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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 948-957, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480575

RESUMO

The evaluation of laboratory blood analytes is an important tool for health assessment in avian medicine. Unfortunately, there is a lack of suitable reference values for many zoo bird species. The goal of the present study was to establish reference intervals for a wide range of blood analytes in healthy black-headed ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus) kept in a zoologic garden. Lithium heparinized blood samples from 15 individuals were collected, and 18 different clinical chemistry analytes were measured. New are especially the minimum and maximum values for bile acid (2.38-49.4 µmol/L), cholinesterase (439-1260 U/L), vitamin A (0.65-1.70 mg/L), vitamin E (26.3-52.5 mg/L), and capillary zone electrophoresis (prealbumin, 10.2-23.4%; albumin, 35.9-44.1%; A/G ratio, 1.07-1.69; α-, 15.7-20.0%; ß-, 13.5-19.1%; γ-globulin, 6.08-11.3%). The measured values for clinical chemistry, vitamin, electrophoresis, and hematologic analytes are a basis for further studies and for diagnostics and clinical treatment in this ibis species.


Assuntos
Aves/sangue , Glicemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese/veterinária , Vitaminas/sangue , Amilases/sangue , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Colinesterases/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Minerais/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477251

RESUMO

Seasonal variations in UV-B radiation may influence vitamin D status, and this, in turn, may influence the risk of bronchiolitis hospitalization. The aim of this study was using a causal inference approach to investigate, simultaneously, the interrelationships between personal and environmental risk factors at birth/hospital admission (RFBH), serum vitamin D levels and bronchiolitis hospitalization. A total of 63 children (<2 years old) hospitalized for bronchiolitis (34 RSV-positive) and 63 controls were consecutively enrolled (2014-2016). Vitamin D levels and some RFBH (birth season, birth weight, gestational age, gender, age, weight, hospitalization season) were recorded. The discovered RFBH effects on the risk ok bronchiolitis hospitalization were decomposed into direct and vitamin-D mediated ones through Mediation Analysis. Winter-spring season (vs. summer-autumn) was significantly associated with lower vitamin D levels (mean difference -11.14 nmol/L). Increasing serum vitamin D levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of bronchiolitis hospitalization (OR = 0.84 for a 10-nmol/L increase). Winter-spring season and gestational age (one-week increase) were significantly and directly associated with bronchiolitis hospitalization (OR = 6.37 and OR = 0.78 respectively), while vitamin D-mediated effects were negligible (1.21 and 1.02 respectively). Using a comprehensive causal approach may enhance the understanding of the complex interrelationships among RFBH, vitamin D and bronchiolitis hospitalization.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Bronquiolite/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(1): 92-100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416113

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) continues to spread worldwide, it has become evident that the morbidity and mortality rates clearly vary across nations. Although several factors may account for this disparity, striking differences within and between populations indicate that ethnicity might impact COVID­19 clinical outcomes, reflecting the 'color of disease'. Therefore, the role of key biological variables that could interplay with viral spreading and severity indices has attracted increasing attention, particularly among non­Caucasian populations. Although the links between vitamin D status and the incidence and severity of COVID-19 remain elusive, several lines of emerging evidence suggest that vitamin D signaling, targeting several immune­mediated pathways, may offer potential benefits at different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given that the vitamin D status is modulated by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including skin type (pigmentation), melanin polymers may also play a role in variable COVID­19 outcomes among diverse population settings. Moreover, apart from the well­known limiting effects of melanin on the endogenous production of vitamin D, the potential crosstalk between the pigmentary and immune system may also require special attention concerning the current pandemic. The present review article aimed to shed light on a range of mostly overlooked host factors, such as vitamin D status and melanin pigments, that may influence the course and outcome of COVID­19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Melaninas/imunologia , Pandemias , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitaminas/imunologia , /imunologia , /virologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
5.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911778

