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1.
Food Funct ; 13(9): 5089-5101, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411884

RESUMO

Cultured meat technology is a promising alternative strategy for supplying animal protein taking advantage of its efficiency, safety, and sustainability. The muscle stem cell (MuSC) is one of the most important seed cells for producing muscle fibers, but its weak ex vivo proliferation capacity limits the industrialization of cultured meat. Here we reported that vitamin C (VC) is an excellent supplement for the long-term culture of porcine MuSCs (pMuSCs) ex vivo with considerable proliferative and myogenic effects. After 29 days of culture with 100 µM VC, pMuSCs achieved a 2.8 × 107 ± 0.8 × 107-fold increase in the total cell number, which was 360 times higher than that of cells without VC treatment. pMuSCs that were exposed to VC were less arrested in the G0/G1 phase and showed a significant increase in the expression of cell cycle-related genes such as Cdk1, Cdk2, and Ki67. Additionally, the differentiation potential of pMuSCs was enhanced when cells were proliferated with VC, as evidenced by increased expression of MyoD and MyHC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that VC exerted its proliferative effect through activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway via the IGF-1 signaling. These findings highlighted the potential application of VC in the ex vivo expansion of pMuSCs for cultured meat production.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Carne , Músculos , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Suínos , Vitaminas/metabolismo
2.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 48, 2022 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus) display an attractive source for the rapidly increasing market of plant-based human nutrition. Of particular interest are press cakes of the seeds, cheap residuals from sunflower oil manufacturing that offer attractive sustainability and economic benefits. Admittedly, sunflower seed milk, derived therefrom, suffers from limited nutritional value, undesired flavor, and the presence of indigestible sugars. Of specific relevance is the absence of vitamin B12. This vitamin is required for development and function of the central nervous system, healthy red blood cell formation, and DNA synthesis, and displays the most important micronutrient for vegans to be aware of. Here we evaluated the power of microbes to enrich sunflower seed milk nutritionally as well as in flavor. RESULTS: Propionibacterium freudenreichii NCC 1177 showed highest vitamin B12 production in sunflower seed milk out of a range of food-grade propionibacteria. Its growth and B12 production capacity, however, were limited by a lack of accessible carbon sources and stimulants of B12 biosynthesis in the plant milk. This was overcome by co-cultivation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NCC 156, which supplied lactate, amino acids, and vitamin B7 for growth of NCC 1177 plus vitamins B2 and B3, potentially supporting vitamin B12 production by the Propionibacterium. After several rounds of optimization, co-fermentation of ultra-high-temperature pre-treated sunflower seed milk by the two microbes, enabled the production of 17 µg (100 g)-1 vitamin B12 within four days without any further supplementation. The fermented milk further revealed significantly enriched levels of L-lysine, the most limiting essential amino acid, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, improved protein quality and flavor, and largely eliminated indigestible sugars. CONCLUSION: The fermented sunflower seed milk, obtained by using two food-grade microbes without further supplementation, displays an attractive, clean-label product with a high level of vitamin B12 and multiple co-benefits. The secret of the successfully upgraded plant milk lies in the multifunctional cooperation of the two microbes, which were combined, based on their genetic potential and metabolic signatures found in mono-culture fermentations. This design by knowledge approach appears valuable for future development of plant-based milk products.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Propionibacterium freudenreichii , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Leite , Sementes , Vitamina B 12 , Vitaminas/metabolismo
3.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268702

RESUMO

There is a very vital antioxidant extracted from microgreen alga. Chlorella vulgaris has major advantages and requires high yield worldwide. Some microalgae require vitamins for their growth promotion. This study was held to determine the impact of different vitamins including Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Pyridoxine (B6), and Ascorbic acid (c) at concentrations of 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 mg/L of each. Each vitamin was added to the BG11 growth medium to determine the effect on growth, total carbohydrate, total protein, pigments content, antioxidant activities of Chlorella vulgaris. Moreover, antitumor effects of methanol extract of C. vulgaris without and with the supplement of thiamine against Human prostate cancer (PC-3), Hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2), Colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) and Epitheliod Carcinoma (Hela) was estimated in vitro. C. vulgaris supplemented with various vitamins showed a significant increase in biomass, pigment content, total protein, and total carbohydrates in comparison to the control. Thiamine was the best vitamin influencing as an antioxidant. C. vulgaris supplemented with thiamine had high antitumor effects in vitro. So, it's necessary to add vitamins to BG11 media for enhancement of the growth and metabolites.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomassa , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Tiamina , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
4.
Elife ; 112022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256050

