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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 227-253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918222

RESUMO

Exposure of skin cells to UV radiation results in DNA damage, which if inadequately repaired, may cause mutations. UV-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species also cause local and systemic suppression of the adaptive immune system. Together, these changes underpin the development of skin tumours. The hormone derived from vitamin D, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and other related compounds, working via the vitamin D receptor and at least in part through endoplasmic reticulum protein 57 (ERp57), reduce cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and oxidative DNA damage in keratinocytes and other skin cell types after UV. Calcitriol and related compounds enhance DNA repair in keratinocytes, in part through decreased reactive oxygen species, increased p53 expression and/or activation, increased repair proteins and increased energy availability in the cell when calcitriol is present after UV exposure. There is mitochondrial damage in keratinocytes after UV. In the presence of calcitriol, but not vehicle, glycolysis is increased after UV, along with increased energy-conserving autophagy and changes consistent with enhanced mitophagy. Reduced DNA damage and reduced ROS/RNS should help reduce UV-induced immune suppression. Reduced UV immune suppression is observed after topical treatment with calcitriol and related compounds in hairless mice. These protective effects of calcitriol and related compounds presumably contribute to the observed reduction in skin tumour formation in mice after chronic exposure to UV followed by topical post-irradiation treatment with calcitriol and some, though not all, related compounds.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Animais , Calcitriol/química , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Humanos , Vitamina D/química , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 307-318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918225

RESUMO

It has now been convincingly shown that vitamin D and p53 signaling protect against spontaneous or carcinogen-induced malignant transformation of cells. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the p53/p63/p73 proteins (the p53 family hereafter) exert their effects as receptors/sensors that turn into transcriptional regulators upon stimulus. While the p53 clan, mostly in the nucleoplasm, responds to a large and still growing number of alterations in cellular homeostasis commonly referred to as stress, the nuclear VDR is transcriptionally activated after binding its naturally occurring biologically active ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with high affinity. Interestingly, a crosstalk between vitamin D and p53 signaling has been demonstrated that occurs at different levels, has genome-wide implications, and is of high importance for many malignancies, including non-melanoma skin cancer. These interactions include the ability of p53 to upregulate skin pigmentation via POMC derivatives including alpha-MSH and ACTH. Increased pigmentation protects the skin against UV-induced DNA damage and skin photocarcinogenesis, but also inhibits cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. A second level of interaction is characterized by binding of VDR and p53 protein, an observation that may be of relevance for the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to increase the survival of skin cells after UV irradiation. UV irradiation-surviving cells show significant reductions in thymine dimers in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D that are associated with increased nuclear p53 protein expression and significantly reduced NO products. A third level of interaction is documented by the ability of vitamin D compounds to regulate the expression of the murine double minute (MDM2) gene in dependence of the presence of wild-type p53. MDM2 has a well-established role as a key negative regulator of p53 activity. Finally, p53 and its family members have been implicated in the direct regulation of the VDR. This review gives an update on some of the implications of the crosstalk between vitamin D and p53 signaling for carcinogenesis in the skin and other tissues, focusing on a genome-wide perspective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitaminas/metabolismo
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 257-283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918223

RESUMO

Nonmelanoma skin cancers including basal and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and BCC) represent a significant clinical problem due to their relatively high incidence, imposing an economic burden to healthcare systems around the world. It is accepted that ultraviolet radiation (UVR: λ = 290-400 nm) plays a crucial role in the initiation and promotion of BCC and SCC with UVB (λ = 290-320 nm) having a central role in this process. On the other hand, UVB is required for vitamin D3 (D3) production in the skin, which supplies >90% of the body's requirement for this prohormone. Prolonged exposure to UVB can also generate tachysterol and lumisterol. Vitamin D3 itself and its canonical (1,25(OH)2D3) and noncanonical (CYP11A1-intitated) D3 hydroxyderivatives show photoprotective functions in the skin. These include regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, induction of anti-oxidative responses, inhibition of DNA damage and induction of DNA repair mechanisms, and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies in animals have demonstrated that D3 hydroxyderivatives can attenuate UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancerogenesis and inhibit growth of SCC and BCC. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms of action have been suggested. In addition, vitamin D3 itself inhibits hedgehog signaling pathways which have been implicated in many cancers. Silencing of the vitamin D receptor leads to increased propensity to develop UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancers. Other targets for vitamin D compounds include 1,25D3-MARRS, retinoic orphan receptors α and γ, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and Wnt signaling. Most recently, photoprotective effects of lumisterol hydroxyderivatives have been identified. Clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial role of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of actinic keratosis. In summary, recent advances in vitamin D biology and pharmacology open new exciting opportunities in chemoprevention and treatment of skin cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/química , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 409-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918231

