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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 291-298, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Gold Finger' is a grape cultivar with a finger-like shape and a milk flavor. The process by which its aroma profile evolves during ripening is unclear. Thus, changes in the free and bound volatile compounds present in 'Gold Finger' grapes during ripening were investigated using headspace sampling-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HS-SPME-GC-MS). RESULTS: A total of 83 volatile aroma components were identified in the grapes, with aldehydes, esters, acids, and alcohols being the main components. The total aroma compound content exhibited significant differences between the bound and free forms. The total content of bound volatile compounds did not change significantly during fruit development, although the free aroma compound content was significantly higher than the bound content. The total content of free aldehydes, free alcohols, bound norisoprenoids, and ketones gradually increased for up to 70 days after flowering (DAF), while the total free ester, terpene, and acid content decreased. The characteristic aroma compounds of 'Gold Finger' grapes were identified as hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and ethyl hexanoate. CONCLUSIONS: These results give a foundation for the further development of 'Gold Finger' grapes and provide a theoretical basis for the selection and breeding of novel aromatic grape varieties. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 383-395, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of foliar nitrogen fertilizer during veraison (FNFV) on anthocyanin accumulation and chromatic characteristics of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes over two seasons was investigated. RESULTS: Urea and phenylalanine fertilizers (TU and TP, respectively) and a control were sprayed three times at veraison. In 2018, TU displayed a significant enhancement in total individual anthocyanin content and a* and Cab * profiles. In 2019, FNAV significantly improved the content of total non-acylated, acylated anthocyanin and total individual anthocyanin, and the profiles of L*, a* and Cab *, except a* in TU. The whole process from phenylalanine variation to anthocyanin accumulation in grape skins was analyzed. On the whole, after the first FNFV to harvest, the increase in phenylalanine metabolism, abscisic acid content, effects of PAL (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase), UFGT (UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase) and transcript concentrations of VvPAL and VvUFGT involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were also strong evidence explaining the increased anthocyanin and chromatic profiles in 2019. CONCLUSION: Overall, FNFV for nitrogen-deficient grapevines could significantly improve grape color, especially in the 2019 veraison with a proper climate. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638737

RESUMO

Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops due to the high value of its fruit and its importance in winemaking. The current decrease in grape berry quality and production can be seen as the consequence of various abiotic constraints imposed by climate changes. Specifically, produced wines have become too sweet, with a stronger impression of alcohol and fewer aromatic qualities. Potassium is known to play a major role in grapevine growth, as well as grape composition and wine quality. Importantly, potassium ions (K+) are involved in the initiation and maintenance of the berry loading process during ripening. Moreover, K+ has also been implicated in various defense mechanisms against abiotic stress. The first part of this review discusses the main negative consequences of the current climate, how they disturb the quality of grape berries at harvest and thus ultimately compromise the potential to obtain a great wine. In the second part, the essential electrical and osmotic functions of K+, which are intimately dependent on K+ transport systems, membrane energization, and cell K+ homeostasis, are presented. This knowledge will help to select crops that are better adapted to adverse environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas , Potássio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte de Íons
4.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684785

RESUMO

In this study, we determined the effect of hormonization treatment on yield quantity and quality, content of biologically active compounds, and antioxidant activity in fruits and raisins of 'Einset Seedless' grapevine. Field studies were conducted in 2017 at Nobilis Vineyard (50°39' N; 21°34' E) in the Sandomierz Upland. Analytical studies were carried out in the Laboratory of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Hormonized fruits and raisins, which were dried at 40 °C in a food dryer for 7 days, were the experimental material. It was shown that the application of the hormonization treatment had a significant effect on yield size and quality. The hormonization treatment and the form of plant material analyzed had a significant effect on the content of biologically active compounds and the antioxidant activity in 'Einset Seedless' grapevine fruits and raisins. The concentration of applied gibberellic acid had a significant effect on the levels of acidity, content of anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity determined with the FRAP and DPPH methods. The application of the multivariate analysis technique showed that, in the fresh fruits and raisins, the level of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity in the case of the 200 mg∙GA3∙L-1 concentration and in the control combination was similar but differed significantly in the case of the 300 mg∙GA3∙L-1 application.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110984, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482904

