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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804968

RESUMO

Berry firmness is one of the main selection criteria for table grape breeding. However, the underlying genetic determinants and mechanisms involved in gene expression during berry development are still poorly understood. In this study, eighteen libraries sampled from Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Red Globe' and 'Muscat Hamburg' at three developmental stages (preveraison, veraison and maturation) were analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The firmness of 'Red Globe' was significantly higher than that of 'Muscat Hamburg' at the three developmental stages. In total, a set of 4,559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was identified between 'Red Globe' and 'Muscat Hamburg' in the preveraison (2,259), veraison (2030) and maturation stages (2682), including 302 transcription factors (TFs). Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) showed that 23 TFs were predicted to be highly correlated with fruit firmness and propectin content. In addition, the differential expression of the PE, PL, PG, ß-GAL, GATL, WAK, XTH and EXP genes might be the reason for the differences in firmness between 'Red Globe' and 'Muscat Hamburg'. The results will provide new information for analysis of grape berry firmness and softening.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Vitis/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730292

RESUMO

Grapevines, although adapted to occasional drought or salt stress, are relatively sensitive to growth- and yield-limiting salinity stress. To understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and identify genes commonly regulated by both stresses in grapevine, we investigated transcript profiles in leaves of the salt-tolerant grapevine rootstock 1616C under salt- and ER-stress. Among 1643 differentially expressed transcripts at 6 h post-treatment in leaves, 29 were unique to ER stress, 378 were unique to salt stress, and 16 were common to both stresses. At 24 h post-treatment, 243 transcripts were unique to ER stress, 1150 were unique to salt stress, and 168 were common to both stresses. GO term analysis identified genes in categories including 'oxidative stress', 'protein folding', 'transmembrane transport', 'protein phosphorylation', 'lipid transport', 'proteolysis', 'photosynthesis', and 'regulation of transcription'. The expression of genes encoding transporters, transcription factors, and proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis increased in response to both ER and salt stresses. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes for both ER and salt stress were divided into four main categories including; carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. Differential expression of several genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, which validated our microarray results. We identified transcripts for genes that might be involved in salt tolerance and also many genes differentially expressed under both ER and salt stresses. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of salt tolerance and ER stress in plants and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in grapevine.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Vitis/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Osmose , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
3.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108471, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622788

RESUMO

Stilbenes, an active substances closely related to resistance and quality of grapes, are rarely found in natural resources. However its cumulative amount is affected by ultraviolet radiation (UV). The purpose of this study is to screen key genes in biosynthesis of stilbenes Trans-scripusin A and explore its synthetic pathway. We tested content of stilbenes with UHPLC-QQQ-MS2, results revealed that stilbenes accumulation is positively correlated with UV-B exposure time. Then, we performed transcriptome high-throughput sequencing of grapes under treatments. Results shown that 13,906 differentially expressed genes were obtained, which were mainly enriched in three major regions (ribosome, plant-pathogen interaction and biosynthesis of flavonoid). Three genes of trans-scripusin A synthesis pathway key got by combining KEGG annotation and reference gene HsCYP1B1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SAH genes had high homology with other hydroxylase genes, and distributed in two subgroups. Gene structure analysis showed that SAH genes contained four exons, indicating that gene has low genetic diversity. Chromosome localization revealed that SAH genes were distributed on different chromosomes, in addition, the number of gene pairs between Vitis vinifera and other species was not related to genome size of other species. The expression profiles of SAH genes in different parts of Vitis vinifera L. were analyzed using qRT-PCR analysis, results indicated that expression of SAH genes be specific to fruit part. These paper provide theoretical basis for further study of polyphenols biosynthesis pathway in grape fruits. The study provides novel insights for further understanding quality of grapes response to UV radiation.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos da radiação , Vitis/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/efeitos da radiação
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0222747, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639982

RESUMO

Physiology-based differentiation of SH genes and Hemileia vastatrix races is the principal method employed for the characterization of coffee leaf rust resistance. Based on the gene-for-gene theory, nine major rust resistance genes (SH1-9) have been proposed. However, these genes have not been characterized at the molecular level. Consequently, the lack of molecular data regarding rust resistance genes or candidates is a major bottleneck in coffee breeding. To address this issue, we screened a BAC library with resistance gene analogs (RGAs), identified RGAs, characterized and explored for any SH related candidate genes. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of a gene (gene 11), which shares conserved sequences with other SH genes and displays a characteristic polymorphic allele conferring different resistance phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the two RGAs belonging to CC-NBS-LRR revealed more intense diversifying selection in tomato and grape genomes than in coffee. For the first time, the present study has unveiled novel insights into the molecular nature of the SH genes, thereby opening new avenues for coffee rust resistance molecular breeding. The characterized candidate RGA is of particular importance for further biological function analysis in coffee.


