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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9694508, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527745

RESUMO

Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium and represents one of the main public health problems in the world. Among alterations associated with the disease, we highlight the hepatic impairment resulting from the generation of oxidative stress. Studies demonstrate that liver injuries caused by Plasmodium infection are associated with unbalance of the antioxidant system in hepatocytes, although little is known about the role of antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and vitamin C in the evolution of the disease and in the liver injury. To evaluate disease complications, murine models emerge as a valuable tool due to their similarities between the infectious species for human and mice. Herein, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of antioxidants glutathione and vitamin C on the evolution of murine malaria and in the liver damage caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection. Mice were inoculated with parasitized erythrocytes and treated with glutathione and vitamin C, separately, both at 8 mg/kg during 7 consecutive days. Our data showed that during Plasmodium infection, treatment with glutathione promoted significant decrease in the survival of infected mice, accelerating the disease severity. However, treatment with vitamin C promoted an improvement in the clinical outcomes and prolonged the survival curve of infected animals. We also showed that glutathione promoted increase in the parasitemia rate of Plasmodium-infected animals, although treatment with vitamin C has induced significant decrease in parasitemia rates. Furthermore, histological analysis and enzyme biochemical measurement showed that treatment with glutathione exacerbates liver damage while treatment with vitamin C mitigates the hepatic injury induced by the infection. In summary, the current study provided evidences that antioxidant molecules could differently modulate the outcome of malaria disease; while glutathione aggravated the disease outcome and liver injury, the treatment with vitamin C protects the liver from damage and the evolution of the condition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glutationa/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium berghei , Vitaminas/farmacologia
2.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(5): 672-682, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544184

RESUMO

While the use of vitamin C as a therapeutic agent has been investigated since the 1950s, there has been substantial recent interest in the role of vitamin C supplementation in critical illness and particularly, sepsis and septic shock. Humans cannot synthesize vitamin C and rely on exogenous intake to maintain a plasma concentration of approximately 70 to 80 µmol/L. Vitamin C, in healthy humans, is involved with antioxidant function, wound healing, endothelial function, and catecholamine synthesis. Its function in the human body informs the theoretical basis for why vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial in sepsis/septic shock.Critically ill patients can be vitamin C deficient due to low dietary intake, increased metabolic demands, inefficient recycling of vitamin C metabolites, and loss due to renal replacement therapy. Intravenous supplementation is required to achieve supraphysiologic serum levels of vitamin C. While some clinical studies of intravenous vitamin C supplementation in sepsis have shown improvements in secondary outcome measures, none of the randomized clinical trials have shown differences between vitamin C supplementation and standard of care and/or placebo in the primary outcome measures of the trials. There are some ongoing studies of high-dose vitamin C administration in patients with sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019; the majority of evidence so far does not support the routine supplementation of vitamin C in patients with sepsis or septic shock.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estado Terminal , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444982

RESUMO

Several natural compounds, such as vitamin K2, have been highlighted for their positive effects on bone metabolism. It has been proposed that skeletal disorders, such as osteoporosis, may benefit from vitamin K2-based therapies or its regular intake. However, further studies are needed to better clarify the effects of vitamin K2 in bone disorders. To this aim, we developed in vitro a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system one step closer to the bone microenvironment based on co-culturing osteoblasts and osteoclasts precursors obtained from bone specimens and peripheral blood of the same osteoporotic patient, respectively. Such a 3-D co-culture system was more informative than the traditional 2-D cell cultures when responsiveness to vitamin K2 was analyzed, paving the way for data interpretation on single patients. Following this approach, the anabolic effects of vitamin K2 on the osteoblast counterpart were found to be correlated with bone turnover markers measured in osteoporotic patients' sera. Overall, our data suggest that co-cultured osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors from the same osteoporotic patient may be suitable to generate an in vitro 3-D experimental model that potentially reflects the individual's bone metabolism and may be useful to predict personal responsiveness to nutraceutical or drug molecules designed to positively affect bone health.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Vitamina K 2/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Vitamina K 2/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445577