RESUMO

Perennial woody plants undergo a period of dormancy from the beginning of autumn until the end of spring. Whereas the molecular and physiological events that characterize dormancy release of buds have been described in detail, those occurring in woody tissues underneath the buds are mostly unknown. To bridge this gap, the mRNA populations of cane segments located underneath the bud were analyzed at bud dormancy (E-L 1) and at bud burst (E-L 4). They revealed an important reprogramming of gene expression suggesting that cell division, cell wall metabolism and the mobilization of sugars are the main metabolic and cellular events occurring in cane woody tissues at bud burst. Also, the upregulation of several genes of sugar metabolism, encoding starch- and sucrose-degrading enzymes and sugar transporters, correlates with the decrease in starch and soluble sugars in woody tissues concomitant with increased sucrose synthase and α-amylolytic biochemical activities. The latter is likely due to the VviAMY2 gene that encodes a functional α-amylase as observed after its heterologous expression in yeast. Taken together, these results are consistent with starch and sugar mobilization in canes being primarily involved in grapevine secondary growth initiation and supporting the growth of the emerging bud.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Divisão Celular/genética , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Parede Celular/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Portugal , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 442, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stone-hardening stage is crucial to the development of grape seed and berry quality. A significant body of evidence supports the important roles of MicroRNAs in grape-berry development, but their specific molecular functions during grape stone-hardening stage remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, a total of 161 conserved and 85 species-specific miRNAs/miRNAs* (precursor) were identified in grape berries at stone-hardening stage using Solexa sequencing. Amongst them, 30 VvmiRNAs were stone-hardening stage-specific, whereas 52 exhibited differential expression profiles during berry development, potentially participating in the modulation of berry development as verified by their expression patterns. GO and KEGG pathway analysis showed that 13 VvmiRNAs might be involved in the regulation of embryo development, another 11 in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis, and also 28 in the modulation of hormone signaling, sugar, and proline metabolism. Furthermore, the target genes for 4 novel VvmiRNAs related to berry development were validated using RNA Ligase-Mediated (RLM)-RACE and Poly(A) Polymerase-Mediated (PPM)-RACE methods, and their cleavage mainly occurred at the 9th-11th sites from the 5' ends of miRNAs at their binding regions. In view of the regulatory roles of GA in seed embryo development and stone-hardening in grape, we investigated the expression modes of VvmiRNAs and their target genes during GA-induced grape seedless-berry development, and we validated that GA induced the expression of VvmiR31-3p and VvmiR8-5p to negatively regulate the expression levels of CAFFEOYL COENZYME A-3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (VvCCoAOMT), and DDB1-CUL4 ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 (VvDCAF1). The series of changes might repress grape stone hardening and embryo development, which might be a potential key molecular mechanism in GA-induced grape seedless-berry development. Finally, a schematic model of miRNA-mediated grape seed and stone-hardening development was proposed. CONCLUSION: This work identified 30 stone-hardening stage-specific VvmiRNAs and 52 significant differential expression ones, and preliminary interpreted the potential molecular mechanism of GA-induced grape parthenocarpy. GA negatively manipulate the expression of VvCCoAOMT and VvDCAF1 by up-regulation the expression of VvmiR31-3p and VvmiR8-5p, thereby repressing seed stone and embryo development to produce grape seedless berries.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Vitis/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577084

RESUMO

Smoke-derived taint has become a significant concern for the U.S. wine industry, particularly on the west coast, and climate change is anticipated to aggravate it. High volatile phenols such as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, and o-, p-, m-cresols have been suggested to be related to smoke-exposed grape and wine. This paper describes an analytical approach based on ethylene glycol/polydimethylsiloxane (EG/PDMS)-stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS) to quantify or estimate the concentrations of some smoke-related volatile phenols in wines. Correlation coefficients with R2 ≥ 0.990 were obtained. This method can quantify most smoked-related volatile phenols down to 0.5 µg/L in wine in selective ion monitoring mode. Recovery for the targeted volatile phenols ranged from 72.2% to 142.4% in the smoke-tainted wine matrix, except for 4-vinylguaiacol. The standard deviations of the volatile phenols were from 0 to 23% in smoke-tainted wine. The approach provides another tool to evaluate wine smoke exposure and potential smoke taint.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Adsorção , Calibragem , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Etilenoglicol/química , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fumaça , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500790