Assuntos
Café/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma de Planta , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Sítios de Ligação , Café/classificação , Biblioteca Gênica , Lycopersicon esculentum/classificação , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Vitis/classificação , Vitis/genética
5.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(11): 653-663, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511936

RESUMO

The dependence of plant health and crop quality on the epiphytic microbial community has been extensively addressed, but little is known about plant-associated microbial communities under natural conditions. In this study, the bacterial and fungal communities on grape leaves were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer high-throughput sequencing, respectively. The results showed differences in the composition of the microbial communities on leaf samples of nine wine grape varieties. The most abundant bacterial genus was Pseudomonas, and the top three varieties with Pseudomonas were Zinfandel (22.6%), Syrah (21.6%), and Merlot (13.5%). The most abundant fungal genus was Alternaria, and the cultivar with the lowest abundance of Alternaria was Zinfandel (33.6%), indicating that these communities had different habitat preferences. The linear discriminant analysis effect size of all species showed that the bacteria Enterococcus, Massilia, and Kocuria were significantly enriched on the leaves of Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, respectively; Pseudomonadales and Pantoea on Zinfandel; and Bacillus, Turicibacter, and Romboutsia on Pinot Noir. Similarly, the fungi Cladosporium, Phoma, and Sporormiella were significantly enriched on Zinfandel, Lon, and Gem, respectively. Both Bray-Curtis and unweighted UniFrac revealed that bacteria and fungi have a significant impact (P < 0.01), and the results further proved that variety is the most important factor affecting the microbial community. The findings indicate that some beneficial or harmful microorganisms existing on the wine grape leaves might affect the health of the grape plants and the wine-making process.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vitis/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vitis/genética , Vinho/classificação , Vinho/microbiologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2902, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518223

RESUMO

It remains a major challenge to identify the genes and mutations that lead to plant sexual differentiation. Here, we study the structure and evolution of the sex-determining region (SDR) in Vitis species. We report an improved, chromosome-scale Cabernet Sauvignon genome sequence and the phased assembly of nine wild and cultivated grape genomes. By resolving twenty Vitis SDR haplotypes, we compare male, female, and hermaphrodite haplotype structures and identify sex-linked regions. Coupled with gene expression data, we identify a candidate male-sterility mutation in the VviINP1 gene and potential female-sterility function associated with the transcription factor VviYABBY3. Our data suggest that dioecy has been lost during domestication through a rare recombination event between male and female haplotypes. This work significantly advances the understanding of the genetic basis of sex determination in Vitis and provides the information necessary to rapidly identify sex types in grape breeding programs.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Vitis/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Domesticação , Flores , Mutação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Food Chem ; 328: 127164, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485587

RESUMO

The identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genotypes is conventionally a laborious activity that must be carried out by specialized staff. In this work a novel and simple method for differentiation of grapevine genotypes is presented. Direct measurements of leaves by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) combined with chemometric methods were used for classification of six genotypes (five varieties and a pair of clones), viz. Cinsault, Gewurztraminer (clone 643), Moscatel de Alejandría, País, Pinot Noir (French clone 777), Pinot Noir (local clone 'Valdivieso'). These were successfully classified and identified through supervised pattern recognition methods such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The error rate for spectra classification of test sets by both models was 0.08. The results demonstrate the advantages of using ATR-FTIR as a rapid and non-destructive tool that achieves accurate grapevine genotype differentiation.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Vitis/química , Vitis/genética , Chile , Análise Discriminante , Genótipo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559249