RESUMO

Infections by the zoonotic foodborne bacterium Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) are among the most frequent causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between epithelial barrier disruption, mucosal immune activation, and vitamin D (VD) treatment during C. jejuni infection, using intestinal epithelial cells and mouse models focused on the interaction of C. jejuni with the VD signaling pathway and VD treatment to improve C. jejuni-induced barrier dysfunction. Our RNA-Seq data from campylobacteriosis patients demonstrate inhibition of VD receptor (VDR) downstream targets, consistent with suppression of immune function. Barrier-preserving effects of VD addition were identified in C. jejuni-infected epithelial cells and IL-10-/- mice. Furthermore, interference of C. jejuni with the VDR pathway was shown via VDR/retinoid X receptor (RXR) interaction. Paracellular leakiness of infected epithelia correlated with tight junction (TJ) protein redistribution off the TJ domain and apoptosis induction. Supplementation with VD reversed barrier impairment and prevented inhibition of the VDR pathway, as shown by restoration of transepithelial electrical resistance and fluorescein (332 Da) permeability. We conclude that VD treatment restores gut epithelial barrier functionality and decreases bacterial transmigration and might, therefore, be a promising compound for C. jejuni treatment in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-10/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445368

RESUMO

Recently, we have experienced a serious pandemic. Despite significant technological advances in molecular technologies, it is very challenging to slow down the infection spread. It appeared that due to globalization, SARS-CoV-2 spread easily and adapted to new environments or geographical or weather zones. Additionally, new variants are emerging that show different infection potential and clinical outcomes. On the other hand, we have some experience with other pandemics and some solutions in virus elimination that could be adapted. This is of high importance since, as the latest reports demonstrate, vaccine technology might not follow the new, mutated virus outbreaks. Thus, identification of novel strategies and markers or diagnostic methods is highly necessary. For this reason, we present some of the latest views on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 therapeutic strategies and raise a solution based on miRNA. We believe that in the face of the rapidly increasing global situation and based on analogical studies of other viruses, the possibility of using the biological potential of miRNA technology is very promising. It could be used as a promising diagnostic and prognostic factor, as well as a therapeutic target and tool.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , MicroRNAs/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , MicroRNAs/análise , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (Dox) is a first-line treatment for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but its use may be limited by its cardiotoxicity mediated by the production of reactive oxygen species. We evaluated whether vitamin D may prevent Dox-induced cardiotoxicity in a mouse TNBC model. METHODS: Female Balb/c mice received rodent chow with vitamin D3 (1500 IU/kg; vehicle) or chow supplemented with additional vitamin D3 (total, 11,500 IU/kg). the mice were inoculated with TNBC tumors and treated with intraperitoneal Dox (6 or 10 mg/kg). Cardiac function was evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography. The cardiac tissue was evaluated with immunohistochemistry and immunoblot for levels of 4-hydroxynonenal, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), C-MYC, and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) phosphorylation. RESULTS: At 15 to 18 days, the mean ejection fraction, stroke volume, and fractional shortening were similar between the mice treated with vitamin D + Dox (10 mg/kg) vs. vehicle but significantly greater in mice treated with vitamin D + Dox (10 mg/kg) vs. Dox (10 mg/kg). Dox (10 mg/kg) increased the cardiac tissue levels of 4-hydroxynonenal, NQO1, C-MYC, and DRP1 phosphorylation at serine 616, but these increases were not observed with vitamin D + Dox (10 mg/kg). A decreased tumor volume was observed with Dox (10 mg/kg) and vitamin D + Dox (10 mg/kg). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation decreased Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing the reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage, and did not decrease the anticancer efficacy of Dox against TNBC.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206931

RESUMO

Nowadays, much attention is paid to issues such as ecology and sustainability. Many consumers choose "green cosmetics", which are environmentally friendly creams, makeup, and beauty products, hoping that they are not harmful to health and reduce pollution. Moreover, the repeated mini-lock downs during the COVID-19 pandemic have fueled the awareness that body beauty is linked to well-being, both external and internal. As a result, consumer preferences for makeup have declined, while those for skincare products have increased. Nutricosmetics, which combines the benefits derived from food supplementation with the advantages of cosmetic treatments to improve the beauty of our body, respond to the new market demands. Food chemistry and cosmetic chemistry come together to promote both inside and outside well-being. A nutricosmetic optimizes the intake of nutritional microelements to meet the needs of the skin and skin appendages, improving their conditions and delaying aging, thus helping to protect the skin from the aging action of environmental factors. Numerous studies in the literature show a significant correlation between the adequate intake of these supplements, improved skin quality (both aesthetic and histological), and the acceleration of wound-healing. This review revised the main foods and bioactive molecules used in nutricosmetic formulations, their cosmetic effects, and the analytical techniques that allow the dosage of the active ingredients in the food.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Cosméticos/química , Cosméticos/uso terapêutico , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Química Verde/métodos , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitaminas/análise , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
8.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1271-1282, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228252