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of alleviation effects of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) on copper (Cu)-induced oxidative toxicity in grapevine roots. Root growth, Cu and cation accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and antioxidant activities were examined in grapevine roots grown in nutrient solutions. The experimental setting was divided into three sets; each set contained a check (Hoagland solution only) and four treatments of simultaneous exposure to 15 µM Cu with four cation levels (i.e., Ca set: 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 mM Ca; Mg set: 0.2, 2, 4, and 8 mM Mg; K set: 0.6, 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mM K). A damage assessment model (DAM)-based approach was then developed to construct the dose-effect relationship between cation levels and the alleviation effects on Cu-induced oxidative stress. Model parameterization was performed by fitting the model to the experimental data using a nonlinear regression estimation. All data were analyzed by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by multiple comparisons using the least significant difference (LSD) test. The results showed that significant inhibitory effects on the elongation of roots occurred in grapevine roots treated with 15 µM Cu. The addition of Ca and Mg significantly mitigated phytotoxicity in root growth, whereas no significant effect of K treatment on root growth was found. With respect to oxidative stress, ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, as well as antioxidant (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) activities, were stimulated in the roots after exposure to 15 µM Cu for three days. Moreover, H2O2 levels decreased significantly as Ca, Mg, and K concentrations increased, indicating that the coexistence of these cations effectively alleviated Cu-induced oxidative stress; however, alleviative effects were not observed in the assessment of the MDA content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Based on the DAM, an exponential decay equation was developed and successfully applied to characterize the alleviative effects of Ca, Mg, and K on the H2O2 content induced by Cu in the roots. In addition, compared with Mg and K, Ca was the most effective cation in the alleviation of Cu-induced ROS. Based on the results, it could be concluded that Cu inhibited root growth and Ca and Mg absorption in grapevines, and stimulated the production of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the alleviation effects of cations on Cu-induced ROS were well described by the DAM-based approach developed in the present study.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Magnésio/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/farmacologia , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360556

RESUMO

In grapevines, as in other plants, sucrose and its constituents glucose and fructose are fundamentally important and carry out a multitude of roles. The aims of this review are three-fold. First, to provide a summary of the metabolism and transport of sucrose in grapevines, together with new insights and interpretations. Second, to stress the importance of considering the compartmentation of metabolism. Third, to outline the key role of acid invertase in osmoregulation associated with sucrose metabolism and transport in plants.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Frutas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445508

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of root-restriction cultivation on the root architecture, endogenous strigolactone (SL) content, and SL-related genes expression in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In addition, we clarified the effects of synthetic SL analog GR24 application on grapevine roots to explore the role of SLs in their development. The results showed that the root architecture changed significantly under root-restriction cultivation. At 40 days after transplantation (DAT), the contents of two types of SLs in roots under root restriction were both significantly lower than that in roots of the control. SL content was significantly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvCCD8 and VvD27, indicating that they play vital roles in SLs synthesis. After GR24 treatment for 20 days, the root length was significantly shorter than in the control. A low concentration (0.1 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the root diameter and increased the fine-root density, while a high concentration (10 µM) of GR24 significantly reduced the lateral root (LR) length and increased the LR density. Concomitantly, GR24 (0.1 µM) reduced endogenous SL content. After GR24 treatment for 5 days, the total content of two tested SLs was highly positively correlated with the expression levels of VvDAD2, whereas it was highly negatively correlated with VvSMAXL4 at 20 days after GR24 treatment. This study helps to clarify the internal mechanism of root-restriction cultivation affecting the changes in grapevine root architecture, as well as further explore the important role of SLs in the growth of grapevine roots in response to root-restriction treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dioxigenases/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/genética
11.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299585

RESUMO

Smoke taint in wine is thought to be caused by smoke-derived volatile phenols (VPs) that are absorbed into grape tissues, trapped as conjugates that are imperceptible by smell, and subsequently released into wines as their free odor-active forms via metabolism by yeasts during fermentation. Blocking VP uptake into grapes would, therefore, be an effective way for vineyards to protect ripening grape crops exposed to smoke. Here, we re-evaluated a biofilm that had previously shown promise in pilot studies in reducing levels of smoke-derived VPs. A suite of nine free and acid-labile VPs were quantitated in Pinot Noir grapes that had been exposed to smoke after being coated with the biofilm one, seven or 14 days earlier. In contrast with earlier studies, our results demonstrated that in all cases, the biofilm treatments led to increased concentrations of both free and total VPs in smoke-exposed grapes, with earlier applications elevating concentrations of some VPs more than the later time points. Tracking VP concentrations through the grape ripening process demonstrated that some (phenol, p/m-cresol, and guaiacol) were not entirely sequestered in grapes as acid-labile conjugates, suggesting the presence of VP storage forms beyond simple glycosides. Free VPs in grapes, though a minor portion of the total, most clearly correlated with concentrations present in the resulting wines. Finally, red table grapes, available year round, were observed to replicate the effects of the biofilm treatments and were capable of transforming most VPs into acid-labile conjugates in under 24 h, indicating that they might be an effective model for rapidly assessing smoke-taint prophylactic products in the laboratory.