RESUMO

The biology of every species has been optimized for life in the environment in which that species evolved. Humans originated in the tropics, and while some natural selection took place in response to behaviors and environments that decreased exposure to ultraviolet light, there has never been a species-wide biological accommodation. Paleolithic nutrition advocates argue that risk of disease is higher because modern diets differ from what was consumed by early humans. Early humans were the naked ape living in the tropics, exposed to high levels of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D) averaging 115 nmol/L, as compared to today's population averages that are well below 70 nmol/L. Natural selection from an available gene pool cannot compensate fully to an environmental change away from the one within which the species originally evolved. Vitamin D nutrition remains a contentious area. The epidemiological evidence consistently relates lower 25(OH)D to higher disease risk. However, evidence from double-blind clinical trials looking at preventing new disease in healthy volunteers has been disappointing. But such negative trials have been the case for all nutrients except for folic acid which lowers risk of spina bifida. The Paleolithic nutrition model is based on fundamental biological concepts, but it has overlooked the environmental effects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition. This paper presents evolutionary and Paleolithic aspects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D with the aim to support pertinent research and, ultimately, public policy regarding nutrition and light exposure.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Política Nutricional , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
5.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 420-425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886641

RESUMO

Bacterial and fungal catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) cause high fever and blindness due to fungal endophthalmitis. Candidal CRBSI have a particularly high mortality rate and needs attention. In this study, we examined the effect of biotin on the colonization and growth of Candida albicans in the lumen of the catheter used for nutrient infusions. In the current study, nutrient infusion-1: commercially available peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) infusion solution with vitamin B1 (control), nutrient infusion-2: biotin added to the PPN infusion, nutrient infusion-3: water-soluble vitamins (B2, B6, B12, C, folic acid, nicotinamide, panthenol) except biotin added to the PPN infusion, and nutrient infusion-4: commercially available PPN infusion with all water soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, C, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin, panthenol) were used. Candida albicans suspension was injected into a Planecta infusion set, which was connected to one of the test solutions, and the infusions flow pass was blocked for approximately 30 minutes. Subsequently, the infusions were resumed, and the test solution was collected at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours to estimate the Candida albicans colony-forming units in each infusion. We demonstrated that nutrient infusion with biotin promoted colonization and proliferation in the catheter lumen, whereas those without biotin had no effect. These results suggest that biotin may accelerate the colonization and growth of Candida albicans in catheter lumen and using biotin-containing nutrient infusions may increase the risk of CRBSI.


Assuntos
Biotina , Candida albicans , Ácido Fólico/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química
6.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 525-546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943305

RESUMO

Determining mineral status of production animals is important when developing an optimum health program. Nutrition is the largest expense in food animal production and has the greatest impact on health and productivity of the animals. Knowing the bioavailability of minerals in the diet is difficult. Evaluating fluid or tissues from animals is the optimum method to determine bioavailability. Evaluating the diet provides some information. Serum/blood or liver from the animal needs to be analyzed to determine bioavailability of vitamin and minerals in the diet. This article reviews how to sample and the function of these minerals in cattle.


Assuntos
Gado/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gado/sangue , Minerais/análise , Estado Nutricional , Ruminantes/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841246

RESUMO

Both the Mediterranean (MED) species of the Bemisia tabaci whitefly complex and the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, TV) are important agricultural pests. The two species of whiteflies differ in many aspects such as morphology, geographical distribution, host plant range, plant virus transmission, and resistance to insecticides. However, the molecular basis underlying their differences remains largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the genetic divergences between the transcriptomes of MED and TV. In total, 2,944 pairs of orthologous genes were identified. The average identity of amino acid sequences between the two species is 93.6%. The average nonsynonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates and the ratio of Ka/Ks of the orthologous genes are 0.0389, 2.23 and 0.0204, respectively. The low average Ka/Ks ratio indicates that orthologous genes tend to be under strong purified selection. The most divergent gene classes are related to the metabolisms of xenobiotics, cofactors, vitamins and amino acids, and this divergence may underlie the different biological characteristics between the two species of whiteflies. Genes of differential expression between the two species are enriched in carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of autophagy. These findings provide molecular clues to uncover the biological and molecular differences between the two species of whiteflies.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Genes de Insetos/genética , Especiação Genética , Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA-Seq , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2964, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528063

