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1.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 154, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009959

RESUMO

The purpose was to determine if increasing serum 25(OH)D and calcium in postmenopausal women increased skeletal muscle size, strength, balance, and functional task performance while decreasing muscle fatigue. PCSA of the vastus lateralis increased and ascent of stairs time decreased after 6 months of increased serum 25(OH)D. PURPOSE: The Institute of Medicine recommends ≥ 20 ng/ml of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] for bone and overall health. Serum 25(OH)D levels have been associated with physical performance, postural sway, and falls. The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing postmenopausal women's serum 25(OH)D levels from 20-30 ng/ml to 40-50 ng/ml improved skeletal muscle size, strength, balance, and functional performance while decreasing skeletal muscle fatigue. METHODS: Twenty-six post-menopausal women (60-85 years old) with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels between 20 and 30 ng/ml were recruited. Oral over-the-counter (OTC) vitamin D3 and calcium citrate were prescribed to increase subjects' serum 25(OH)D to levels between 40 and 50 ng/ml, serum calcium levels above 9.2 mg/dl, and PTH levels below 60 pg/ml, which were confirmed at 6 and 12 weeks. Outcome measures assessed at baseline and 6 months included muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), muscle strength, postural balance, time to perform functional tasks, and muscle fatigue. Repeated measures comparisons between baseline and follow-up were performed. RESULTS: Nineteen subjects completed the study. One individual could not afford the time commitment for the repeated measures. Three individuals did not take their vitamin D as recommended. Two subjects were lost to follow-up (lack of interest), and one did not achieve targeted serum 25(OH)D. Vastus lateralis PCSA increased (p = 0.007) and ascent of stair time decreased (p = 0.042) after 6 months of increasing serum 25(OH)D levels from 20-30 ng/ml to 40-50 ng/ml. Isometric strength was unchanged. Anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) excursion and COP path length decreased (p < 0.1) albeit non-significantly, suggesting balance may improve from increased serum 25(OH)D and calcium citrate levels. CONCLUSIONS: Several measures of muscle structure and function were sensitive to elevated serum 25(OH)D and calcium levels indicating that further investigation of this phenomenon in post-menopausal women is warranted.


Assuntos
Citrato de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Citrato de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
2.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620963635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019829

RESUMO

As COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) spreads across the world multiple therapeutic interventions have been tried to reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of collapsing focal sclerosing glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and acute oxalate nephropathy in a patient treated with high-dose intravenous vitamin C for severe COVID-19 infection. Collapsing FSGS has been described in patients with COVID-19 infection associated with APOL-1; however, this case had collapsing FSGS developing in low-risk heterozygous APOL-1 variant, and we postulate that the intensity of the COVID-19 cytokine storm overwhelmed the protective state of APOL-1 heterozygosity. This case illustrates the importance of assessing the risk and benefit of planned therapeutic interventions on a case-by-case basis especially when there are still so many unknowns in the management of COVID-19 infection. Strong consideration should be given for performing a renal biopsy in patients who develop multifactorial acute kidney injury.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/induzido quimicamente , Hiperoxalúria/induzido quimicamente , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hiperoxalúria/diagnóstico , Hiperoxalúria/metabolismo , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21722, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the role of vitamin D (VD) as a protective factor in cardiovascular disease has been recognized. Thus, there is a need to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the control of different cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome, especially in young populations where few studies have been conducted. METHODS: Pilot study of a randomized, parallel two-arm, triple-blind clinical controlled trial in 150 adolescents and young adults in the city of Bucaramanga-Colombia. The intervention group will receive 1000 IU of VD and the control group 200 IU of VD daily for 15 weeks. The main outcomes are: serum calcifediol levels (25(OH) D), body mass index and lipid profile; secondary outcomes are complementary to the previous ones (skin folds, waist-hip ratio). Other variables will be analyzed such as assessment of dietary intake, physical activity, sun exposure, cigarette and tobacco consumption and compliance with VD supplementation. DISCUSSION: This study is innovative since there is little evidence from clinical trials in adolescents and young adults; similar studies are not known in our context. The results of this study may facilitate the recommendation of oral vitamin D supplementation in the population of interest. In addition, it is a low-cost and easy-to-apply intervention that could contribute to the formulation and implementation of health policies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04377386.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Calcifediol/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Colômbia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pregas Cutâneas , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 39-52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918213