Assuntos
Fazendas , Fumaça , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 327, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grapevine cultivars of the Pinot family represent clonally propagated mutants with major phenotypic and physiological differences, such as different colour or shifted ripening time, as well as changes in important viticultural traits. Specifically, the cultivars 'Pinot Noir' (PN) and 'Pinot Noir Precoce' (PNP, early ripening) flower at the same time, but vary in the beginning of berry ripening (veraison) and, consequently, harvest time. In addition to genotype, seasonal climatic conditions (i.e. high temperatures) also affect ripening times. To reveal possible regulatory genes that affect the timing of veraison onset, we investigated differences in gene expression profiles between PN and PNP throughout berry development with a closely meshed time series and over two separate years. RESULTS: The difference in the duration of berry formation between PN and PNP was quantified to be approximately two weeks under the growth conditions applied, using plant material with a proven PN and PNP clonal relationship. Clusters of co-expressed genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected which reflect the shift in the timing of veraison onset. Functional annotation of these DEGs fit to observed phenotypic and physiological changes during berry development. In total, we observed 3,342 DEGs in 2014 and 2,745 DEGs in 2017 between PN and PNP, with 1,923 DEGs across both years. Among these, 388 DEGs were identified as veraison-specific and 12 were considered as berry ripening time regulatory candidates. The expression profiles revealed two candidate genes for ripening time control which we designated VviRTIC1 and VviRTIC2 (VIT_210s0071g01145 and VIT_200s0366g00020, respectively). These genes likely contribute the phenotypic differences observed between PN and PNP. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the 1,923 DEGs show highly similar expression profiles in both cultivars if the patterns are aligned according to developmental stage. In our work, putative genes differentially expressed between PNP and PN which could control ripening time as well as veraison-specific genes were identified. We point out connections of these genes to molecular events during berry development and discuss potential candidate genes which may control ripening time. Two of these candidates were observed to be differentially expressed in the early berry development phase. Several down-regulated genes during berry ripening are annotated as auxin response factors / ARFs. Conceivably, general changes in auxin signaling may cause the earlier ripening phenotype of PNP.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 279, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is a key enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, which regulates the metabolism of terpenoids in the cytoplasm and determines the type and content of downstream terpenoid metabolites. RESULTS: Results showed that grapevine HMGR family has three members, such as VvHMGR1, VvHMGR2, and VvHMGR3. The expression of VvHMGRs in 'Kyoho' has tissue specificity, for example, VvHMGR1 keeps a higher expression, VvHMGR2 is the lowest, and VvHMGR3 gradually decreases as the fruit development. VvHMGR3 is closely related to CsHMGR1 and GmHMGR9 and has collinearity with CsHMGR2 and GmHMGR4. By the prediction of interaction protein, it can interact with HMG-CoA synthase, MVA kinase, FPP/GGPP synthase, diphosphate mevalonate decarboxylase, and participates in the synthesis and metabolism of terpenoids. VvHMGR3 have similar trends in expression with some of the genes of carotenoid biosynthesis and MEP pathways. VvHMGR3 responds to various environmental and phytohormone stimuli, especially salt stress and ultraviolet (UV) treatment. The expression level of VvHMGRs is diverse in grapes of different colors and aroma. VvHMGRs are significantly higher in yellow varieties than that in red varieties, whereas rose-scented varieties showed significantly higher expression than that of strawberry aroma. The expression level is highest in yellow rose-scented varieties, and the lowest in red strawberry scent varieties, especially 'Summer Black' and 'Fujiminori'. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the important role of VvHMGR3 in the process of grape fruit coloring and aroma formation, and provided a new idea to explain the loss of grape aroma and poor coloring during production. There may be an additive effect between color and aroma in the HMGR expression aspect.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Vitis/enzimologia , Vitis/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Família Multigênica , Pressão Osmótica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Terpenos/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071294