RESUMO

Pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with maternal and fetal health outcomes. Using physiological human placental perfusion and villous explants, we investigate the role of the placenta in regulating the relationships between maternal 25(OH)D and fetal physiology. We demonstrate active placental uptake of 25(OH)D3 by endocytosis, placental metabolism of 25(OH)D3 into 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3], with subsequent release of these metabolites into both the maternal and fetal circulations. Active placental transport of 25(OH)D3 and synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3 demonstrate that fetal supply is dependent on placental function rather than simply the availability of maternal 25(OH)D3. We demonstrate that 25(OH)D3 exposure induces rapid effects on the placental transcriptome and proteome. These map to multiple pathways central to placental function and thereby fetal development, independent of vitamin D transfer. Our data suggest that the underlying epigenetic landscape helps dictate the transcriptional response to vitamin D treatment. This is the first quantitative study demonstrating vitamin D transfer and metabolism by the human placenta, with widespread effects on the placenta itself. These data demonstrate a complex interplay between vitamin D and the placenta and will inform future interventions using vitamin D to support fetal development and maternal adaptations to pregnancy.


Assuntos
Placenta , Vitamina D , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
5.
Elife ; 112022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257657

RESUMO

The placenta plays an important role in how vitamin D is metabolized and supplied to the fetus.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Vitamina D , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4651, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301401

RESUMO

Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of preeclampsia. Impaired placental amino acid transport is suggested to contribute to abnormal fetal intrauterine growth in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. However, if vitamin D-regulated amino acid transporter is involved in the pathophysiologic mechanism of preeclampsia has not been clarified yet. The aberrant expression of key isoform of L-type amino acid transporter LAT1 was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry in the placenta from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. The role for vitamin D on placental LAT1 expression was investigated through the exposure of HTR-8/SVneo human trophoblast cells to the biologically active 1,25(OH)2D3 and the oxidative stress-inducer cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Our results showed that placental LAT1 expression was reduced in women with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnancies, which was associated with decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR). 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly upregulated LAT1 expression in placental trophoblasts, and also prevented the decrease of mTOR activity under CoCl2-induced oxidative stress. siRNA targeting VDR significantly attenuated 1,25(OH)2D3-stimulated LAT1 expression and mTOR signaling activity. Moreover, treatment of rapamycin specifically inhibited the activity of mTOR signaling and resulted in decrease of LAT1 expression. In conclusion, LAT1 expression was downregulated in the placenta from women with preeclampsia. 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR could stimulate LAT1 expression, which was likely mediated by mTOR signaling in placental trophoblasts. Regulation on placental amino acid transport may be one of the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects fetal growth in preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Placenta , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328419

RESUMO

The published literature makes a very strong case that a wide range of disease morbidity associates with and may in part be due to epithelial barrier leak. An equally large body of published literature substantiates that a diverse group of micronutrients can reduce barrier leak across a wide array of epithelial tissue types, stemming from both cell culture as well as animal and human tissue models. Conversely, micronutrient deficiencies can exacerbate both barrier leak and morbidity. Focusing on zinc, Vitamin A and Vitamin D, this review shows that at concentrations above RDA levels but well below toxicity limits, these micronutrients can induce cell- and tissue-specific molecular-level changes in tight junctional complexes (and by other mechanisms) that reduce barrier leak. An opportunity now exists in critical care-but also medical prophylactic and therapeutic care in general-to consider implementation of select micronutrients at elevated dosages as adjuvant therapeutics in a variety of disease management. This consideration is particularly pointed amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia
8.
J Bacteriol ; 204(4): e0050321, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357164