RESUMO

Over the last several decades, extensive research on vitamin D and its role on cancer incidence, cancer survival (survival or mortality from cancer among individuals diagnosed with cancer), and cancer mortality (fatal cases occurring during the study period in an initially cancer-free population) has been conducted. A variety of study designs were implemented to explore vitamin D status, assessed by measuring sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Although not many randomized controlled trials have examined the relationship between vitamin D and cancer incidence, observational studies have consistently shown a protective association between vitamin D and cancer incidence, especially for colorectal cancer. In addition, randomized controlled trials and most observational studies suggested that vitamin D plays a role in reducing cancer mortality. The potential benefit of vitamin D on cancer mortality may operate during the pre-diagnostic stages by affecting late-stage tumor progression and metastatic seeding, during the treatment phase by complementing or enhancing effects of therapies, or during the post-diagnostic stages. However, further studies are needed to confirm these conclusions, establish the optimal dosage and timing of vitamin D intakes for the most benefit, find which cancer types are affected, and understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vitamina D , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 335-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918227

RESUMO

Although great progress has been achieved during the last decades, the clinical management of organ transplant recipients (OTRs) remains a challenge. OTRs need in general lifelong immunosuppressive therapy that is associated with an increased risk to develop skin cancer and with an unfavorable clinical outcome of these malignancies. Skin cancer prevention measures, including regular full-body examinations, are therefore necessary in OTRs to detect and treat suspicious lesions at an early stage. The frequency of aftercare depends on the individual risk factors of the patient. Patients should apply consistent sun protection with sunscreens and clothing, as well as a monthly self-examination. On the other hand, the need of UVR avoidance increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, which itself is associated with an increased risk for many diseases, including malignancies. OTRs should therefore be monitored for 25(OH)D status and/or should take vitamin D supplements. It has to be emphasized that an interdisciplinary approach, coordinated by the transplant center, that includes regular skin examinations by a dermatologist, is needed to ensure the best care for the OTRs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Transplantados , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 409-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918231