RESUMO

Polyploidy plays an important role in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Alterations of the ploidy in grapevine plants regenerated via somatic embryogenesis (SE) may provide a source of genetic variability useful for the improvement of agronomic characteristics of crops. In the grapevine, the SE induction process may cause ploidy changes without alterations in DNA profile. In the present research, tetraploid plants were observed for 9.3% of 'Frappato' grapevine somatic embryos regenerated in medium supplemented with the growth regulators ß-naphthoxyacetic acid (10 µM) and N6-benzylaminopurine (4.4 µM). Autotetraploid plants regenerated via SE without detectable changes in the DNA profiles were transferred in field conditions to analyze the effect of polyploidization. Different ploidy levels induced several anatomical and morphological changes of the shoots and mature leaves. Alterations have been also observed in stomata. The length and width of stomata of tetraploid leaves were 39.9 and 18.6% higher than diploids, respectively. The chloroplast number per guard cell pair was higher (5.2%) in tetraploid leaves. On the contrary, the stomatal index was markedly decreased (12%) in tetraploid leaves. The observed morphological alterations might be useful traits for breeding of grapevine varieties in a changing environment.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Brotos de Planta , Estômatos de Plantas , Vitis , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/embriologia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estômatos de Plantas/embriologia , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poliploidia , Vitis/embriologia , Vitis/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(15): 6156-6166, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184284

RESUMO

Nowadays, nanoscience is a leading modern science that has a major impact on the food, pharmaceutical, and agriculture sectors. Several nanomaterials show a great potential for use during vine growing and winemaking processes. In viticulture, nanotechnology can be applied to protect vines against phytopathogens and to improve grape yield and quality. Thus, nanotechnology may allow the use of lesser amounts of phytochemical compounds, reducing environmental impact and promoting a more sustainable agriculture. And in winemaking, nanomaterials and nanodevices can be used to control the growth of spoilage microorganisms and to reduce or remove undesirable compounds, such as ethyl phenols (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol), biogenic amines, and tartaric acid, and so on, as well as to facilitate some technological processes (i.e. in wine filtration to eliminate microorganisms). This review summarizes recent studies with applications of nanotechnology in viticulture in order to facilitate agronomic management and optimize grape production and in enology to improve wine quality and safety. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia/tendências , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/instrumentação , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise
16.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110936, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134843

RESUMO

Trichome is a specialized structure differentiated during the morphogenesis of plant leaf epidermal cells. In recent years, with the continuous researches on trichome development of Arabidopsis and other plants, more and more genes related to trichome morphogenesis have been discovered, including R2R3-type MYB genes. In this study, we cloned a R2R3-type MYB family gene from grape, VvMYB114, a target gene of vvi-miR828. qRT-PCR showed that VvMYB114 mRNA accumulated during grape fruit ripening, and VvMYB114 protein had transcriptional activation activity. Heterologous overexpression of VvMYB114 in Arabidopsis reduced the number of trichome on leaves and stems. Mutating the miR828-binding site in VvMYB114 without altering amino-acid sequence had no effect on trichome development in Arabidopsis. The results showed a different role of the regulation of miR828 to VvMYB114 in Arabidopsis from in grape, which indicated the functional divergence of miRNA targeting homoeologous genes in different species played an important roles in evolution and useful trait selection.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Vitis/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , RNA de Plantas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ativação Transcricional , Transgenes , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926100

RESUMO

The phenomenon of multi-carpel and multi-ovule exists in the grapevine cultivar 'Xiangfei', but the mechanism of ovule formation is seldom reported. In this study, we observed the ovule formation process by using 'Xiangfei' grapes. The role of the VvAG2 (VvAGAMOUS) gene in ovule formation was identified, and we explored the relationship between VvAG2, VvSEP3(VvMADS4) and VvAGL11(VvMADS5) proteins. The results showed that the ovule primordium appeared when the inflorescence length of 'Xiangfei' grapes were 4-5 cm long; the relative expression levels of VvAG2, VvAGL11 and VvSEP3 genes were higher during ovule formation, and the expression levels of VvAG2 gene was the highest. Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing VvAG2 produced higher numbers of ovules and carpels than the wild type. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid and yeast three-hybrid experiments demonstrated that VvSEP3 acts as a bridge and interacts with VvAG2 and VvAGL11 proteins, respectively. Meanwhile, a homodimer can be formed between VvSEP3 and VvSEP3, but there was no interaction between VvAG2 and VvAGL11. These findings suggest that the VvAG2 gene is involved in the formation of ovules, and VvAG2/VvSEP3 together with VvAGL11/VvSEP3 can form a tetrameric complex. In summary, our data showed that VvAG2 along with VvSEP3 and VvAGL11 jointly regulate the ovule formation of 'Xiangfei' grapes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transgenes , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(4)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808413