RESUMO

In this study, the mechanism that vitamin C (VC) regulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through Wnt10b signaling was investigated in the gill of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results showed that 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg VC diets induced the gene expression of Wnt10b, ß-catenin, SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX in gill. In addition, VC decreased the levels of H2O2, O2·- and ·OH, whereas the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX were increased by VC in the gill of zebrafish. To evaluate the role of Wnt10b in regulating oxidative stress, Wnt10b RNA was further interfered and the gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes were detected in gill. The result of Wnt10b RNA interference showed that Wnt10b signaling played a key role in regulating the gene expression of SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX. In all, VC may regulate the production of ROS through Wnt10b signaling in the gill of zebrafish (Danio rerio).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Peixe-Zebra , beta Catenina/genética
9.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 212: 105925, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089834

RESUMO

There is some evidence for ameliorating effect of vitamin D on glycemic and lipidemic status which are likely to be mediated through other molecules including adiponectin. However, the overall results have been controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum adiponectin concentration. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched and 402 studies were found in a preliminary search. After screening of titles and abstracts nine studies were selected. Pooled data showed no significant effect on adiponectin concentrations (mean difference (MD) 0.37, 95 % CI: -0.1 to 0.87). However, there was a significant effect in a subgroup of participants who had diabetes (MD: 0.03, 95 % CI: 0.00 to 0.05, p = 0.029). The treatment effect on adiponectin concentrations was significant in those trials that used supplementation on a daily basis (MD: 0.03, 95 % CI: 0.00 to 0.05, p = 0.028) and vitamin D plus calcium (MD: 0.04, 95 % CI: 0.01 to 0.07, p = 0.014). The meta-regression revealed a significant association between BMI and age of participants at baseline and the treatment effect (B, -0.144, 95 % CI: -0.276 to -0.011, p = 0.033 and B, -0.043, 95 % CI: -0.075 to -0.012, p = 0.006). The results of this meta-analysis study indicates that vitamin D may be considered an adiponectin secretagogue in subjects with diabetes and this effect may be potentiated if vitamin D intake is on daily basis and in combination with calcium but can be weakened by increasing BMI.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Secretagogos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 212: 105941, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The overexposure to synthetic glucocorticoids (GC) during pregnancy can predispose to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin D is not only crucial for fetal development, but also exerts direct effects on the GC sensitivity and down-regulates GC receptors. Given the vitamin D effects on glucocorticoid-related parameters, we aimed to investigate a possible protective role of maternal vitamin D administration on the glucose homeostasis of rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero. METHODS: Pregnant rats received dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg, Dex) daily between the 14th and 19th days of pregnancy. A subgroup of dexamethasone-treated dams received oral administration of vitamin D (500UI, DexVD) during the whole gestation. The corresponding control groups of dams were included (CTL and VD groups, respectively). Male and female offspring were evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months of age. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone caused metabolic disruption in an age and sex-dependent manner being the older male offspring more susceptible to insulin resistance, fatty liver and beta-cell mass expansion than females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that prenatal GC led to glucose intolerance in male and female offspring in an age-dependent manner. Maternal vitamin D administration did not influence glucose intolerance but attenuated the insulin resistance, liver lipid accumulation and prevented the beta-cell mass expansion caused by prenatal dexamethasone in the male offspring. CONCLUSION: Maternal vitamin D administration mitigates metabolic disturbances that occur later in life in male rats exposed to GC in utero. Moreover, our data suggest vitamin D as an important nutritional supplement for pregnant overexposed to GC during gestation.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Feminino , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Caracteres Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 1238-1250, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports on the adequacy of vitamin D status of pregnant women are not available in Canada. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine vitamin D status across pregnancy and identify the correlates of vitamin D status of pregnant women in Canada. METHODS: Pregnant women (≥18 years) from 6 provinces (2008-2011) participating in a longitudinal cohort were studied. Sociodemographic data, obstetrical histories, and dietary and supplemental vitamin D intakes were surveyed. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured using an immunoassay standardized to LC-MS/MS from samples collected during the first (n = 1905) and third trimesters (n = 1649) and at delivery (n = 1543). The proportion of women with ≥40 nmol/L of plasma 25OHD (adequate status) was estimated at each time point, and factors related to achieving this cut point were identified using repeated-measures logistic regression. Differences in 25OHD concentrations across trimesters and at delivery were tested a using repeated-measures ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey's test. RESULTS: In the first trimester, 93.4% (95% CI: 92.3%-94.5%) of participants had 25OHD ≥40 nmol/L. The mean plasma 25OHD concentration increased from the first to the third trimester and then declined by delivery (69.8 ± 0.5 nmol/L, 78.6 ± 0.7 nmol/L, and 75.7 ± 0.7 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.0001). A lack of multivitamin use early in pregnancy reduced the odds of achieving 25OHD ≥40 nmol/L (ORadj = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.25-0.42) across all time points. Factors associated with not using a prenatal multivitamin included multiparity (ORadj = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.42-3.02) and a below-median income (ORadj = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.89). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this cohort demonstrate the importance of early multivitamin supplement use to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez
12.
J Nutr Biochem ; 96: 108788, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087410