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus has caused shock waves in many countries, producing a global health crisis worldwide. Lack of knowledge of the biological mechanisms of viruses, plus the absence of effective treatments against the disease (COVID-19) and/or vaccines have pulled factors that can compromise the proper functioning of the immune system to fight against infectious diseases into the spotlight. The optimal status of specific nutrients is considered crucial to keeping immune components within their normal activity, helping to avoid and overcome infections. Specifically, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) evaluated and deems six vitamins (D, A, C, Folate, B6, B12) and four minerals (zinc, iron, copper and selenium) to be essential for the normal functioning of the immune system, due to the scientific evidence collected so far. In this report, an update on the evidence of the contribution of nutritional factors as immune-enhancing aspects, factors that could reduce their bioavailability, and the role of the optimal status of these nutrients within the COVID-19 pandemic context was carried out. First, a non-systematic review of the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of an optimal nutritional status of these nutrients on the proper functioning of the immune system as well as their potential role in COVID-19 prevention/treatment was carried out by searching for available scientific evidence in PubMed and LitCovid databases. Second, a compilation from published sources and an analysis of nutritional data from 10 European countries was performed, and the relationship between country nutritional status and epidemiological COVID-19 data (available in the Worldometers database) was evaluated following an ecological study design. Furthermore, the potential effect of genetics was considered through the selection of genetic variants previously identified in Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAs) as influencing the nutritional status of these 10 considered nutrients. Therefore, access to genetic information in accessible databases (1000genomes, by Ensembl) of individuals from European populations enabled an approximation that countries might present a greater risk of suboptimal status of the nutrients studied. Results from the review approach show the importance of maintaining a correct nutritional status of these 10 nutrients analyzed for the health of the immune system, highlighting the importance of Vitamin D and iron in the context of COVID-19. Besides, the ecological study demonstrates that intake levels of relevant micronutrients-especially Vitamins D, C, B12, and iron-are inversely associated with higher COVID-19 incidence and/or mortality, particularly in populations genetically predisposed to show lower micronutrient status. In conclusion, nutrigenetic data provided by joint assessment of 10 essential nutrients for the functioning of the immune system and of the genetic factors that can limit their bioavailability can be a fundamental tool to help strengthen the immune system of individuals and prepare populations to fight against infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Nutrigenômica , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/genética , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Selênio/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 525-546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943305

RESUMO

Determining mineral status of production animals is important when developing an optimum health program. Nutrition is the largest expense in food animal production and has the greatest impact on health and productivity of the animals. Knowing the bioavailability of minerals in the diet is difficult. Evaluating fluid or tissues from animals is the optimum method to determine bioavailability. Evaluating the diet provides some information. Serum/blood or liver from the animal needs to be analyzed to determine bioavailability of vitamin and minerals in the diet. This article reviews how to sample and the function of these minerals in cattle.


Assuntos
Gado/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gado/sangue , Minerais/análise , Estado Nutricional , Ruminantes/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/metabolismo
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 39-52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918213

RESUMO

Over the last several decades, extensive research on vitamin D and its role on cancer incidence, cancer survival (survival or mortality from cancer among individuals diagnosed with cancer), and cancer mortality (fatal cases occurring during the study period in an initially cancer-free population) has been conducted. A variety of study designs were implemented to explore vitamin D status, assessed by measuring sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. Although not many randomized controlled trials have examined the relationship between vitamin D and cancer incidence, observational studies have consistently shown a protective association between vitamin D and cancer incidence, especially for colorectal cancer. In addition, randomized controlled trials and most observational studies suggested that vitamin D plays a role in reducing cancer mortality. The potential benefit of vitamin D on cancer mortality may operate during the pre-diagnostic stages by affecting late-stage tumor progression and metastatic seeding, during the treatment phase by complementing or enhancing effects of therapies, or during the post-diagnostic stages. However, further studies are needed to confirm these conclusions, establish the optimal dosage and timing of vitamin D intakes for the most benefit, find which cancer types are affected, and understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vitamina D , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 335-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918227

RESUMO

Although great progress has been achieved during the last decades, the clinical management of organ transplant recipients (OTRs) remains a challenge. OTRs need in general lifelong immunosuppressive therapy that is associated with an increased risk to develop skin cancer and with an unfavorable clinical outcome of these malignancies. Skin cancer prevention measures, including regular full-body examinations, are therefore necessary in OTRs to detect and treat suspicious lesions at an early stage. The frequency of aftercare depends on the individual risk factors of the patient. Patients should apply consistent sun protection with sunscreens and clothing, as well as a monthly self-examination. On the other hand, the need of UVR avoidance increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, which itself is associated with an increased risk for many diseases, including malignancies. OTRs should therefore be monitored for 25(OH)D status and/or should take vitamin D supplements. It has to be emphasized that an interdisciplinary approach, coordinated by the transplant center, that includes regular skin examinations by a dermatologist, is needed to ensure the best care for the OTRs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Transplantados , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Transplantados/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 390-393, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795605