RESUMO

For some horticultural plants, auxins can not only induce normal fruit setting but also form fake seeds in the induced fruits. This phenomenon is relatively rare, and, so far, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, "Fenghou" (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca) grapes were artificially emasculated before flowering and then sprayed with 4-CPA (4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) to analyze its effect on seed formation. The results show that 4-CPA can induce normal fruit setting in "Fenghou" grapes. Although more seeds were detected in the fruits of the 4-CPA-treated grapevine, most seeds were immature. There was no significant difference in the seed shape; namely, both fruit seeds of the grapevines with and without 4-CPA treatment contained a hard seed coat. However, the immature seeds lacked embryo and endosperm tissue and could not germinate successfully; these were considered defective seeds. Tissue structure observation of defective seeds revealed that a lot of tissue redifferentiation occurred at the top of the ovule, which increased the number of cell layers of the outer integument; some even differentiated into new ovule primordia. The qRT-PCR results demonstrated that 4-CPA application regulated the expression of the genes VvARF2 and VvAP2, which are associated with integument development in "Fenghou" grape ovules. Together, this study evokes the regulatory role of 4-CPA in the division and continuous redifferentiation of integument cells, which eventually develop into defective seeds with thick seed coats in grapes.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/análogos & derivados , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Sementes/citologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética
19.
Plant Sci ; 307: 110893, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902854

RESUMO

Plants acclimate to shade by sensing light signals such as low photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), low blue light (BL) levels and low red-to-far red ratios (R:FR) trough plant photoreceptors cross talk. We previously demonstrated that grapevine is irresponsive to variations in R:FR and that BL-attenuation mediates morphological and architectural responses to shade increasing light interception and absorption efficiencies. However, we wondered if grapevine respond to low R:FR when BL is attenuated at the same time. Our objective was to evaluate if morphological, architectural and hydraulic acclimation to shade is mediated by low R:FR ratios and BL attenuation. To test this, we carried out experiments under natural radiation, manipulating light quality by selective sunlight exclusion and light supplementation. We grew grapevines under low PAR (LP) and four high PAR (HP) treatments: HP, HP plus FR supplementation (HP + FR), HP with BL attenuation (HP-B) and HP with BL attenuation plus FR supplementation (HP-B + FR). We found that plants grown under HP-B and HP-B + FR had similar morphological (stem and petiole length, leaf thickness and area), architectural (laminae' angles) and anatomical (stomatal density) traits than plants grown under LP. However, only LP plants presented lower stomata differentiation, lower δ13C and hence lower water use efficiency. Therefore, even under a BL and R:FR attenuated environment, morphological and architectural responses were modulated by BL but not by variation in R:FR. Meanwhile water relations were affected by PAR intensity but not by changes in light quality. Knowing grapevine responses to light quantity and quality are indispensable to adopt tools or design new cultural management practices that manipulate irradiance in the field intending to improve crop performance.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinal Luminoso/fisiologia , Luz , Fotorreceptores de Plantas/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Vitis/anatomia & histologia , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 554: 193-198, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798947

RESUMO

WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest transcriptional regulator families, involved in various signaling networks in plants. However, only limited functional exploration of the sugar signaling of Vitis vinifera WRKY22 transcription factor (VvWRKY22) has been conducted. In this study, the roles played by VvWRKY22 in sugar accumulation in grapes were investigated. VvWRKY22 was co-expressed with 16 sugar-related genes, and the expression of VvWRKY22 in grape suspension cells was inhibited by sucrose, and induced by fructose and abscisic acid (ABA). Results showed that over-expression of VvWRKY22 decreased the sucrose, glucose and fructose content, and regulated the expression levels of sugar and ABA-related genes. Moreover, it was found that VvWRKY22 interacted with VvSnRK1.1 or VvSnRK1.2 proteins (Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1), which are important kinases related to sugar metabolism. These results, thus, provide new genetic evidences to support the view that VvWRKY22 functions in regulating sugar metabolism in grapes.


Assuntos
Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Homologia de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Vitis/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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