RESUMO

Distinct T helper cells, including Th9 cells help maintain homeostasis in the immune system. Vitamins play pivotal role in the immune system through many mechanisms, including regulating the differentiation of T helper cells. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and retinoic acid possess hormone-like properties and are the bioactive metabolites of vitamin D and A, respectively, that signal through heterodimers containing the common retinoid X receptor. In contrast to individual treatment with the vitamins that significantly attenuates IL-9 production from Th9 cells, Th9 cells treated with both vitamins demonstrated IL-9 production similar to untreated Th9 cells. This is associated with reciprocal expression of PU.1 and Foxp3. While the recruitment of PU.1 was significantly impaired to the Il9 gene in the presence of calcitriol or retinoic acid in Th9 cells, addition of both vitamins together increased the recruitment of PU.1 to the Il9 gene. Calcitriol and retinoic acid together impaired the recruitment of HDAC1 to the Il9 gene without impacting Gcn5 recruitment. Importantly, retinoic acid negated the effect of calcitriol and impaired the binding of VDR on the Il9 gene by dampened VDR-RXR formation. Collectively, our data show that calcitriol and retinoic acid antagonize each other to regulate the differentiation of Th9 cells.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Interleucina-9/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
13.
J Nutr Biochem ; 96: 108806, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147603

RESUMO

Many cancer patients receive their classical therapies together with vitamin supplements. However, the effectiveness of these strategies is on debate. Here we aimed to evaluate how vitamin E supplementation affects the anticancer effects of interferon (IFN-α) using an early-model of liver cancer development (initiation-promotion, IP). Male Wistar rats subjected to this model were divided as follows: untreated (IP), IP treated with recombinant IFN-α-2b (6.5  ×  105 U/kg), IP treated with vitamin E (50 mg/kg), and IP treated with combination of vitamin E and IFN-α-2b. After treatments rats were fasted and euthanized and plasma and livers were collected. Combined administration of vitamin E and IFN-α-2b induced body weight drop, increased liver apoptosis, and low levels of hepatic lipids. Interestingly, vitamin E and IFN-α-2b combination also induced an increase in altered hepatic foci number, but not in size. It seems that vitamin E acts on its antioxidant capability in order to block the oxidative stress induced by IFN-α-2b, blocking in turn its beneficial effects on preneoplastic livers, leading to harmful final effects. In conclusion, this study shows that vitamin E supplementation in IFN-α-2b-treated rats exerts unwanted effects; and highlights that in spite of being natural, nutritional supplements may not always exert beneficial outcomes when used as complementary therapy for the treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Interferon alfa-2/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
14.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 67: 126789, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044222

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a kind of SARS-CoV-2 viral infectious pneumonia. This research aims to perform a bibliometric analysis of the published studies of vitamins and trace elements in the Scopus database with a special focus on COVID-19 disease. To achieve the goal of the study, network and density visualizations were used to introduce an overall picture of the published literature. Following the bibliometric analysis, we discuss the potential benefits of vitamins and trace elements on immune system function and COVID-19, supporting the discussion with evidence from published clinical studies. The previous studies show that D and A vitamins demonstrated a higher potential benefit, while Selenium, Copper, and Zinc were found to have favorable effects on immune modulation in viral respiratory infections among trace elements. The principles of nutrition from the findings of this research could be useful in preventing and treating COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Bibliometria , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Biotechnol J ; 16(8): e2000464, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028198