RESUMO

The biology of every species has been optimized for life in the environment in which that species evolved. Humans originated in the tropics, and while some natural selection took place in response to behaviors and environments that decreased exposure to ultraviolet light, there has never been a species-wide biological accommodation. Paleolithic nutrition advocates argue that risk of disease is higher because modern diets differ from what was consumed by early humans. Early humans were the naked ape living in the tropics, exposed to high levels of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D) averaging 115 nmol/L, as compared to today's population averages that are well below 70 nmol/L. Natural selection from an available gene pool cannot compensate fully to an environmental change away from the one within which the species originally evolved. Vitamin D nutrition remains a contentious area. The epidemiological evidence consistently relates lower 25(OH)D to higher disease risk. However, evidence from double-blind clinical trials looking at preventing new disease in healthy volunteers has been disappointing. But such negative trials have been the case for all nutrients except for folic acid which lowers risk of spina bifida. The Paleolithic nutrition model is based on fundamental biological concepts, but it has overlooked the environmental effects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition. This paper presents evolutionary and Paleolithic aspects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D with the aim to support pertinent research and, ultimately, public policy regarding nutrition and light exposure.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Política Nutricional , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009422, 2020 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended for people with cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register and also searched international online trial registries for any ongoing clinical trials that were not identified during our register search. Date of last search of the Register: 11 August 2020. Date of last search of international online trial registries: 20 July 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing any preparation of vitamin E supplementation to placebo or no supplement, regardless of dosage or duration. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors extracted outcome data from each study (published information) and assessed the risk of bias of each included study. They assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Four studies with a total of 141 participants were included in the review, two of these were in children (aged six months to 14.5 years), and two did not specify participants' age. All studies used different formulations and doses of vitamin E for various durations of treatment (10 days to six months). Two studies compared the supplementation of fat-soluble as well as water-soluble formulations to no supplementation in different arms of the same study. A third study compared a water-soluble formulation to a placebo; and in the fourth study a fat-soluble formulation of vitamin E was assessed against placebo. There was limited detail about randomisation and blinding in the included studies which compromises the quality of the evidence base for the review. The heterogeneous mix of the formulations with differing biovailabilities among these studies also limits the generalisability of the data to the wider cystic fibrosis population. None of the studies in either comparison report the review's primary outcomes of vitamin E total lipid ratio or the incidence of vitamin E-specific deficiency disorders, or the secondary outcomes lung function or quality of life. Water-soluble vitamin E Water-soluble vitamin E may improve serum vitamin E levels compared with control at six months, one study (45 participants), mean difference (MD) 19.74 umol/L (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.48 to 26.00) (low-quality evidence). Similar results were also seen at one month, two studies (32 participants), MD 17.66 umol/L (95% CI 10.59 to 24.74) and at three months, one study (45 participants), MD 11.61 umol/L (95% CI 4.77 to 18.45). Only one study (45 participants) reported weight (secondary outcome of growth and nutritional status) at one and six months, but showed no difference between treatment and control at either time point. Fat-soluble vitamin E Two studies (36 participants) reported higher levels of serum vitamin E at one month with fat-soluble vitamin E compared with control, MD 13.59 umol/L (95% CI 9.52 to 17.66); however, at three months one study (36 participants) showed no difference between treatment and control. No studies in this comparison reported on growth or nutritional status. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E supplementation may lead to an improvement in vitamin E levels in people with cystic fibrosis, although evidence we assessed was low quality. No data on other outcomes of interest were available to allow conclusions about any other benefits of this therapy. In future, larger studies are needed, especially in people already being treated with enteric-coated pancreatic enzymes and supplemented with vitamin E, to look at more specific outcome measures such as vitamin E status, lung function and nutritional status. Future studies could also look at the optimal dose of vitamin E required to achieve maximal clinical effectiveness.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina E/sangue , Vitamina E/química , Deficiência de Vitamina E/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/química , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e20841, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide reliable estimates for dietary antioxidant vitamin (vitamins A, C, and E) intake and their effect on fracture risk at various sites. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify prospective cohort studies published throughout October 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 13 prospective cohort studies involving 384,464 individuals were selected for this meta-analysis. The summary RR indicated that increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98; P = .015). When stratified by the vitamin types, increased vitamin E intake was found to be associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95; P = .025), whereas increased vitamin A and C intake did not affect this risk. Increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk, irrespective of fracture sites (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94; P < .001); however, it did not affect hip fracture risk. Furthermore, increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk in men (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96; P = .017) and combined men and women (RR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.93; P = .002); however, it did not affect fracture risk in women. CONCLUSION: Fracture risk at any site is significantly reduced with increased antioxidant vitamin intake, especially vitamin E intake and in men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
10.
Am J Ther ; 27(5): e485-e490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 4.4 million people and caused more than 300,000 deaths partly through acute respiratory distress syndrome with propensity to affect African American and Hispanic communities disproportionately. Patients with worse outcomes have exhibited higher blood plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Activation of the vitamin D receptor expressed on immune cells has been shown to directly reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6, and indirectly affect C-reactive protein. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: The significance of the vitamin D pathway in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. THERAPEUTIC INNOVATION: Vitamin D supplementation in patients after diagnosis of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS: We report 4 vitamin D deficient patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in April 2020 who were provided with either cholecalciferol of 1000 IU daily (standard dose) or ergocalciferol 50,000 IU daily for 5 days (high dose) as part of supplementation. CLINICAL OUTCOMES: Patients that received a high dose of vitamin D supplementation achieved normalization of vitamin D levels and improved clinical recovery evidenced by shorter lengths of stay, lower oxygen requirements, and a reduction in inflammatory marker status. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation may serve as a viable alternative for curtailing acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients in underserved communities where resources to expensive and sought-after medications may be scarce. Randomized clinical trials will serve as an appropriate vessel to validate the efficacy of the therapeutic regimen and dissection of the pathway.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
11.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1054-1060, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788481