RESUMO

The relationship between immunity and nutrition is well known and its role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is also being paid great attention. However, the nutritional status of COVID-19 patients is unknown. Vitamin B1, B6, B12, vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), folate, selenium, and zinc levels were measured in 50 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Overall, 76% of the patients were vitamin D deficient and 42% were selenium deficient. No significant increase in the incidence of deficiency was found for vitamins B1, B6, and B12, folate, and zinc in patients with COVID-19. The COVID-19 group showed significantly lower vitamin D values than the healthy control group (150 people, matched by age/sex). Severe vitamin D deficiency (based on a cut-off of ≤10 ng/dl) was found in 24.0% of the patients in the COVID-19 group and 7.3% in the control group. Among 12 patients with respiratory distress, 11 (91.7%) were deficient in at least one nutrient. However, patients without respiratory distress showed a deficiency in 30/38 cases (78.9%; p = 0.425). These results suggest that a deficiency of vitamin D or selenium may decrease the immune defenses against COVID-19 and cause progression to severe disease. However, more precise and large-scale studies are needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Selênio/deficiência , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/sangue , Zinco/sangue
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 669-682, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal supplementation during lactation could increase milk B-vitamin concentrations, but little is known about the kinetics of milk vitamin responses. OBJECTIVES: We compared acute effects of maternal lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) consumption (n = 22 nutrients, 175%-212% of the RDA intake for the nutrients examined), as a single dose or at spaced intervals during 8 h, on milk concentrations and infant intake from milk of B-vitamins. METHODS: This randomized crossover trial in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala included 26 mother-infant dyads 4-6 mo postpartum who were randomly assigned to receive 3 treatments in a random order: bolus 30-g dose of LNS (Bolus); 3 × 10-g doses of LNS (Divided); and no LNS (Control), with control meals. Mothers attended three 8-h visits during which infant milk consumption was measured and milk samples were collected at every feed. Infant intake was assessed as $\mathop \sum \nolimits_{i\ = \ 1}^n ( {{\rm{milk\ volum}}{{\rm{e}}_{{\rm{feed\ }}n}} \times \ {\rm{nutrient\ concentratio}}{{\rm{n}}_{{\rm{feed}}\ n}}} )$ over 8 h. RESULTS: Maternal supplementation with the Bolus or Divided dose increased least-squares mean (95% CI) milk and infant intakes of riboflavin [milk: Bolus: 154.4 (138.2, 172.5) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 84.5 (75.8, 94.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 64.5 (56.1, 74.3) µg; Control: 34.5 (30.0, 39.6) µg], thiamin [milk: Bolus: 10.9 (10.1, 11.7) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 7.7 (7.2, 8.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 5.1 (4.4, 6.0) µg; Control: 3.4 (2.9, 4.0) µg], and pyridoxal [milk: Bolus: 90.5 (82.8, 98.9) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 60.8 (55.8, 66.3) µg · min-1 · mL-1; infant: Bolus: 39.4 (33.5, 46.4) µg; Control: 25.0 (21.4, 29.2) µg] (all P < 0.001). Only the Bolus dose increased cobalamin in milk [Bolus: 0.054 (0.047, 0.061) µg · min-1 · mL-1; Control: 0.041 (0.035, 0.048) µg · min-1 · mL-1, P = 0.039] and infant cobalamin intake [Bolus: 0.023 (0.020, 0.027) µg; Control: 0.015 (0.013, 0.018) µg, P = 0.001] compared with Control. Niacin was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal supplementation with LNS as a Bolus or Divided dose was similarly effective at increasing milk riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxal and infant intakes, whereas only the Bolus dose increased cobalamin. Niacin was unaffected in 8 h. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02464111.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Lactente , Micronutrientes/química , Leite Humano/química , Niacina/administração & dosagem , Niacina/sangue , Niacina/farmacocinética , Piridoxal/administração & dosagem , Piridoxal/sangue , Piridoxal/farmacocinética , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Riboflavina/sangue , Riboflavina/farmacocinética , Tiamina/administração & dosagem , Tiamina/sangue , Tiamina/farmacocinética , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 12/farmacocinética , Vitaminas/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 315, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin C deficiency may be more common than is generally assumed, and the association between vitamin C deficiency and adverse psychiatric effects has been known for centuries. This paper aims to systematically review the evidence base for the neuropsychiatric effects of vitamin C deficiency. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified via systematic literature review. RESULTS: Nine studies of vitamin C deficiency, including subjects both with and without the associated physical manifestations of scurvy, were included in this review. Vitamin C deficiency, including scurvy, has been linked to depression and cognitive impairment. No effect on affective or non-affective psychosis was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Disparate measurement techniques for vitamin C, and differing definitions of vitamin C deficiency were apparent, complicating comparisons between studies. However, there is evidence suggesting that vitamin C deficiency is related to adverse mood and cognitive effects. The vitamin C blood levels associated with depression and cognitive impairment are higher than those implicated in clinical manifestations of scurvy. While laboratory testing for ascorbic acid can be practically difficult, these findings nonetheless suggest that mental health clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of vitamin C deficiency in patients with depression or cognitive impairment. Vitamin C replacement is inexpensive and easy to deliver, although as of yet there are no outcome studies investigating the neuropsychiatric impact of vitamin C replacement in those who are deficient.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Ascórbico/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Escorbuto/sangue , Escorbuto/complicações , Vitaminas/sangue
13.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 201: 105687, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360596