RESUMO

Microbial communities occupy diverse niches in nature, and community members routinely exchange a variety of nutrients among themselves. While large-scale metagenomic and metabolomic studies shed some light on these exchanges, the contribution of individual species and the molecular details of specific interactions are difficult to track. In this study, we follow the exchange of vitamin B1 (thiamin) and its intermediates between microbes within synthetic cocultures of Escherichia coli and Vibrio anguillarum. Thiamin contains two moieties, 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (HMP) and 4-methyl-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)thiazole (THZ), which are synthesized by distinct pathways using enzymes ThiC and ThiG, respectively, and then coupled by ThiE to form thiamin. Even though E. coli ΔthiC, ΔthiE, and ΔthiG mutants are thiamin auxotrophs, we observed that cocultures of ΔthiC-ΔthiE and ΔthiC-ΔthiG mutants are able to grow in a thiamin-deficient medium, whereas the ΔthiE-ΔthiG coculture does not. Further, the exchange of thiamin and its intermediates in V. anguillarum cocultures and in mixed cocultures of V. anguillarum and E. coli revealed that there exist specific patterns for thiamin metabolism and exchange among these microbes. Our findings show that HMP is shared more frequently than THZ, concurrent with previous observations that free HMP and HMP auxotrophy is commonly found in various environments. Furthermore, we observe that the availability of exogenous thiamin in the media affects whether these strains interact with each other or grow independently. These findings collectively underscore the importance of the exchange of essential metabolites as a defining factor in building and modulating synthetic or natural microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Vitamin B1 (thiamin) is an essential nutrient for cellular metabolism. Microorganisms that are unable to synthesize thiamin either fully or in part exogenously obtain it from their environment or via exchanges with other microbial members in their community. In this study, we created synthetic microbial cocultures that rely on sharing thiamin and its biosynthesis intermediates and observed that some of them are preferentially exchanged. We also observed that the coculture composition is dictated by the production and/or availability of thiamin and its intermediates. Our studies with synthetic cocultures provide the molecular basis for understanding thiamin sharing among microorganisms and lay out broad guidelines for setting up synthetic microbial cocultures by using the exchange of an essential metabolite as their foundation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Tiamina , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162272

RESUMO

Physical activity, combined with adequate nutrition, is considered a protective factor against cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and intestinal dysbiosis. Achieving optimal performance requires a significantly high energy expenditure, which must be correctly supplied to avoid the occurrence of diseases such as muscle injuries, oxidative stress, and heart pathologies, and a decrease in physical performance during competition. Moreover, in sports activities, the replenishment of water, vitamins, and minerals consumed during training is essential for safeguarding athletes' health. In this scenario, vitamins play a pivotal role in numerous metabolic reactions and some muscle biochemical adaptation processes induced by sports activity. Vitamins are introduced to the diet because the human body is unable to produce these micronutrients. The aim of this review is to highlight the fundamental role of vitamin supplementation in physical activity. Above all, we focus on the roles of vitamins A, B6, D, E, and K in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders, muscle injuries, and regulation of the microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vitaminas , Atletas , Dieta , Humanos , Minerais , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112739, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202910

RESUMO

To date, the underlying mechanisms involved intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) remain unclear, which has hindered the development of molecular biological therapy for IDD. Autophagy is vital for intracellular quality control and metabolic balance in intervertebral disc cells. Hence, autophagy homeostasis is important. Emerging evidence has implicated vitamin D (VD) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in IDD progression because of their effects on different autophagy steps. However, the results of clinical trials in which VD supplementation was assessed as a treatment for IDD are controversial. Furthermore, experimental studies on the interplay between VD/VDR and autophagy are still in their infancy. In view of the significance of the crosstalk between VD/VDR and autophagy components, this review focuses on the latest research on VD/VDR modulation in autophagy and investigates the possible regulatory mechanisms. This article will deepen our understanding of the relationship between VD/VDR and autophagy and suggests novel strategies for IDD prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/prevenção & controle , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/metabolismo
11.
Poult Sci ; 101(4): 101717, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172231