RESUMO

Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is extensively used in the pediatric population. Environments and the nature of diseases have an impact on the type of CAM therapies used in children. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence and determinants of CAM use among Nigerian children living in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Subjects and Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 parents living in the TRNC. The parents were selected by the snowball sampling technique. Data were collected using a self-administered, NAFKAM International-CAM-Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to analyze the associations of CAM use with values of P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: The mean ages of the parents and children were 30 ± 5.56 years and 3 ± 2.17 years, respectively. It was discovered that 34 (68%) out of 50 children had used CAM in the previous 12 months. The most commonly used CAM products were vitamins/minerals (82.4%) and herbs/herbal products (55.9%). While praying for health (61.8%) and relaxation techniques (50.0%) were the most used CAM practices. A majority of the parents perceived that CAM use was beneficial (85.3%). Approximately 10% of the children were prescribed CAM recommendation/treatment by physicians. The most used sources of information were relatives (36%) and friends (14.7%). Parents (58%) indicated that they did not disclose their use of CAMs for their children to a physician/nurse. Conclusions: CAM is used prevalently in this population and the use of CAM is primarily focused on improving well-being. CAM usage for children increases with parental use. Further qualitative research is needed to understand the parental belief in the use of CAMs for children.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Chipre/epidemiologia , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/etnologia , Pais , Médicos , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824839

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic goes along with increased mortality from acute respiratory disease. It has been suggested that vitamin D3 supplementation might help to reduce respiratory disease mortality. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) blood levels of 30-50 and <30 nmol/L, respectively, and their association with mortality from respiratory diseases during 15 years of follow-up in a cohort of 9548 adults aged 50-75 years from Saarland, Germany. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were common (44% and 15%, respectively). Compared to those with sufficient vitamin D status, participants with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency had strongly increased respiratory mortality, with adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.1 (1.3-3.2) and 3.0 (1.8-5.2) overall, 4.3 (1.3-14.4) and 8.5 (2.4-30.1) among women, and 1.9 (1.1-3.2) and 2.3 (1.1-4.4) among men. Overall, 41% (95% confidence interval: 20-58%) of respiratory disease mortality was statistically attributable to vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are common and account for a large proportion of respiratory disease mortality in older adults, supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D3 supplementation could be helpful to limit the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among women.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Respiratórias/sangue , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237112, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of nutritional supplements on the re-infection rate of species-specific soil-transmitted helminth infections in school-aged children remains complex and available evidence on the subject matter has not been synthesized. METHODS: The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs investigating food supplements on school-aged children between the age of 4-17 years. A search for RCTs was conducted on eight databases from inception to 12th June 2019. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias in all included studies. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis were conducted to describe and analyze the results of the review. Outcomes were summarized using the mean difference or standardized mean difference where appropriate. RESULTS: The search produced 1,816 records. Six studies met the inclusion criteria (five individually RCTs and one cluster RCT). Four studies reported data on all three STH species, while one study only reported data on Ascaris lumbricoides infections and the last study reported data on only hookworm infections. Overall, the risk of bias in four individual studies was low across most domains. Nutritional supplementation failed to statistically reduce the re-infection rates of the three STH species. The effect of nutritional supplements on measures of physical wellbeing in school-aged children could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this systematic review suggest that nutritional supplements for treatment of STH in children should not be encouraged unless better evidence emerges. Conclusion of earlier reviews on general populations may not necessarily apply to children since children possibly have a higher re-infection rate.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Tricuríase/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Criança , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790757