RESUMO

The increasing use of vitamin D supplements has stimulated interest in identifying factors that may modify the effect of supplementation on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Such information is of potential interest to researchers, clinicians and patients when deciding on bolus dose of vitamin D supplementation. We carried out a large randomized controlled trial of 5110 adults aged 50-84 years, of European/Other (84%), Polynesian (11%) and Asian (5%) ethnicity, to whom we gave a standard dose of vitamin D3 supplements (200,000 IU initially, then 100,000 IU monthly) which was taken with high adherence. All participants provided a baseline blood sample, and follow-up blood samples were collected at 6 months and annually for 3 years in a random sample of 441 participants, and also at 2 years in 413 participants enrolled in a bone density sub-study. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by LC/MSMS. Mixed model analyses were carried out on all 854 participants providing follow-up blood samples in multivariable models that included age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (kg/m2), tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, sun exposure, season, medical prescription of high-dose vitamin D3 (Cal.D.Forte tablets), asthma/COPD and the study treatment (vitamin D or placebo). The adjusted mean difference in 25(OH)D in the follow-up points between vitamin D supplementation and placebo groups was inversely related (all p for interaction <0.05) to baseline 25(OH)D, BMI, and hours of sun exposure, and higher in females, elders, and those with high frequency of alcohol, medical prescription of vitamin D, and asthma/COPD. The mean difference was not significantly related to ethnicity (p = 0.12), tobacco (p = 0.34), and vigorous activity (p = 0.33). In summary, these data show that vitamin D status, BMI, sun exposure hours, sex and asthma/COPD modify the 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation. By contrast, ethnicity, tobacco smoking, and vigorous activity do not.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Caracteres Sexuais , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite favorable climatic conditions, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is widespread in Pakistan. Current study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of VDD in Pakistani pregnant women and effectiveness of various regimen of Vitamin D supplementation. METHODOLOGY: This hospital-based prospective cohort study included pregnant women at 12th to 24th weeks of gestation attending Gynae clinic from October 2018 to April 2019. Patients were classified into control and treatment groups (Groups: G1, G2 and G3) according to the dose of vitamin D supplementation. Patients received various regimens of vitamin D including 2000 IU/day (G1), 5000 IU/day (G2) and stat 200000 IU (G3). The levels of vitamin D were measured before and after supplementation. The effectiveness of dosages were compared between and within the groups. Moreover, factors associated with vitamin D sufficiency and insufficiency were ascertained using appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: Among 281 pregnant women (mean age: 28.22 ± 4.61 years), VDD was prevalent in 47.3% cases. Vitamin D supplementation caused significant rise in the levels 25(OH)D in treatment groups, while there was no significant difference in control group. The highest mean increment in vitamin D (23.14 ± 11.18 ng/ml) was observed with dose 5000 IU/day followed by doses 200000 IU stat (21.06 ± 13.73 ng/ml) and 2000 IU/day (10.24 ± 5.65 ng/ml). Vitamin D toxicity was observed in one patient who received 200000 IU stat of vitamin D. The frequency of VDD following the supplementation was 5.7%. Education status, duration of sun exposure and use of sunblock was substantially associated with vitamin D sufficiency in the current study. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the high proportion of VDD among pregnant women in Pakistan. Maternal vitamin D supplementation substantially improved the levels of 25(OH)D. Of three used regimens, the dose of 5000 IU/day is considered safe and equally effective as of 200000 IU stat. Since pregnancy is a time of tremendous growth and physiological changes for mother and her developing fetus with lifelong implications for the child, gestational vitamin D supplementation should be considered to ensure the optimal vitamin D accrual in pregnant women. This study generates the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation at a dose of 5000 IU/day during pregnancy is superior to the other regimens. However, well-controlled randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 200: 105672, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311429