RESUMO

A functional Non-Tandem Duplicated Cluster (FNTDC) is a group of non-tandem-duplicated genes that are located closer than expected by mere chance and have a role in the same biological function. The identification of secondary-compounds-related FNTDC has gained increased interest in recent years, but little ab-initio attempts aiming to the identification of FNTDCs covering all biological functions, including primary metabolism compounds, have been carried out. We report an extensive FNTDC dataset accompanied by a detailed assessment on parameters used for genome scanning and their impact on FNTDC detection. We propose 70% identity and 70% alignment coverage as intermediate settings to exclude tandem duplicated genes and a dynamic scanning window of 24 genes. These settings were applied to rice, arabidopsis and grapevine genomes to call for FNTDCs. Besides the best-known secondary metabolism clusters, we identified many FNTDCs associated to primary metabolism ranging from macromolecules synthesis/editing, TOR signalling, ubiquitination, proton and electron transfer complexes. Using the intermediate FNTDC setting parameters (at P-value 1e-6), 130, 70 and 140 candidate FNTDCs were called in rice, arabidopsis and grapevine, respectively, and 20 to 30% of GO tags associated to called FNTDC were common among the 3 genomes. The datasets developed along with this work provide a rich framework for pinpointing candidate FNTDCs reflecting all GO-BP tags covering both primary and secondary metabolism with large macromolecular complexes/metabolons as the most represented FNTDCs. Noteworthy, several FNTDCs are tagged with GOs referring to organelle-targeted multi-enzyme complex, a finding that suggest the migration of endosymbiont gene chunks towards nuclei could be at the basis of these class of candidate FNTDCs. Most FNTDC appear to have evolved prior of genome duplication events. More than one-third of genes interspersed/adjacent to called FNTDCs lacked any functional annotation; however, their co-localization may provide hints towards a candidate biological role.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Oryza/genética , Vitis/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Diploide , Duplicação Gênica , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8505, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444786

RESUMO

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is one of the most important viruses of grapevine but, despite this, there remain several gaps in our understanding of its biology. Because of its narrow host range - limited to Vitis species - and because the virus is restricted to the phloem, most GLRaV-3 research has concentrated on epidemiology and the development of detection assays. The recent discovery that GLRaV-3 can infect Nicotiana benthamiana, a plant model organism, makes new opportunities available for research in this field. We used RNA-seq to compare both V. vinifera and P1/HC-Pro N. benthamiana host responses to GLRaV-3 infection. Our analysis revealed that the majority of DEGs observed between the two hosts were unique although responses between the two hosts also showed several shared gene expression results. When comparing gene expression patterns that were shared between the two hosts, we observed the downregulation of genes associated with stress chaperones, and the induction of gene families involved in primary plant physiological processes. This is the first analysis of gene expression profiles beyond Vitis to mealybug-transmitted GLRaV-3 and demonstrates that N. benthamiana could serve as a useful tool for future studies of GLRaV-3-host interactions.


Assuntos
Closteroviridae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/virologia , Transcriptoma , Vitis/genética , Vitis/virologia
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 153: 1-10, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460212

RESUMO

Cytokinins are important hormones involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, there remain many knowledge gaps with regard to their metabolism and transport mechanisms. Here, we characterise a half-size ATP binding cassette G (ABCG) transporter gene, also called white-brown complex transporter, VviABCG14, from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis shows the expression of VviABCG14 gene is significantly increased after grape berries are treated with exogenous N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) and trans-zeatin (tZ). Significant differences in phenotype were observed between overexpressing VviABCG14 transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis lines grown for 12 days. The fresh weight of transgenic Arabidopsis was greater than of wild-type plants, and root lengths were greater. After growing in soil for 26 days, the vegetative growth of transgenic lines significantly greater than the wild-type and the bolting rate was lower. Hormone content analysis indicates the levels of tZ in the shoots of overexpressing transgenes are higher than in wild-types. Using the split-ubiquitin yeast membrane system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay we show VviABCG14 and VviABCG7 transporter can form a heterodimer. Meanwhile, VviABCG7 is also significantly induced by exogenous CPPU and tZ in grape berries. Altogether, our results suggest VviABCG14 may affect the phenotype of Arabidopsis by transporting cytokinins and VviABCG14 interacts with VviABCG7 to form a heterodimer.


Assuntos
Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Citocininas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 621-629, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335385

RESUMO

3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) is an important odor compound that revives unripe grapes or poor-quality wine. The biosynthesis of IBMP in grape berries is under the catalysis of Vitis vinifera O-methyltranferase 3 (VvOMT3). The homologous verification in this paper was carried out with the transient overexpression technique. The results showed that both the expression levels of the VvOMT3 gene and the IBMP concentration in 'Red globe' grapes increased significantly, which suggested that VvOMT3 could function in the biosynthesis of IBMP. Based on ß-glucuronidase (GUS) staining results, blue color was only observed in grape pulp, not in grape skin, which indicated that VvOMT3 was expressed in grape pulp. The outcomes of the subcellular location examination performed on the protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the VvOMT3 protein was located on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. In summary, the VvOMT3 enzyme may function at the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane of pulp cells during grape development. These results will provide a background for future research on the catalytic mechanisms of VvOMT3.