RESUMO

Patients' vitamin intake is often not documented and is therefore not considered sufficiently in studies of prescribed medication in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin use by participants in ALS clinical trials. Data about demographics, disease severity (ALS Functional Rating Scale) and concomitant medication were obtained from the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database, which contains records from more than 6000 ALS patients who participated in 23 phase II/III clinical trials. Information about vitamin intake for all study subjects was coded into major categories. Clinical data of vitamin users and nonusers were compared, and regression analysis was used to explore the associations among clinical parameters, vitamin use and two measures of disease progression. From the 40.996 available medication records from 6274 subjects, 7338 (17.9%) concerned vitamins. One or more vitamins were used by 3331 subjects (53.1%). Most common was vitamin E, vitamin C and multivitamins. Patients who did and did not take vitamins did not differ in terms of disease progression and ALS Functional Rating Scale score. Patients who took vitamins were younger, were more often female, had a shorter time between onset and diagnosis, had shorter disease duration and more frequently had limb-onset types. Disease progression rate and disease aggressiveness were not associated with vitamin use. Despite unclear evidence, the use of vitamins in ALS is common. However, rapid progression was not observed to be associated with vitamin use.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007807, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2019), with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of relevant studies and searched the trial registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included 63 trials involving 7760 women. Investigators compared oral antioxidants, including: combinations of antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine, melatonin, L-arginine, myo-inositol, carnitine, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin B complex, vitamin C, vitamin D+calcium, CoQ10, and omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids versus placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant. Only 27 of the 63 included trials reported funding sources. Due to the very low-quality of the evidence we are uncertain whether antioxidants improve live birth rate compared with placebo or no treatment/standard treatment (odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36 to 2.43; P < 0.001, I2 = 29%; 13 RCTs, 1227 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected live birth rate of 19%, the rate among women using antioxidants would be between 24% and 36%. Low-quality evidence suggests that antioxidants may improve clinical pregnancy rate compared with placebo or no treatment/standard treatment (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.89; P < 0.001, I2 = 63%; 35 RCTs, 5165 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected clinical pregnancy rate of 19%, the rate among women using antioxidants would be between 25% and 30%. Heterogeneity was moderately high. Overall 28 trials reported on various adverse events in the meta-analysis. The evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants makes no difference between the groups in rates of miscarriage (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.55; P = 0.46, I2 = 0%; 24 RCTs, 3229 women; low-quality evidence). There was also no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates of multiple pregnancy (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.56; P = 0.99, I2 = 0%; 9 RCTs, 1886 women; low-quality evidence). There was also no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates of gastrointestinal disturbances (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.47 to 5.10; P = 0.47, I2 = 0%; 3 RCTs, 343 women; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence showed that there was also no difference between the groups in rates of ectopic pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.27 to 7.20; P = 0.69, I2 = 0%; 4 RCTs, 404 women). In the antioxidant versus antioxidant comparison, low-quality evidence shows no difference in a lower dose of melatonin being associated with an increased live-birth rate compared with higher-dose melatonin (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.15; P = 0.89, I2 = 0%; 2 RCTs, 140 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected live-birth rate of 24%, the rate among women using a lower dose of melatonin compared to a higher dose would be between 12% and 40%. Similarly with clinical pregnancy, there was no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates between a lower and a higher dose of melatonin (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.15; P = 0.89, I2 = 0%; 2 RCTs, 140 women). Three trials reported on miscarriage in the antioxidant versus antioxidant comparison (two used doses of melatonin and one compared N-acetylcysteine versus L-carnitine). There were no miscarriages in either melatonin trial. Multiple pregnancy and gastrointestinal disturbances were not reported, and ectopic pregnancy was reported by only one trial, with no events. The study comparing N-acetylcysteine with L-carnitine did not report live birth rate. Very low-quality evidence shows no evidence of a difference in clinical pregnancy (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.00; 1 RCT, 164 women; low-quality evidence). Low quality evidence shows no difference in miscarriage (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.42 to 5.67; 1 RCT, 164 women; low-quality evidence). The study did not report multiple pregnancy, gastrointestinal disturbances or ectopic pregnancy. The overall quality of evidence was limited by serious risk of bias associated with poor reporting of methods, imprecision and inconsistency. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In this review, there was low- to very low-quality evidence to show that taking an antioxidant may benefit subfertile women. Overall, there is no evidence of increased risk of miscarriage, multiple births, gastrointestinal effects or ectopic pregnancies, but evidence was of very low quality. At this time, there is limited evidence in support of supplemental oral antioxidants for subfertile women.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo , Pentoxifilina/efeitos adversos , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(3 Suppl 1): S1-S107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829751