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem in all age groups, especially in the elderly population. Serum 25(OH)D is the biomarker to assess vitamin D nutrition status. However, the free hormone hypothesis proposes that free vitamin D might be a more reliable marker of vitamin D nutrition status. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the distribution of free 25OHD in elderly individuals, and (2) to assess the association between free 25OHD and total 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D, calcium (Ca), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and phosphorus (P) in elderly population. A total of 312 healthy elderly individuals were enrolled in this study and residual serum samples were collected. Free 25OHD, total 25(OH)D, 24,25(OH)2D, and 1,25(OH)2D were measured using LC-MS/MS. Other biochemical analytes were measured using automatic analyzers. Our results showed that with an increase in the levels of total 25(OH)D, the levels of 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)D, and free 25OHD increased, whereas the levels of 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2D decreased. Further, we observed that the level of free 25OHD was significantly positively correlated with the total 25(OH)D (r = 0.226, P < 0.001), 25(OH)D (r = 0.221, P < 0.001), and 24,25(OH)2D (r = 0.231, P < 0.001) but was negatively correlated with 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2D (r = -0.185, P < 0.01). Moreover, the total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D3, 24,25(OH)2D, and 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2D were correlated with 1,25(OH)2D. Furthermore, free 25OHD was positively correlated with creatinine (Cr) (r = 0.227, P <0.001). Our results showed a narrower distribution for free 25OHD than that reported by direct measurement techniques and confirmed the correlation between free 25OHD and total 25(OH)D.


Assuntos
Hidroxicolecalciferóis/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 201: 105669, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302652

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency has been widely reported among pregnant women and infants around the world. Women with low sun exposure, high BMI, low vitamin D intakes and socioeconomic disadvantage with poor quality diets are at greatest risk of vitamin D deficiency, leading to very low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in their offspring and an increased risk of nutritional rickets. Many observational studies, supported by compelling in vitro and in vivo data, have generated evidence suggesting that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may also contribute to the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes including hypertensive disorders (e.g., preeclampsia), fetal growth restriction, and preterm birth. However, the few large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to date have generated conflicting evidence for a role of vitamin D supplementation in improving perinatal outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation policies during pregnancy and implementation of policies vary within and between jurisdictions. Regulatory authorities have cited insufficient evidence to establish pregnancy-specific targets for serum 25(OH)D concentrations or prenatal vitamin D intake that effectively reduce the risks of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. This paper arises from a Debate on Vitamin D Requirements during Pregnancy, held at the 22nd Vitamin D Workshop, 2019. From varied perspectives, our objectives were to evaluate the evidence for: vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy and the prevalence of gestational vitamin D deficiency worldwide; the translation of laboratory research findings to clinical studies on the role of vitamin D in perinatal health; the challenges of designing and conducting clinical trials to establish prenatal vitamin D requirements; and results to date of major large RCTs of prenatal vitamin D supplementation. Lastly, we explored potential next steps towards generating robust clinical data in this field to address both public health protection and patient care.