RESUMO

Symbiotic microbes can enable their host to access untapped nutritional resources but may also constrain niche space by promoting specialization. Here, we reconstruct functional changes in the evolutionary history of the symbiosis between a group of (semi-)aquatic herbivorous insects and mutualistic bacteria. Sequencing the symbiont genomes across 26 species of reed beetles (Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) spanning four genera indicates that the genome-eroded mutualists provide life stage-specific benefits to larvae and adults, respectively. In the plant sap-feeding larvae, the symbionts are inferred to synthesize most of the essential amino acids as well as the B vitamin riboflavin. The adult reed beetles' folivory is likely supported by symbiont-encoded pectinases that complement the host-encoded set of cellulases, as revealed by transcriptome sequencing. However, mapping the occurrence of the symbionts' pectinase genes and the hosts' food plant preferences onto the beetles' phylogeny reveals multiple independent losses of pectinase genes in lineages that switched to feeding on pectin-poor plants, presumably constraining their hosts' subsequent adaptive potential.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 427-446, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multinutrient protein-enriched supplements are promoted to augment the effects of exercise on muscle mass and strength, but their effectiveness in middle-aged women, or whether there are any additional benefits to physical function, remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether a multinutrient-fortified milk drink (MFMD) could enhance the effects of exercise on functional muscle power (stair climbing) in middle-aged women. Secondary aims were to evaluate the intervention effects on physical function, muscle strength, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), bone mineral content (BMC), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle density, balance, flexibility, aerobic fitness, inflammation, oxidative stress, bone and cartilage turnover, blood pressure, and blood lipids. METHODS: In this 4-mo, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 244 women (45-65 y) participated in a multimodal resistance-type exercise program 3 d/wk, with random allocation to a twice-daily MFMD containing added protein, vitamin D, calcium, milk fat globule membrane (phospholipids and other bioactives), and other micronutrients (Ex + MFMD, n = 123) or an energy-matched placebo (Ex + placebo, n = 121). RESULTS: A total of 216 women (89%) completed the study. After 4 mo, both groups experienced similar 3.6%-4.3% improvements in the primary outcomes of fast-pace 5- and 10-step stair ascent power. In contrast, Ex + MFMD experienced greater improvements in 5-step regular-pace stair descent time [net difference (95% CI): -0.09 s (-0.18, 0.00 s), P = 0.045], countermovement jump height [0.5 cm (0.04, 1.0 cm), P = 0.038], total body LM [0.3 kg (0.04, 0.60 kg), P = 0.020], FM [-0.6 kg (-1.0, -0.2 kg), P = 0.004], BMC [0.4% (0.1%, 0.6%), P = 0.020], muscle CSA [thigh: 1.8% (0.6%, 2.9%), P = 0.003; lower leg: 0.9% (0.3%, 1.6%), P = 0.005], balance eyes closed [3.3 s (1.1, 5.4 s), P = 0.005], 2-min step performance [8 steps (3, 12 steps), P = 0.003], and sit-and-reach flexibility [1.4 cm (0.6, 2.2 cm), P = 0.026]. MFMD did not enhance the effects of exercise on any measures of muscle strength, gait speed, dynamic balance, reaction time, or blood lipids, and there was no effect of either intervention on blood pressure, markers of inflammation, or cartilage turnover. Ex + placebo had a greater improvement in the oxidative stress marker protein carbonyls (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged women, daily consumption of an MFMD did not enhance the effects of a multimodal exercise program on the primary outcome of stair climbing ascent power, but did elicit greater improvements in multiple secondary outcomes including various other measures of functional performance, LM, muscle size, FM, balance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and bone metabolism.This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12617000383369.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/química , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite/química , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/química , Desempenho Físico Funcional
11.
ISME J ; 14(6): 1494-1507, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152389