Assuntos
Frutas , Metiltransferases , Vitis , Biologia Computacional , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Vitis/enzimologia , Vitis/genética , Vinho
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 214-222, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229406

RESUMO

NAC [No apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF), Cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC)] transcription factors (TFs) play an important role in plant growth and response to various environmental stress. Drought stress is the primary factor limiting the growth and fruit quality of grapevines worldwide. However, the biological function of the NAC family members in grapevine is not clear. In this study, we reported that VvNAC08, a novel NAC transcription factor gene, was expressed after drought, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and melatonin (MT) treatments in grapevine. VvNAC08 was expressed in various tissues. The open reading frame (ORF) of VvNAC08 was 792 bp, encoding 263 amino acids. The VvNAC08 protein could bind to NACRS [CGTA/CACG] in yeast. When subjected to drought and dehydration stress, VvNAC08-overexpression (OE) Arabidopsis had a higher survival rate and a lower water loss rate than wild type (WT) plants. Under drought conditions, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing VvNAC08 had a lower malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2 contents, but a higher peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as more proline content. Moreover, the expressions of marker genes, including ABI5, AREB1, COR15A, COR47, P5CS, RD22, and RD29A, were up-regulated in VvNAC08-overexpression lines when subjected to drought treatments. The results suggest that the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing VvNAC08 enhances resistance to drought while up-regulating the expressions of ABA- and stress-related genes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Vitis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6877, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327696

RESUMO

Cluster thinning and girdling are common and simple practices applied to improve berry quality in table grape cultivation. However, there is limited information about the accumulation and biosynthesis of the entire aromatic profile under cluster thinning and girdling, notably in table grapes. This research investigated the influences of cluster thinning and girdling (alone or in combination) on aroma profiles, particularly the changes in biosynthesis and accumulation of Muscat-flavored related compounds from véraison to harvest in 'Jumeigui' grape. Cluster thinning and girdling (alone or in combination) significantly increased the concentrations of total soluble solids (TSS) and key aromatic compounds at harvest, with higher concentrations of both under cluster thinning than girdling. Berry weight and titratable acidity (TA) were unaffected by cluster thinning, girdling, or in combination at harvest. Linalool, the most abundant and active odorant related to Muscat flavor, accumulated in 28.6% and 20.2% higher concentrations from cluster thinning than control and girdling at maturity, respectively. Furthermore, higher DXS3 transcript abundance in cluster thinning groups might contribute to the increased accumulation of terpenes and linalool in 'Jumeigui' grape. The results will contribute to further understand the mechanism of source/sink ratio modulation on aroma accumulation and better apply cluster thinning and girdling for grape production.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Vitis/química , Biomassa , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Vitis/genética
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 151: 334-341, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259674

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds, such as phytoalexin resveratrol, can be induced in grapes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and have been related in many healthy effects. Stilbene synthases (STSs) are the key enzyme responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis. They have been already isolated and characterized from several plant species, however, VviSTS is a multigene family and little is known about their modulation in response to the application of gaseous treatments that maintain table grapes quality during postharvest. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of a 3-day CO2 treatment on the modulation of 4 STSs (VviSTS6, VviSTS7, VviSTS16 and VviSTS46) and on the accumulation of different stilbene compounds (resveratrol, resveratrol-glucoside, trans-piceatannol, z-miyabenol and pallidol) during the postharvest storage at 0 °C of white (Superior Seedless, Dominga), red (Red Globe) and black (Autumn Royal) table grapes. Results indicated that the accumulation of the stilbene compounds by the application of CO2 and low temperature storage were cultivar dependent. In white Dominga fruit, accumulation of stilbene compounds increased in CO2-treated samples what seems to be modulated by VviSTS6, VviSTS7 and VviSTS46. However, in Red Globe the accumulation of compounds was mainly due to the cold storage in air and seems to be also mediated by the induction of the same VviSTSs. By contrast, in Superior Seedless and Autumn Royal table grapes the modulation of VviSTSs genes and the stilbene accumulation was independent of the atmosphere storage. Further studies would be needed to elucidate the possible role of transcription factors involved on VviSTSs modulation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estilbenos , Vitis , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/genética
15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 425-441, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266646