RESUMO

Recombinant monoclonal antibodies have emerged as the most successful modality of biotherapeutics. They are primarily expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. It is well known that post-translational modifications (PTM) contribute significantly to heterogeneity with respect to charge, glycosylation, and size. These attributes in turn impact stability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the biotherapeutic product. Cell culture media components are known to significantly contribute to both cellular productivity as well as post-translational modifications. Thus, it is highly desirable to understand how media components affect product quality. This study aims to explore the impact of vitamins and metal ions on protein expression and post-translational modifications specifically charge heterogeneity. Biotin, choline chloride, D-calcium pantothenate, folic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine hydrochloride vitamins and Fe, Cu, Mg, Co, Zn, Mn, Ni metal ions were examined in this study. The results indicate that pyridoxine enhances productivity while Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, and biotin impact charge heterogeneity. While, Fe, Mn and Ni enhance production of the acidic variants, Cu and biotin inhibit it. Zn reduces formation of basic variants while biotin enhances it. The results from this investigation could be used for process control so as to get consistent charge variant profile, in particular for biosimilars.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Imunoglobulina G , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Íons , Vitaminas/farmacologia
16.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 53(6): 1247-1254, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942213

RESUMO

AIM: High glucose (HG) induces the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and reactive oxygen species, which further activates JAK/STAT signaling and promotes the synthesis of matrix proteins, contributes to the pathophysiological processes of diabetic nephropathy. This study aims to investigate the protection role of vitamin D (VD) in the kidney in high glucose condition. METHODS: Rat glomerular mesangial cells were cultured in high glucose medium, with or without VD or VD receptor (VDR) siRNAs treatment. The levels of TGF-ß and fibronectin were detected by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of phosphorylated JAK2, STAT1 and STAT3, and JAK/STAT signaling downstream genes were examined by immunoblotting and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: In rat glomerular mesangial cells, VD treatment can repress the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT1 and STAT3. VD inhibited TGF-ß and fibronectin expression which was rescued by vitamin d receptor (VDR) siRNA and STATs inhibitor perficitinib. The JAK/STAT signaling downstream protein coding genes including SOCS1, SOCS3 and type IV collagen were repressed by VD. Meanwhile, the expression of non-coding RNAs such as miR-181a, miR-181b, was repressed by VD, and the expression of miR-34a and Let-7b was upregulated by VD. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D (VD) treatment inhibits the function of HG on fibronectin production through regulating JAK/STAT pathway. These results provide direct evidences that VD protects glomerular mesangial cells from high glucose-induced injury through repressing JAK/STAT signaling, which has the potential for clinical DN treatment.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/fisiologia , Células Mesangiais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Células Mesangiais/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 9-15, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024569