RESUMO

Although the microbiota is known to affect host development, metabolism, and immunity, its impact on host behavior is only beginning to be understood. In order to better characterize behavior modulation by host-associated microorganisms, we investigated how bacteria modulate complex behaviors in the nematode model organism Pristionchus pacificus. This nematode is a predator that feeds on the larvae of other nematodes, including Caenorhabditis elegans. By growing P. pacificus on different bacteria and testing their ability to kill C. elegans, we reveal large differences in killing efficiencies, with a Novosphingobium species showing the strongest enhancement. This enhanced killing was not accompanied by an increase in feeding, which is a phenomenon known as surplus killing, whereby predators kill more prey than necessary for sustenance. Our RNA-seq data demonstrate widespread metabolic rewiring upon exposure to Novosphingobium, which facilitated screening of bacterial mutants with altered transcriptional responses. We identified bacterial production of vitamin B12 as an important cause of such enhanced predatory behavior. Although vitamin B12 is an essential cofactor for detoxification and metabolite biosynthesis, shown previously to accelerate development in C. elegans, supplementation with this enzyme cofactor amplified surplus killing in P. pacificus, whereas mutants in vitamin B12-dependent pathways reduced surplus killing. By demonstrating that production of vitamin B12 by host-associated microbiota can affect complex host behaviors, we reveal new connections between animal diet, microbiota, and nervous system.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Nematoides/fisiologia , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Microbiota , Nematoides/microbiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Vitaminas/metabolismo
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 371-382, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186892

RESUMO

Rationale: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels may represent a cause or a consequence of these conditions.Objectives: To determine whether vitamin D metabolism is altered in asthma or COPD.Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in 186 adults to determine whether the 25(OH)D response to six oral doses of 3 mg vitamin D3, administered over 1 year, differed between those with asthma or COPD versus control subjects. Serum concentrations of vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3, and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25[OH]2D3) were determined presupplementation and postsupplementation in 93 adults with asthma, COPD, or neither condition, and metabolite-to-parent compound molar ratios were compared between groups to estimate hydroxylase activity. Additionally, we analyzed 14 datasets to compare expression of 1α,25(OH)2D3-inducible gene expression signatures in clinical samples taken from adults with asthma or COPD versus control subjects.Measurements and Main Results: The mean postsupplementation 25(OH)D increase in participants with asthma (20.9 nmol/L) and COPD (21.5 nmol/L) was lower than in control subjects (39.8 nmol/L; P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, patients with asthma and COPD had lower molar ratios of 25(OH)D3-to-vitamin D3 and higher molar ratios of 1α,25(OH)2D3-to-25(OH)D3 both presupplementation and postsupplementation (P ≤ 0.005). Intergroup differences in 1α,25(OH)2D3-inducible gene expression signatures were modest and variable if statistically significant.Conclusions: Attenuation of the 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation in asthma and COPD associated with reduced molar ratios of 25(OH)D3-to-vitamin D3 and increased molar ratios of 1α,25(OH)2D3-to-25(OH)D3 in serum, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism is dysregulated in these conditions.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , 25-Hidroxivitamina D3 1-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colecalciferol/farmacocinética , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Vitaminas/farmacocinética
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1241-1253, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111302

RESUMO

Genetic selection and intensive nutrition for increased growth rate in meat-type ducks has resulted in an imbalance between pectorales increment and sternal mass, which is detrimental to productivity and welfare. Reducing body weight and increasing sternal mass probably reverses these adverse effects. Therefore, 2 experiments (Expt.) were conducted to investigate the effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), a vitamin D3 metabolites, on sternal mass. In Expt. 1, 512 1-day-old male ducks were randomly assigned to 4 low-nutrient density diets and received following treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: (i) NRC or China Agricultural industry standards (NY/T) vitamin premixes and (ii) 0.069 mg/kg 25-HyD in feed or not. At 49 D of age, regardless of 25-OH-D3, NY/T vitamin regimen inhibited bone turnover and consequently increased sternal trabecular bone volume and mineral deposition compared with NRC vitamin premix. Supplementing 25-OH-D3 to NRC but not NY/T vitamin regimen significantly improved sternal microarchitecture and mineral content, which companied by decreased serum bone resorption markers concentration, as well as downregulation of the gene expressions of osteoclast differentiation and activity. In Expt. 2, 256 1-day-old male ducks were fed a standard nutrient density diet contained NRC vitamin premix with 0 or 0.069 mg/kg of 25-OH-D3. Results also showed that 25-OH-D3 treatment significantly improved sternal mineral accumulation and microarchitecture, along with decreasing osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in bone surface, declining serum bone turnover markers levels, and increasing serum Ca concentration. Collectively, these findings indicated that the dietary administration of 25-OH-D3 increased sternal mass in NRC vitamin diet by suppressing bone resorption in 49-day-old meat duck.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Esterno/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1564-1570, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111323