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Aggregation across multiple networks highlights robust co-expression interactions and improves the functional connectivity of grapevine gene co-expression networks. In recent years, the rapid accumulation of transcriptome datasets from diverse experimental conditions has enabled the widespread use of gene co-expression network (GCN) analysis in plants. In grapevine, GCN analysis has shown great promise for gene function prediction, however, measurable progress is currently lacking. Using accumulated microarray datasets from the grapevine whole-genome array (33 experiments, 1359 samples), we explored how meta-analysis through aggregation influences the functional connectivity (performance) of derived networks using guilt-by-association neighbor voting. Two annotation schemes, i.e. MapMan BIN and Pfam, at two sparsity thresholds, i.e. top 100 (stringent) and 300 (relaxed) ranked genes were evaluated. We observed that aggregating across multiple networks improves performance dramatically, with the aggregate outperforming the majority of functional terms across individual networks. Network sparsity and size (i.e. the number of samples and aggregates) were key factors influencing performance while the choice of annotation scheme had little. Systematic comparison with various state-of-the-art microarray and RNA-seq networks was also performed, however, none outperformed the aggregate microarray network despite having good predictive performance. Repeating these series of tests using a functional enrichment-based performance metric also showed remarkably consistent findings with guilt-by-association neighbor voting. To demonstrate its functionality, we explore the function and transcriptional regulation of grapevine EXPANSIN genes. We envisage that network aggregation will offer new and unique opportunities for gene function prediction in future grapevine functional genomics studies. To this end, we make the aggregate networks and associated metadata publicly available at VTC-Agg (https://sites.google.com/view/vtc-agg).


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma de Planta/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
16.
Physiol Plant ; 169(4): 544-554, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187689