RESUMO

Respiratory Viruses infections (RVI) such as rhinovirus, coronavirus, influenza virus, and adenovirus affect the respiratory and the immune systems. The role of nutrition in the respiratory and immune systems has been studied in some studies, and its importance is undeniable. In addition, one of the key findings in this disease is high inflammation that affects almost all patients. This systematic narrative review aims to answer the question, "Can an anti-inflammatory diet be effective in preventing or treating viral respiratory diseases?" A systematic review search was used for the articles extraction. All studies published in English from 1999 to 2020 investigating dietary inflammatory conditions and RVI were included. Food items with anti-inflammatory properties were selected based on the definition of the dietary inflammatory index (DII). We used Google Scholar, Pub Med, Scopus, Web of Science, Springer, Science Direct, Directory of Open Access Journals, Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, ProQuest, EBSCO, MEDLINE, and SciELO databases for extracting articles. Keywords were restricted by DII. Based on DII, food items/nutrients are involved in inflammation, some of which have anti-inflammatory and some inflammatory properties. Some foods/nutrients, in addition to their anti-inflammatory properties, have antioxidant, antiviral, and immune-enhancing properties. Considering the immune system's involvement, increased inflammation, and involvement of the pulmonary system in RVI and the remarkable role of the anti-inflammatory foods for counteracting them, it is recommended to use a predominantly anti-inflammatory diet along with prevention/control and treatment protocols. An anti-inflammatory diet (based on DII) includes turmeric, ginger, garlic, onions, saffron, dietary vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and omega-3 are recommended to reduce infection symptoms and duration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/dietoterapia , Viroses/dietoterapia , Vírus , Adenoviridae , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Crocus , Dieta/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/etiologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Orthomyxoviridae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Rhinovirus , Viroses/complicações , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/virologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Zingiberaceae
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 39-48, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enormous health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has refocused attention on measures to optimize immune function and vaccine response. Dietary deficiencies of micronutrients can weaken adaptive immunity. The aim of this review was to examine links between micronutrients, immune function and COVID-19 infection, with a focus on nutritional risks in subgroups of the Swiss population. METHODS: Scoping review on the associations between selected micronutrients (vitamins D and C, iron, selenium, zinc, and n-3 PUFAs) and immunity, with particular reference to the Swiss population. These nutrients were chosen because previous EFSA reviews have concluded they play a key role in immunity. RESULTS: The review discusses the available knowledge on links between sufficient nutrient status, optimal immune function, and prevention of respiratory tract infections. Because of the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, controlled intervention studies of micronutrients in the context of COVID-19 infection are now underway, but evidence is not yet available to draw conclusions. The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs are well established. In Switzerland, several subgroups of the population are at clear risk of nutrient deficiencies; e.g., older adults, multiple comorbidities, obesity, pregnancy, and institutionalized. Low intakes of n-3 PUFA are present in a large proportion of the population. CONCLUSION: There are clear and strong relationships between micronutrient and n-3 PUFA status and immune function, and subgroups of the Swiss population are at risk for deficient intakes. Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as a complement to a healthy and balanced diet, it may be prudent to consider supplementation with a combination of moderate doses of Vitamins C and D, as well as of Se, Zn and n-3 PUFA, in risk groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/imunologia , Comorbidade , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Suíça , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/uso terapêutico
19.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(4): 387-396, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990506

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging studies analyzing the association between vitamin D and risk of COVID-19 infection and severity, as well as the early interventional studies investigating the protective effect of vitamin D supplementation against COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies investigating the association between vitamin D levels and risk of COVID-19 infection and risk of severe disease and mortality among those infected have yielded mixed results. Thus far, the majority of studies investigating the association between vitamin D and COVID-19 have been observational and rely on vitamin D levels obtained at the time of admission, limiting causal inference. Currently, clinical trials assessing the effects of vitamin D supplementation in individuals with COVID-19 infection are extremely limited. Randomized, interventional trials may offer more clarity on the protective effects of vitamin D against COVID-19 infection and outcomes. SUMMARY: Decreased levels of vitamin D may amplify the inflammatory effects of COVID-19 infection, yet, data regarding the mortality benefits of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals are still limited. Current observational data provides the impetus for future studies to including randomized controlled trials to determine whether vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19-infected individuals with kidney disease can improve mortality outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803164

RESUMO

Maternal nutrients are essential for proper fetal and placental development and function. However, the effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation under two rates of maternal weight gain on placental genome-wide gene expression have not been investigated so far. Furthermore, biological processes and pathways in the placenta that act in response to early maternal nutrition are yet to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the impact of maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (from pre-breeding to day 83 post-breeding) and two rates of gain during the first 83 days of pregnancy on the gene expression of placental caruncles (CAR; maternal placenta) and cotyledons (COT; fetal placenta) of crossbred Angus beef heifers. We identified 267 unique differentially expressed genes (DEG). Among the DEGs from CAR, we identified ACAT2, SREBF2, and HMGCCS1 that underlie the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, the transcription factors PAX2 and PAX8 were over-represented in biological processes related to kidney organogenesis. The DEGs from COT included SLC2A1, SLC2A3, SLC27A4, and INSIG1. Our over-representation analysis retrieved biological processes related to nutrient transport and ion homeostasis, whereas the pathways included insulin secretion, PPAR signaling, and biosynthesis of amino acids. Vitamin and mineral supplementation and rate of gain were associated with changes in gene expression, biological processes, and KEGG pathways in beef cattle placental tissues.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/efeitos dos fármacos , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Placenta/química , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Minerais/farmacologia , Gravidez , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Vitaminas/farmacologia
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