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary riboflavin levels on reproductive performance, riboflavin status, and antioxidant status of laying duck breeders, to estimate the requirement of this vitamin for duck breeders. Different levels crystalline riboflavin (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg) were supplemented to a corn-soybean-corn gluten meal basal diet to produce 5 dietary treatments with different analyzed total riboflavin levels (1.48, 3.20, 6.30, 11.71, and 16.83 mg/kg). A total of 80 White Pekin duck breeders aged 40 wk were allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 16 birds each (8 replicates per treatment and 2 breeders per replicate), and all birds were raised individually for 9 wk. At the end of the experiment, reproductive performance, tissue riboflavin concentrations, and antioxidant status of White Pekin duck breeders were measured. The results showed that body weight, egg weight, egg production, and egg fertility were not affected by dietary riboflavin levels. However, among all of the laying duck breeders, the birds fed the basal diet without riboflavin supplementation had the lowest egg hatchability, plasma riboflavin, egg yolk riboflavin, and egg albumen riboflavin (P < 0.001). In addition, the duck breeders fed the basal diet without riboflavin supplementation showed the lowest antioxidant capacity indicated by greatest plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lowest reduced glutathione content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities, and total antioxidant capacity in both plasma (P < 0.001) and egg yolk (P < 0.001). These results revealed that dietary riboflavin supplementation improved the reproductive performance and antioxidant status of the duck breeders. According to the broken-line model, the riboflavin requirements (based on dietary total riboflavin) of laying duck breeders in terms of the egg hatchability, plasma riboflavin, egg yolk riboflavin, egg albumen riboflavin, plasma T-SOD activity, and plasma MDA content were 3.19, 7.42, 3.88, 7.44, 6.45, and 8.84 mg/kg, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2364, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047255

RESUMO

Peanut is a popular food due to its high nutrient content. The effects of ZnCl2 on peanut seed germination, fatty acid and sugar contents, vitamin biosynthesis, antioxidant content, and Zn assimilation were evaluated in this study. Treatment with ZnCl2 significantly improved the germination rate, enhanced reactive oxygen species production and reduced the content of total fatty acids in peanut seed and sprout. However, ZnCl2 treatment did not reduce total sugar or total protein relative to the control. Germination promoted the biosynthesis of phenolics and resveratrol and increased the antioxidant capacity, as evaluated by Fe3+ reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, especially under Zn stress conditions. The vitamin content decreased in the following order among treatments: germinated seeds with ZnCl2 treatment > germinated seeds without ZnCl2 treatment > dormant seeds. Interestingly, Zn content was approximately five times higher in the germinated ZnCl2-treated seeds compared to in the untreated germinated seeds and the dormant seeds. The results of this study provide a new method for producing healthy foods with enhanced vitamin content and antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Arachis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloretos/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/normas , Sementes/metabolismo , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Germinação , Nutrientes/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo
17.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930312