RESUMO

There is evidence that probiotic lactobacilli, in addition to essential vitamins, such as vitamin A and D, have immunomodulatory properties that enhance immune response of neonatal chickens against infections. The present study evaluated the effects of in ovo administration of retinoic acid (RA), 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (VitD), and a lactobacilli cocktail on cytokine gene expression, antibody responses and spleen cell subsets in chickens. RA (90 µmol/egg) and VitD (0.6 µg/egg) were administered in ovo, either alone or in combination with lactobacilli (107 CFU/egg), at embryonic d 18. On d 5 and 10 posthatch, gene expression and cellular composition were analyzed in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Birds were immunized on d 14 and 21 posthatch with 2 T-dependent antigens, sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), to assess their antibody responses. Sera were collected from the immunized chickens on d 14, 21, 28, and 35 posthatch. The results demonstrated that lactobacilli treatment increased the number of monocyte/macrophages (KUL01+) and CD3+CD4+ T cells in the spleen, and enhanced serum anti-KLH IgM and IgY on d 14 postprimary immunization (P < 0.05). RA significantly increased serum IgY and IgM titers to KLH and enhanced the expression of interferon (IFN)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-13, and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) in the bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05). The percentage of CD3+CD8+ T cells, and monocyte/macrophages (KUL01+) was elevated in the spleen as well (P < 0.05). These findings reveal that prehatch administration of RA improves immunocompetency of neonatal chickens by increasing the production of cytokines that regulate innate immunity and through enhancing antibody-mediated response against T-dependent antigens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Probióticos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Galinhas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Imunoglobulina M , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ovinos , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
12.
J Bacteriol ; 204(3): e0052121, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978460

RESUMO

The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-binding protein (PLPBP) plays an important role in vitamin B6 homeostasis. Loss of this protein in organisms such as Escherichia coli and humans disrupts the vitamin B6 pool and induces intracellular accumulation of pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP), which is normally undetectable in wild-type cells. This accumulated PNP could affect diverse metabolic systems through the inhibition of some PLP-dependent enzymes. In this study, we investigated the as-yet-unclear mechanism of intracellular accumulation of PNP due to the loss of PLPBP protein encoded by yggS in E. coli. Genetic studies using several PLPBP-deficient strains of E. coli lacking a known enzyme(s) in the de novo or salvage pathways of vitamin B6, including pyridoxine (amine) 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO), PNP synthase, pyridoxal kinase, and pyridoxal reductase, demonstrated that neither the flux from the de novo pathway nor the salvage pathway solely contributed to the PNP accumulation caused by the PLPBP mutation. Studies of the strains lacking both PLPBP and PNPO suggested that PNP shares the same pool with PMP, and showed that PNP levels are impacted by PMP levels and vice versa. Here, we show that disruption of PLPBP perturbs PMP homeostasis, which may result in PNP accumulation in the PLPBP-deficient strains. IMPORTANCE A PLP-binding protein (PLPBP) from the conserved COG0325 family has recently been recognized as a key player in vitamin B6 homeostasis in various organisms. Loss of PLPBP disrupts vitamin B6 homeostasis and perturbs diverse metabolisms, including amino acid and α-keto acid metabolism. Accumulation of PNP is a characteristic phenotype of PLPBP deficiency and is suggested to be a potential cause of the pleiotropic effects, but the mechanism of this accumulation has been poorly understood. In this study, we show that fluxes for PNP synthesis/metabolism are not responsible for the accumulation of PNP. Our results indicate that PLPBP is involved in the homeostasis of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate, and that its disruption may lead to the accumulation of PNP in PLPBP deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Piridoxina , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Piridoxina/metabolismo , Vitamina B 6/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262279, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982785

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cultivation conditions in the context of light on the retention of selected vitamins, minerals and polyphenols in the stem and cap of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus L.). Additionally, the effect of the retention of bioactive components on the antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts was evaluated, taking into account the morphological part. Oyster mushrooms grown in the light of 200 lux had higher riboflavin content compared to mushrooms exposed to the light of lower intensity. The thiamine content of the mushrooms dropped with decreasing light intensity during cultivation. The content of biologically active compounds was found to be equal in the stem and the cap. In the case of riboflavin, it was shown that its contents in cap fractions, irrespective of the cultivation method, was statistically significantly higher than in stems. The mineral composition of caps and stems differed from each other. No differences in Zn and Cu content between the morphological parts of the mushroom studied were found. However, it was shown that the stems, regardless of the type of light, contained less iron, magnesium and sodium. Thus, it was observed that limited light exposure caused an increase in the content of total polyphenolic compounds, which did not correlate with antioxidant activity. There was no effect of the light on the antioxidant activity of mushrooms. It was also shown that stem extracts had higher antioxidant activity compared to the extracts obtained from the caps. This findings point to the possibility and potentail of use both fraction of mushrooms in the new food products development.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Luz , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Cobre/análise , Pleurotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pleurotus/efeitos da radiação , Polifenóis/análise , Vitaminas/análise , Zinco/análise
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051003