RESUMO

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) has provided evidence-based guidelines for nutrition in kidney diseases since 1999. Since the publication of the first KDOQI nutrition guideline, there has been a great accumulation of new evidence regarding the management of nutritional aspects of kidney disease and sophistication in the guidelines process. The 2020 update to the KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in CKD was developed as a joint effort with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy). It provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the understanding and care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in terms of their metabolic and nutritional milieu for the practicing clinician and allied health care workers. The guideline was expanded to include not only patients with end-stage kidney disease or advanced CKD, but also patients with stages 1-5 CKD who are not receiving dialysis and patients with a functional kidney transplant. The updated guideline statements focus on 6 primary areas: nutritional assessment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT), dietary protein and energy intake, nutritional supplementation, micronutrients, and electrolytes. The guidelines primarily cover dietary management rather than all possible nutritional interventions. The evidence data and guideline statements were evaluated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. As applicable, each guideline statement is accompanied by rationale/background information, a detailed justification, monitoring and evaluation guidance, implementation considerations, special discussions, and recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Terapia Nutricional/normas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67 Suppl 3: e28324, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614139

RESUMO

Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) strategies are commonly used by pediatric cancer patients. Nutritional approaches to T&CM include bioactive compounds, supplements, and herbs as well as dietary approaches. Pediatric cancer patients and their families commonly request and use nutritional T&CM strategies. We review the potential risks and benefits of nutritional T&CM use in pediatric cancer care and provide an overview of some commonly used and requested supplements, including probiotics, antioxidants, cannabinoids, vitamins, turmeric, mistletoe, Carica papaya, and others. We also discuss the role of specific diets such as the ketogenic diet, caloric restriction diets, whole-food diets, and immune modulating diets. There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of some T&CM agents for the supportive care of children with cancer. However, further study is needed into these agents and approaches. Open communication with families about T&CM use is critical.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Pediatria/métodos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
18.
Trials ; 21(1): 614, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study will evaluate the main hypothesis that supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E significantly improves the severity and mortality rate in ICU patients with COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a randomized, single-blinded, two-arm (1:1 ratio) parallel group clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: We are conducting this study in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex in Tehran, Iran. The inclusion criteria are as follows: (1) aged between 20 and 60 years, (2) both male and female patients with COVID-19, (3) clinical or definitive diagnosis (using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test), (4) patients have not participated in other clinical trials, and (5) no renal or hepatic abnormalities. The exclusion criteria are as follows: (1) patients with specific and rare viral diseases such as HIV and (2) patients who have been undergoing chemotherapy for the past month. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Duration of intervention: 7 days from randomization Intervention in the treatment group: Vitamin A 25,000 IU daily Vitamin D 600,000 IU once during study Vitamin E 300 IU twice daily Vitamin C is taken four times per day B vitamins are taken as a daily Soluvit [which included thiamine nitrate 3.1 mg, sodium riboflavin phosphate 4.9 mg (corresponding to vitamin B2 3.6 mg), nicotinamide 40 mg, pyridoxine hydrochloride 4.9 mg (corresponding to vitamin B6 4.0 mg), sodium pantothenate 16.5 mg (corresponding to pantothenic acid 15 mg), sodium ascorbate 113 mg (corresponding to vitamin C 100 mg), biotin 60 µg, folic acid 400 µg, and cyanocobalamin 5 µg] The control group will not receive any supplements or placebo. All supplements are made in Iran except for Soluvit (from Fresenius Kabi, New Zealand). MAIN OUTCOMES: 1. Weight, height, and BMI 2. Severity of pulmonary involvement according to CT scan 3. Respiratory support (invasive or non-invasive) 4. Percentage of oxygen saturation (SpO2 level) 5. Serum levels of WBC, CRP, ESR, IL6, IFN-G, and TNF-α 6. The patient's body temperature 7. The presence or absence of involvement of organs other than the lungs (e.g., heart, liver, kidneys) 8. Duration of hospitalization 9. Mortality rate RANDOMIZATION: At baseline, eligible patients were randomly assigned to a 1:1 ratio to one of two groups: intervention and control. Block randomization is used based on the gender of patients. BLINDING (MASKING): Patients are unaware of being placed in the intervention or control groups after signing consent. All treatment staff will be aware of which group each of the patients is in due to the specific conditions of the ICU and the absence of placebo for the control group. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The researchers plan to include 60 patients in total, with 30 patients in each group. TRIAL STATUS: This is the first version of the protocol which started on April 2, 2020. Recruitment began April 2, 2020, and is expected to be complete by July 4, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20200319046819N1 . Registered on April 4, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol (Fig. 1, Table 1).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