RESUMO

We hypothesized cattle that differed in BW gain had different digestive tract microbiota. Two experiments were conducted. In both experiments, steers received a diet that consisted of 8.0% chopped alfalfa hay, 20% wet distillers grain with solubles, 67.75% dry-rolled corn, and 4.25% vitamin/mineral mix (including monensin) on a dry matter basis. Steers had ad libitum access to feed and water. In experiment 1, 144 steers (age = 310 ± 1.5 d; BW = 503 ± 37.2 kg) were individually fed for 105 d. Ruminal digesta samples were collected from eight steers with the greatest (1.96 ± 0.02 kg/d) and eight steers with the least ADG (1.57 ± 0.02 kg/d) that were within ±0.32 SD of the mean (10.1 ± 0.05 kg/d) dry matter. In experiment 2, 66 steers (age = 396 ± 1 d; BW = 456 ± 5 kg) were individually fed for 84 d. Rumen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon digesta samples were collected from eight steers with the greatest (2.39 ± 0.06 kg/d) and eight steers with the least ADG (1.85 ± 0.06 kg/d) that were within ±0.55 SD of the mean dry matter intake (11.9 ± 0.1 kg/d). In both studies, DNA was isolated and the V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. Operational taxonomic units were classified using 0.03 dissimilarity and identified using the Greengenes 16S rRNA gene database. In experiment 1, there were no differences in the Chao1, Shannon, Simpson, and InvSimpson diversity indexes or the permutation multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA; P = 0.57). The hierarchical test returned six clades as being differentially abundant between steer classifications (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, Chao1, Shannon, Simpson, and InvSimpson diversity indexes and PERMANOVA between steer classified as less or greater ADG did not differ (P > 0.05) for the rumen, duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon. In the jejunum, there tended to be a difference in the Chao1 (P = 0.09) and Simpson diversity (P = 0.09) indexes between steer classifications, but there was no difference in the Shannon (P = 0.14) and InvSimpson (P = 0.14) diversity indexes. Classification groups for the jejunum differed (P = 0.006) in the PERMANOVA. The hierarchical dependence false discovery rate procedure returned 11 clades as being differentially abundant between steer classifications in the jejunum (P < 0.05). The majority of the OTU were in the Families Corynebacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae. This study suggests that intestinal differences in the microbiota of ruminants may be associated with animal performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grão Comestível , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Minerais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Zea mays
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952279

RESUMO

To investigate environmental factors that contribute to ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced oxidative stress, which accelerates the senescence and toxicity of skin cells, we irradiated human fibroblasts cultured in commonly used essential media with UVA and evaluated their viability and production of reactive oxygen species. The viability of fibroblasts exposed to a single dose of 3.6 J/cm2 UVA was not reduced when cultured in Hanks balanced salt solution, but it was significantly decreased when cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), which contains various amino acids and vitamins. Furthermore, cell viability was not reduced when fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM and treated with a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger such as glutathione or catalase added after UVA irradiation. In addition, we confirmed that the production of H2O2 was dramatically increased by UVA photosensitization when riboflavin (R) coexisted with amino acids such as tryptophan (T), and found that R with folic acid (F) produced high levels of H2O2 after UVA irradiation. Furthermore, we noticed that R and F or R and T have different photosensitization mechanisms since NaN3, which is a singlet oxygen quencher, suppressed only R and T photosensitization. Lastly, we examined the effects of antioxidants (L-ascorbic acid, trolox, L-cysteine, and L-histidine), which are singlet oxygen or superoxide or H2O2 scavengers, on R and F or on R and T photosensitization, and found that 1 mM ascorbic acid, Trolox, and L-histidine were strongly photosensitized with R, and produced significant levels of H2O2 during UVA exposure. However, 1 mM L-cysteine dramatically suppressed H2O2 production by UVA photosensitization. These data suggest that a low concentration of R-derived photosensitization is elicited by different mechanisms depending on the coexisting vitamins and amino acids, and regulates cellular oxidative stress by producing H2O2 during UVA exposure.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Riboflavina/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963141

RESUMO

Vitamins and minerals are essential to humans as they play essential roles in a variety of basic metabolic pathways that support fundamental cellular functions. In particular, their involvement in energy-yielding metabolism, DNA synthesis, oxygen transport, and neuronal functions makes them critical for brain and muscular function. These, in turn, translate into effects on cognitive and psychological processes, including mental and physical fatigue. This review is focused on B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B8, B9 and B12), vitamin C, iron, magnesium and zinc, which have recognized roles in these outcomes. It summarizes the biochemical bases and actions of these micronutrients at both the molecular and cellular levels and connects them with cognitive and psychological symptoms, as well as manifestations of fatigue that may occur when status or supplies of these micronutrients are not adequate.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Fadiga/metabolismo , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Humanos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Minerais/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/psicologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem
20.
Animal ; 14(1): 86-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416494

RESUMO

With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control-standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test-elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
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