expected due to the individual effects alone (p-for-interaction = 0.05). Among those with lower intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, high cotinine levels were associated with 0.54% higher HbA1c levels (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.06). Conversely, among those with higher intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, HbA1c differ not differ by exposure (-0.09%; 95% CI: -0.45, 0.30). No evidence of interaction was observed for other nutrients. Diets high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may ameliorate secondhand smoke-induced increases in HbA1c.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina/urina , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
14.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878077

RESUMO

Preterm infants are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies as a result of low body stores, maternal deficiencies, and inadequate supplementations. The aim of this survey was to investigate current vitamin and mineral supplementation practices and compare these with published recommendations and available evidence on dosages and long-term outcomes of supplementations in preterm infants. In 2018, a two-part electronic survey was emailed to 50 Australasian Neonatal Dietitians Network (ANDiN) member and nonmember dietitians working in neonatal units in Australia and New Zealand. For inpatients, all units prescribed between 400 and 500 IU/day vitamin D, compared to a recommended intake range of 400-1000 IU/day. Two units prescribed 900-1000 IU/day at discharge. For iron, 83% of respondents prescribed within the recommended intake range of 2-3 mg/kg/day for inpatients. Up to 10% of units prescribed 6 mg/kg/day for inpatients and at discharge. More than one-third of units reported routine supplementations of other micronutrients, including calcium, phosphate, vitamin E, and folic acid. There was significant variation between neonatal units in vitamin and mineral supplementation practices, which may contribute to certain micronutrient intakes above or below recommended ranges for gestational ages or birth weights. The variations in practice are in part due to differences in recommended vitamin and mineral intakes between expert groups and a lack of evidence supporting the recommendations for supplementations.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Nova Zelândia , Nutricionistas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
15.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690015

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of astaxanthin (ASX) extracted and ASX powder from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) shells on Wistar rats with Alzheimer's disease, induced by amyloid-ß (1-42) peptides. In this task, the rats were divided into eight groups: (1) Control, (2) sham operate, (3) negative control (vehicle) + Aß1-42, (4) ASX extract+Aß1-42, (5) commercial ASX + Aß1-42, (6) ASX powder + Aß1-42, (7) blank powder + Aß1-42, and (8) vitamin E + Aß1-42. All treatments were orally administrated for 30 days. At 14- and 29-days post injection, animals were observed in behavioral tests. On the 31st day, animals were sacrificed; the hippocampus and cortex were collected. Those two brain areas were then homogenized and stored for biochemical and histological analysis. The results showed that the Aß1-42 infused group significantly reduced cognitive ability and increased memory loss, as assessed by the Morris water maze test, novel object recognition test, and novel object location test. Moreover, the Aß1-42 infused group exhibited a deterioration of oxidative markers, including glutathione peroxidase enzymes (GPx), lipid peroxidation (MDA), products of protein oxidation, and superoxide anion in the cortex and the hippocampus. Meanwhile, ASX powder (10 mg/kg body weight) showed a significant reduction in cognitive and memory impairments and oxidative stress which is greater than ASX extract in the same dose of compound or vitamin E (100 mg/kg body weight). Our study indicates the beneficial properties of ASX in alleviation of cognitive functions and reducing neurodegeneration in Wistar rats induced by amyloid-ß (1-42) peptides.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Exoesqueleto/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Penaeidae/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação , Xantofilas/farmacologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618817

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by the development of vascular complications associated with high morbidity and mortality and the consequent relevant costs for the public health systems. Diabetic kidney disease is one of these complications that represent the main cause of end-stage renal disease in Western countries. Hyperglycemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress contribute to its physiopathology, and several investigations have been performed to evaluate the role of antioxidant supplementation as a complementary approach for the prevention and control of diabetes and associated disturbances. Vitamin E compounds, including different types of tocopherols and tocotrienols, have been considered as a treatment to tackle major cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic subjects, but often with conflicting or even negative results. However, their effects on diabetic nephropathy are even less clear, despite several intervention studies that showed the improvement of renal parameters after supplementation in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Then we performed a review of the literature about the role of vitamin E supplementation on diabetic nephropathy, also describing the underlying antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic mechanisms to evaluate the possible use of tocopherols and tocotrienols in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Tocotrienóis/química , Tocotrienóis/farmacologia , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/farmacologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 769-779, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580935