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the mycotoxin binder montmorillonite (MMT) supplemented in the diet of dairy cows on the bioavailability of vitamins A, D, E, B1 and B6. Six multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a crossover design with two periods. Treatments were a control diet with or without MMT. Vitamins were infused individually into the abomasum through the ruminal cannula. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h after the administration of each vitamin. Results showed that vitamin A reached maximal concentration (Tmax) at 5.3 h after dosing, the maximal concentration (Cmax) was 1.2 times higher than the basal concentration (Cbasal), and the area under the curve (AUC) was 739 arbitrary units. Vitamin B6 reached the Tmax at 13 h after dosing, the Cmax was 1.4 times higher than the Cbasal, and the AUC was 222 arbitrary units. No differences were observed in Cbasal, Tmax, Cmax and AUC of vitamin A and B6 between control vs. MMT-supplemented cows. Plasma concentrations of vitamins D, E and B1 had no concentration peaks, and were not affected by MMT addition. The lack of a response suggests that their plasma concentration may be tightly regulated. Results of this study do not show evidence that MMT affects the bioavailability of vitamins A and B6 in vivo.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bentonita/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Bovinos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Espanha , Vitaminas/sangue
15.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(2): e2103331, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747140

RESUMO

Nutrients play critical roles in maintaining core physiological functions and in preventing diseases. Technologies for delivering these nutrients and for monitoring their concentrations can help to ensure proper nutritional balance. Eccrine sweat is a potentially attractive class of biofluid for monitoring purposes due to the ability to capture sweat easily and noninvasively from nearly any region of the body using skin-integrated microfluidic technologies. Here, a miniaturized system of this type is presented that allows simple, rapid colorimetric assessments of the concentrations of multiple essential nutrients in sweat, simultaneously and without any supporting electronics - vitamin C, calcium, zinc, and iron. A transdermal patch integrated directly with the microfluidics supports passive, sustained delivery of these species to the body throughout a period of wear. Comparisons of measurement results to those from traditional lab analysis methods demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this platform. On-body tests with human subjects reveal correlations between the time dynamics of concentrations of these nutrients in sweat and those of the corresponding concentrations in blood. Studies conducted before and after consuming certain foods and beverages highlight practical capabilities in monitoring nutritional balance, with strong potential to serve as a basis for guiding personalized dietary choices.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Suor/química , Suor/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Colorimetria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adesivo Transdérmico , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Fam Pract ; 70(8): 386-398, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818175

RESUMO

This review, with handy tables, summarizes which vitamins offer proven benefits-and which don't.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Humanos , Vitaminas/toxicidade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830341

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the nuclear receptors that could mediate the nutrient-dependent transcriptional activation and regulate metabolic networks through energy homeostasis. However, these receptors cannot work properly under metabolic stress. PPARs and their subtypes can be modulated by nutrigenomic interventions, particularly under stress conditions to restore cellular homeostasis. Many nutrients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, dietary amino acids and phytochemicals have shown their ability for potential activation or inhibition of PPARs. Thus, through different mechanisms, all these nutrients can modulate PPARs and are ultimately helpful to prevent various metabolic disorders, particularly in transition dairy cows. This review aims to provide insights into the crucial role of PPARs in energy metabolism and their potential modulation through nutrigenomic interventions to improve energy homeostasis in dairy animals.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Laticínios/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras , Humanos , Ligantes , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 757836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712243