19.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925521, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread, with confirmed cases now in more than 200 countries. Thus far there are no proven therapeutic options to treat COVID-19. We report a case of COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome who was treated with high-dose vitamin C infusion and was the first case to have early recovery from the disease at our institute. CASE REPORT A 74-year-old woman with no recent sick contacts or travel history presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Her vital signs were normal except for oxygen saturation of 87% and bilateral rhonchi on lung auscultation. Chest radiography revealed air space opacity in the right upper lobe, suspicious for pneumonia. A nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 came back positive while the patient was in the airborne-isolation unit. Laboratory data showed lymphopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, and interleukin-6. The patient was initially started on oral hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. On day 6, she developed ARDS and septic shock, for which mechanical ventilation and pressor support were started, along with infusion of high-dose intravenous vitamin C. The patient improved clinically and was able to be taken off mechanical ventilation within 5 days. CONCLUSIONS This report highlights the potential benefits of high-dose intravenous vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients in terms of rapid recovery and shortened length of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay. Further studies will elaborate on the efficacy of intravenous vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Pandemias , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 669-682, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal supplementation during lactation could increase milk B-vitamin concentrations, but little is known about the kinetics of milk vitamin responses. OBJECTIVES: We compared acute effects of maternal lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) consumption (n = 22 nutrients, 175%-212% of the RDA intake for the nutrients examined), as a single dose or at spaced intervals during 8 h, on milk concentrations and infant intake from milk of B-vitamins. METHODS: This randomized crossover trial in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala included 26 mother-infant dyads 4-6 mo postpartum who were randomly assigned to receive 3 treatments in a random order: bolus 30-g dose of LNS (Bolus); 3 × 10-g doses of LNS (Divided); and no LNS (Control), with control meals. Mothers attended three 8-h visits during which infant milk consumption was measured and milk samples were collected at every feed. Infant intake was assessed as $\mathop \sum \nolimits_{i\ = \ 1}^n ( {{\rm{milk\ volum}}{{\rm{e}}_{{\rm{feed\ }}n}} \times \ {\rm{nutrient\ concentratio}}{{\rm{n}}_{{\rm{feed}}\ n}}} )$ over 8 h. RESULTS: Maternal supplementation with the Bolus or Divided dose increased least-squares mean (95% CI) milk and infant intakes of riboflavin [milk: Bolus: 154.4 (138.2, 172.5) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 84.5 (75.8, 94.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 64.5 (56.1, 74.3) µg; Control: 34.5 (30.0, 39.6) µg], thiamin [milk: Bolus: 10.9 (10.1, 11.7) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 7.7 (7.2, 8.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 5.1 (4.4, 6.0) µg; Control: 3.4 (2.9, 4.0) µg], and pyridoxal [milk: Bolus: 90.5 (82.8, 98.9) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 60.8 (55.8, 66.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 39.4 (33.5, 46.4) µg; Control: 25.0 (21.4, 29.2) µg] (all P < 0.001). Only the Bolus dose increased cobalamin in milk [Bolus: 0.054 (0.047, 0.061) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 0.041 (0.035, 0.048) µg · min-1 · mL-1, P = 0.039] and infant cobalamin intake [Bolus: 0.023 (0.020, 0.027) µg; Control: 0.015 (0.013, 0.018) µg, P = 0.001] compared with Control. Niacin was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal supplementation with LNS as a Bolus or Divided dose was similarly effective at increasing milk riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxal and infant intakes, whereas only the Bolus dose increased cobalamin. Niacin was unaffected in 8 h. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02464111.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes/química , Leite Humano/química , Niacina/administração & dosagem , Niacina/sangue , Niacina/farmacocinética , Piridoxal/administração & dosagem , Piridoxal/sangue , Piridoxal/farmacocinética , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Riboflavina/sangue , Riboflavina/farmacocinética , Tiamina/administração & dosagem , Tiamina/sangue , Tiamina/farmacocinética , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 12/farmacocinética , Vitaminas/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
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