RESUMO

Although viruses represent a major threat for cultured fish worldwide, the commercialization of vaccines capable of providing effective and long-lasting protection is still lacking for most of these viral diseases. In this situation, the use of supplemented diets could be a suitable strategy to increase the immune status of the fish and reduce the impact of viral pathogens. Among possible immunostimulants that could be included in these functional feeds, some studies have previously shown that certain ß-glucans can significantly increase certain immune parameters of fish and reduce the impact of viral diseases. However, the mechanisms through which ß-glucans exert their activity have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we have studied the immune response of different tissues to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout fed with a non-supplemented control diet as well as in fish fed a commercial functional aquafeed (Protec™, Skretting) containing ß-glucans, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc. For this, after 30 days of feeding the fish with one of the two diets, they were subsequently infected with VHSV by bath or mock-infected. After 2 or 6 days post-infection, fish were sacrificed and the levels of transcription of different immune genes such as IgM, IgT, IgD, Mx, interferon γ (IFN γ) and perforin studied in different tissues (kidney, gut and gills). Additionally, the levels of natural IgMs in serum were also determined. Our results demonstrate that fish fed the functional diet were capable of mounting an increased IgM, IgT, IgD and Mx transcriptional response to the virus. Additionally, these fish also showed increased levels of natural IgMs in serum. These results reveal a previously undescribed effect of functional diets on fish Ig production and point to Protec™ as an adequate diet to be incorporated in holistic programs aimed at mitigating the effect of viral diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/imunologia , Novirhabdovirus/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glucanos/administração & dosagem , Glucanos/metabolismo , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/genética , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/metabolismo
18.
Pharm Nanotechnol ; 7(4): 304-313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folic acid is essential in many metabolic processes and DNA synthesis. Nevertheless, folic acid is not stable, pH-sensitive, and deteriorated upon light exposure. OBJECTIVE: This work was aimed to improve folic acid stability within vitamin E-based nanoemulsion. METHODS: The nanoemulsion was prepared with self-nanoemulsification method by mixing vitamin E oil, Tween 20, and PEG 400. A pseudoternary phase diagram was constructed with aqueous titration to determine the optimum ratio for the mixture. The globule size, pH and entrapment efficiency were included in the nanoemulsion characterizations. In addition, the influence of centrifugation, storage, and pH on physical and chemical stabilities of folic acid nanoemulsion was evaluated. RESULTS: Optimum formula was obtained from vitamin E, Tween 20, and PEG 400 with the ratio of 1:11:1, and the folic acid amount was 8 mg. The size of folic acidloaded oil globule was 15.10 ± 1.51 nm, and the nanoemulsion pH was 6.24 ± 0.01. The nanoemulsion system was able to load the folic acid completely. Folic acid in nanoemulsion was stable after 14 days at room temperature, and it was more stable compared to folic acid in solution. In addition, the physical and chemical characteristics of folic acid in nanoemulsion was not affected by the simulated gastric condition. CONCLUSION: Hence, nanoemulsion is a promising strategy to enhance folic acid stability.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Ácido Fólico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Vitamina E/química , Administração Oral , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
19.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3307-3319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571832

RESUMO

Purpose: Hyaluronic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphoethanolamine (HA-PEG-DSPE) modified and tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) contained nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared loading ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine to improve the topical anesthetic analgesic anesthesia efficiency. Methods: NLCs were prepared by the solvent diffusion method. The average particle size, zeta potential, release behavior, and cytotoxicity of the NLCs were tested. Ex vivo skin permeation was studied using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated rat skin. Local anesthesia antinociceptive efficiency was evaluated by rat tail flick latency study in vivo. Results: NLCs have sizes of about 100 nm, with negative zeta potentials. All the NLCs formulations were found to be significantly less cytotoxic than free drugs at equivalent concentrations. The cumulative amount of drugs penetrated through rat skin from NLCs was 2.0-4.7 folds higher than that of the drugs solution. The in vivo anesthesia antinociception study displayed that NLCs showed stronger and longer anesthesia antinociceptive effect when compared with single drugs loaded NLCs and drugs solution even at a lower dosage of drugs. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the HA modified, TPGS contained, dual drugs loaded NLCs could perform a synergistic effect and may reduce the amount of drugs, which can lower the toxicity of the system and at the meanwhile, increase the anesthesia antinociceptive efficiency.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Animais , Células 3T3 BALB , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ácido Hialurônico , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ropivacaina/farmacologia , Absorção Cutânea , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
20.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(9): 1147-1153, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474630

RESUMO

The number of patients with chronic liver diseases is expected to decline due to progress in antivirus therapy, including direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C and nucleot(s)ide analogues for hepatitis B. On the other hand, the number of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) in the setting of metabolic syndrome has been increasing worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises in the setting of chronic hepatic inflammation and liver cirrhosis associated with NAFLD/NASH. However, the detailed clinical features of NAFLD/NASH and NAFLD/NASH-derived HCC prevalence have not yet been fully elucidated as there are two major problems in diagnosing definitive NAFLD/NASH: it is difficult to evaluate past alcoholic consumption history precisely and to obtain certain pathologic findings from all patients with fatty liver. Although previous studies clarified some of the genetic and pathophysiological aspects of NAFLD/NASH, basic knowledge of NAFLD/NASH mechanisms remains insufficient and the methods for predicting the risk of tumorigenesis and effective therapy for NAFLD/NASH are not well defined. The treatment of NAFLD/NASH comprises changes in lifestyle including eating habits and exercise leading to weight loss, and drug intake such as vitamin E. A number of new drugs for NAFLD/NASH patients have been under trial. Additional larger-scale studies are required to elucidate fully the clinical and basic landscape of NAFLD-HCC. This paper gives an overview of NAFLD/NASH management based on the most recent findings.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dietoterapia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Prognóstico , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
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