RESUMO

An understanding of fruit gas exchange is necessary to determine the carbon balance in grapevines, but little attention has been paid to the relationships among fruit respiration, plant water status and genetic variability. The effect of plant water status and genotype on cluster respiration was studied over two seasons (2013 and 2014) under field conditions using a whole cluster respiration chamber. Whole cluster CO2 fluxes were measured in growing grapevines at hard-green, veraison and ripening stages under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, and under light and dark conditions in two grapevine varieties, Tempranillo and Grenache. A direct relationship between cluster CO2 efflux and plant water status was found at hard-green stage. Genotype influenced the fruit CO2 efflux that resulted in higher carbon losses in Tempranillo than in Grenache. Fruit respiration rates decreased from the first berry developmental stages to ripening stage. The integration of fruit respiration rates under light and dark conditions showed the magnitude of fruit carbon losses and gains as well as interesting variety and environmental conditions effects on those processes.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Vitis/genética , Carbono , Genótipo , Água
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 55, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grapevine is an economically important crop for which yield and berry quality is strongly affected by climate change. Large variations in drought tolerance exist across Vitis species. Some of these species are used as rootstock to enhance abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated the physiological and transcriptomic responses to water deficit of four different genotypes that differ in drought tolerance: Ramsey (Vitis champinii), Riparia Gloire (Vitis riparia), Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera), and SC2 (Vitis vinifera x Vitis girdiana). RESULTS: Ramsey was particularly more drought tolerant than the other three genotypes. Ramsey maintained a higher stomatal conductance and photosynthesis at equivalent levels of moderate water deficit. We identified specific and common transcriptomic responses shared among the four different Vitis species using RNA sequencing analysis. A weighted gene co-expression analysis identified a water deficit core gene set with the ABA biosynthesis and signaling genes, NCED3, RD29B and ABI1 as potential hub genes. The transcript abundance of many abscisic acid metabolism and signaling genes was strongly increased by water deficit along with genes associated with lipid metabolism, galactinol synthases and MIP family proteins. This response occurred at smaller water deficits in Ramsey and with higher transcript abundance than the other genotypes. A number of aquaporin genes displayed differential and unique responses to water deficit in Ramsey leaves. Genes involved in cysteine biosynthesis and metabolism were constitutively higher in the roots of Ramsey; thus, linking the gene expression of a known factor that influences ABA biosynthesis to this genotype's increased NCED3 transcript abundance. CONCLUSION: The drought tolerant Ramsey maintained higher photosynthesis at equivalent water deficit than the three other grapevine genotypes. Ramsey was more responsive to water deficit; its transcriptome responded at smaller water deficits, whereas the other genotypes did not respond until more severe water deficits were reached. There was a common core gene network responding to water deficit for all genotypes that included ABA metabolism and signaling. The gene clusters and sub-networks identified in this work represent interesting gene lists to explore and to better understand drought tolerance molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Secas , Fotossíntese , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Vitis/fisiologia , Genótipo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vitis/genética
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 59, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basal leaf removal is widely practiced to increase grape cluster sunlight exposure that controls berry rot and improves quality. Studies on its influence on volatile compounds in grape berries have been performed mostly in Mediterranean or marine climate regions. It is uncertain whether similar efficiency can be achieved when grape berries are grown under continental climate. This study aimed to dissect the variation in volatile compound production and transcriptome in sunlight-exposed grape berries in a dry-hot climate region and to propose the key genes related to the variation. RESULTS: Four cluster sunlight exposure strategies, including basal leaf removal at pepper-corn size stage, leaf removal at véraison (LR-V), leaf moving at véraison (LM-V), and half-leaf removal at véraison, were implemented at the north foot of the Mt. Tianshan region of northwestern China. Various cluster exposure treatments resulted in a decline in the concentrations of norisoprenoids and monoterpenes in ripening grape berries. Both ß-carotene and lutein, the substrates of norisoprenoid biosynthesis, were reduced by cluster sunlight exposure. K-means cluster analysis showed that some genes involved in biosynthesis such as VviTPS55, VviTPS60, VviTPS66, VviCCD4a and VviCCD4b exhibited lower expression levels in exposed berries at least at one of the tested stages. Two C6-derived esters with fruity attributes, ethyl hexanoate and hexyl acetate, were reduced markedly. In contrast, main C6 alcohol compound levels were elevated in the LR-V- and LM-V-treated grape berries, which corresponded to the up-regulated expression of VviLOXA, VviLOXO and VviADH1 in the oxylipin pathway. Most of the differentially expressed genes in the exposed and control berries were enriched to the "stress response" processes, and this transcriptome difference was accumulated as the berries matured. Besides, LR-V treatment stimulated a significant up-regulation in photosynthesis-related genes in the grape berries, which did not happen with LM-V treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cluster sunlight exposure in dry-hot climate viticulture resulted in different volatile-targeted transcriptomic and metabolic responses from those obtained in the temperate Mediterranean or marine climate region. Therefore, a modified canopy management should be adopted to improve the aroma of grape berries.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma , Luz Solar , Transcriptoma , Vitis/genética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , China , Clima , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
20.
J Plant Physiol ; 246-247: 153113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044673

RESUMO

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a valuable crop for human consumption and wine production, and is prone to suffering from salinity stress in arid regions or when exposed to low quality irrigation water. A previous study identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) NaE, containing six High-affinity Potassium Transporter 1 genes, that was associated with shoot Na+ exclusion in grapevine. While HKT1;1 was predicted to be the most likely gene within this QTL to encode for this important salinity tolerance sub-trait, four other HKTs within the QTL remained uncharacterised; VviHKT1;2 encodes a truncated transcript unlikely to form a functional transporter. In this study, two allelic variants for each of VviHKT1;6, VviHKT1;7 and VviHKT1;8 from the heterozygous grapevine variety Cabernet Sauvignon were functionally characterised. Using the Xenopus laevis oocyte heterologous expression system, as well as transient expression in tobacco leaves, we found that the VviHKT1;6 and VviHKT1;7 alleles encoded plasma membrane localised proteins that facilitated significant non-rectifying Na+ transport. Conversely, proteins encoded by the VviHKT1;8 alleles were inwardly-rectifying, weak Na+ transporters that localised to intracellular organelles. Mining of previous RNA-seq gene expression data suggested that VviHKT1;6-8 are weakly expressed in grapevine roots, flower buds, and seeds under normal conditions and different nutrient regimes. We propose that VviHKT1;6 and VviHKT1;7 are likely to have a less significant role in grapevine leaf Na+ exclusion than VviHKT1;1, and that VviHKT1;8 is involved in endomembrane Na+ transport.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sódio/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Vitis/genética , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Oócitos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Xenopus
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