RESUMO

The therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In GVHD, rigorous pre-conditioning regimen resets the immune landscape and inflammatory milieu causing immune dysregulation, characterized by an expansion of alloreactive cells and a reduction in immune regulatory cells. In acute GVHD (aGVHD), the release of damage- and pathogen- associated molecular patterns from damaged tissue caused by the conditioning regimen sets the stage for T cell priming, activation and expansion further exacerbating tissue injury and organ damage, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies have shown that donor T cells utilize multiple energetic and biosynthetic pathways to mediate GVHD that can be distinct from the pathways used by regulatory T cells for their suppressive function. In chronic GVHD (cGVHD), donor T cells may differentiate into IL-21 producing T follicular helper cells or tissue resident T helper cells that cooperate with germinal center B cells or memory B cells, respectively, to produce allo- and auto-reactive antibodies with subsequent tissue fibrosis. Alternatively, donor T cells can become IFN- γ/IL-17 cytokine expressing T cells that mediate sclerodermatous skin injury. Patients refractory to the first line standard regimens for GVHD treatment have a poor prognosis indicating an urgent need for new therapies to restore the balance between effector and regulatory immune cells while preserving the beneficial graft-versus-tumor effect. Emerging data points toward a role for metabolism in regulating these allo- and auto-immune responses. Here, we will discuss the preclinical and clinical data available on the distinct metabolic demands of acute and chronic GVHD and recent efforts in identifying therapeutic targets using metabolomics. Another dimension of this review will examine the changing microbiome after allo-HSCT and the role of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids and long chain fatty acids on regulating immune responses. Lastly, we will examine the metabolic implications of coinhibitory pathway blockade and cellular therapies in allo-HSCT. In conclusion, greater understanding of metabolic pathways involved in immune cell dysregulation during allo-HSCT may pave the way to provide novel therapies to prevent and treat GVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Metabolômica/tendências , Doença Aguda , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/imunologia , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glicólise , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Efeito Enxerto vs Tumor , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/fisiologia , Imunomodulação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Vitaminas/metabolismo
19.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 88: 103751, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624477

RESUMO

Although the toxicity of bisphenol S has been studied in some species, the global metabolic network disrupted by bisphenol S remains unclear. To this end, published datasets related to the genes, proteins, and metabolites disturbed by bisphenol S were investigated through omics methods. The dataset revealed that bisphenol S at high concentrations tended to downregulate biomolecules, while low concentrations of bisphenol S tended to enhance metabolic reactions. The results showed that exposure to bisphenol S upregulated estrogen and downregulated androgen metabolism in humans, mice, rats, and zebrafish. Fatty acid metabolism and phospholipid metabolism in mice were upregulated. Reactions in amino acid metabolism were upregulated, with the exception of the suppressive conversion of arginine to ornithine. In zebrafish, fatty acid synthesis was promoted, while nucleotide metabolism was primarily depressed through the downregulation of pyruvate 2-o-phosphotransferase. The interference in amino acid metabolism by bisphenol S could trigger Alzheimer's disease, while its disturbance of glucose metabolism was associated with type II diabetes. Disturbed glycolipid metabolism and vitamin metabolism could induce Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. These findings based on omics data provide scientific insight into the metabolic network regulated by bisphenol S and the diseases triggered by its metabolic disruption.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ésteres/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Genômica , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Suínos , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204998

RESUMO

The association between obesity and vitamin A has been studied. Some studies point to the anti-obesity activity related to this vitamin, carotenoids with provitamin A activity, and carotenoid conversion products. This performance has been evaluated in respect of adipogenesis, metabolic activity, oxidation processes, secretory function, and oxidative stress modulation, showing a new property attributed to vitamin A in preventing and treating obesity. However, vitamin A and its precursors are highly sensitive and easily degraded when subjected to heat, the presence of light, and oxygen, in addition to losses related to the processes of digestion and absorption. In this context, encapsulation presents itself as an alternative capable of increasing vitamin A's stability in the face of unfavorable conditions in the environment, which can reduce its functionality. Considering that vitamin A's status shows a strong correlation with obesity and is an innovative theme, this article addresses the associations between vitamin A's consumption and its precursors, encapsulated or not, and its physiological effects on obesity. The present narrative review points out those recent studies that demonstrate that vitamin A and its encapsulated precursors have the most preserved functionality, which guarantees better effects on obesity therapy.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
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