Assuntos
Gravidez/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/sangue , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Raquitismo/etiologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
18.
Georgian Med News ; (299): 43-47, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242843

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is the study of literature for the current data on the metabolism of vitamin D and its role in development of bone tissue in children. The role of the main marker enabling assessing 25(OH)D concentration in the body the reference values has been analyzed. Summarizing the literature data, we may say that vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a mayor impact on health of infants, children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Osteomalacia , Raquitismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Osteomalacia/diagnóstico , Osteomalacia/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomalacia/etiologia , Raquitismo/diagnóstico , Raquitismo/tratamento farmacológico , Raquitismo/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(7): 1254-1265, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and dietary vitamin D sources among three immigrant groups in Finland and compared their S-25(OH)D to the general Finnish population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the nationally representative Finnish Health 2011 Survey. S-25(OH)D was standardised according to the Vitamin D Standardisation Program. Vitamin D sources were assessed by interview. SETTING: Six different municipalities in Finland (60°-63°N). PARTICIPANTS: Immigrants aged 18-64 years (446 Russians, 346 Somalis, 500 Kurds), 798 Finns aged 30-64 years. RESULTS: The mean of S-25(OH)D was 64 (95 % CI 62, 66), 44 (95 % CI 41, 46), 35 (95 % CI 34, 37) and 64 (95 % CI 62, 66) nmol/l for Russians, Somalis, Kurds and Finns, respectively. S-25(OH)D among Somalis and Kurds was lower compared with Finns (P < 0·001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (S-25(OH)D <30 nmol/l) and insufficiency (S-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l) was higher among immigrants than Finns (P < 0·001). Vitamin D-rich foods differed between the groups; vitamin D-fortified fat spread consumption was higher among Somalis (91 %) than among Russians (73 %) and Kurds (60 %); fish was less consumed among Kurds (17 %) than among Russians (43 %) and Somalis (38 %); and 57 % Russians, 56 % Kurds and 36 % Somalis consumed vitamin D-fortified dairy daily (P < 0·001 for all). Daily smoking, alcohol consumption and winter blood sampling were determinants of vitamin D insufficiency (P ≤ 0·03). Older age, physical activity, fish and vitamin D-fortified dairy consumption were associated with lower odds of insufficiency (P ≤ 0·04). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D status differed among immigrant groups and the determinants are, to some degree, associated with learned or existing cultural behaviours.


Assuntos
Dieta , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Federação Russa , Estações do Ano , Somália , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(5): 104747, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Up to 41% of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) are considered cryptogenic despite a thorough investigation to determine etiology. Certain over-the-counter supplements may increase proclivity to bleeding, and we hypothesize that specifically vitamin E may have an association with ICH and acutely elevated serum levels of α-tocopherol. Our aim is to report 3 cases of recently admitted patients with hypervitaminosis E and otherwise cryptogenic ICH. METHODS: At our institution between January and December 2018, 179 patients were admitted with ICH with 73 imputed to be "cryptogenic" (without clear etiology as per Structural vascular lesions, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertension, or Undetermined and Hypertension, Amyloid angiopathy, Tumor, Oral anticoagulants, vascular Malformation, Infrequent causes, and Cryptogenic criteria). Of these, we found 3 (4.1%) clearly admitted to consistent use of vitamin E supplementation for which α-tocopherol levels were checked. We describe the clinical presentation and course of these patients and their etiologic and diagnostic evaluations including neuroimaging and α-tocopherol laboratory data. RESULTS: All patients in this series were consistently consuming higher than recommended doses of vitamin E and developed acute ICH. The first 2 patients both had subcortical (thalamic) intraparenchymal hemorrhages while the third had an intraventricular hemorrhage. Serum α-tocopherol levels in patient A, B, and C were elevated at 30.8, 46.7, and 23.3 mg/L, respectively (normal range 5.7-19.9 mg/L) with a mean of 33.6 mg/L. No clear alternate etiologies to their ICH could be conclusively determined despite thorough workups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with cryptogenic ICH, clinicians should consider hypervitaminosis E and check serum α-tocopherol level during admission. Reviewing the patient's pharmacologic history, including over-the-counter supplements such as vitamin E, may help identify its association, and its avoidance in the future may mitigate risk. With its known vitamin K antagonism, hypo-prothrombinemic effect, cytochrome p-450 interaction, and antiplatelet activity, vitamin E may not be as benign as presumed. Its consumption in nonrecommended doses may increase ICH risk, which may be underestimated and under-reported.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais/envenenamento , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Vitaminas/envenenamento , alfa-Tocoferol/envenenamento , Idoso , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Vitaminas/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
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