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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(7): 2851-2866, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35541898

RESUMO

Wine production represents an ancient human activity and one of the most economically important markets in Europe. Moreover, the health effects of grapes and related products have been largely demonstrated, and mostly depend on their richness in bioactive molecules such as flavonoid and non-flavonoid phenolic compounds. Italy has the highest global wine production and provides one of the richest grapevine germplasm in the Mediterranean area. In this paper, our attention was focused on the evaluation of the total phenol and anthocyanin content in five autochthonous Apulian grapevine cultivars, in both wines and their non-alcoholic extracts. Moreover, the potential antioxidant effects of the non-alcoholic wine extracts on the cell viability of Caco-2 and HeLa carcinoma cell lines were tested. Finally, for the most promising autochthonous selected cultivars (Negramaro, Nero di Troia and Susumaniello), comparative transcriptomic analysis in berries was performed using high-throughput sequencing technology.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Células CACO-2 , Frutas/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7481, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523985

RESUMO

Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are associations between genetic variants, such as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), and gene expression. eQTLs are an important tool to understand the genetic variance of gene expression of complex phenotypes. eQTLs analyses are common in biomedical models but are scarce in woody crop species such as fruit trees or grapes. In this study, a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was conducted leveraging with expression data from two different growth stages, around ripening onset, of 10 genotypes of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). A total of 2170 cis-eQTL were identified in 212 gene modulated at ripening onset. The 48% of these DEGs have a known function. Among the annotated protein-coding genes, terpene synthase, auxin-regulatory factors, GRFS, ANK_REP_REGION domain-containing protein, Kinesin motor domain-containing protein and flavonol synthase were noted. This new inventory of cis-eQTLs influencing gene expression during fruit ripening will be an important resource to examine variation for this trait and will help to elucidate the complex genetic architecture underlying this process in grape.


Assuntos
Vitis , Biologia Computacional , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 217, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnesium ion is one of the essential mineral elements for plant growth and development, which participates in a variety of physiological and biochemical processes. Since there is no report on the research of magnesium ion transporter in grape, the study of the structure and function of magnesium ion transporters (MGT) is helpful to understand the dynamic balance mechanism of intracellular magnesium ions and their inter- or intra-cellular activities. RESULT: In this study, we identified the members of MGT protein family in grape and performed the phylogenetic and expression analysis. We have identified nine VvMGT genes in grape genome, which are distributed on eight different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MGT family members of grapes were divided into five subfamilies and had obvious homology with Arabidopsis, maize, and pear. Based on transcriptome data from the web databases, we analyzed the expression patterns of VvMGTs at different development stages and in response to abiotic stresses including waterlogging, drought, salinity, and copper. Using qRT-PCR method, we tested the expression of grape VvMGTs under magnesium and aluminum treatments and found significant changes in VvMGTs expression. In addition, four of the MGT proteins in grape were located in the nucleus. CONCLUSION: Overall, in this study we investigated the structural characteristics, evolution pattern, and expression analysis of VvMGTs in depth, which laid the foundation for further revealing the function of VvMGT genes in grape.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Vitis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Magnésio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(16): 5049-5056, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412322

RESUMO

Elicitation treatments of grape cell cultures with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation, and sucrose induce mild production of stilbenes and flavonoids due to limited substrate availability. However, these treatments cause a synergistic boost of stilbenes production when applied to two phenylalanine (Phe)-enriched transgenic grape cell lines, AroG* + STS and AroG* + FLS. The combined treatment of UV-C elicitation on the Phe-fed AroG* + STS line resulted in the highest content of stilbenes (37.8-fold increase, 17.39 mg/g dry weight (DW)) mainly due to resveratrol (64-fold, 3.23 mg/g DW) and viniferin (1343-fold, 13.43 mg/g DW). The synergistic increase following either UV-C or MeJA elicitation was due to the induction of stilbene-related genes, while sucrose treatment had no effect on gene expression levels and served as an additional carbon source for phenylpropanoids. The combined strategy presented may enable future usage of grape cell cultures for the production of stilbenes and in particular viniferin.


Assuntos
Estilbenos , Vitis , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
5.
J Food Sci ; 87(4): 1650-1661, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315060

RESUMO

The flavonoid metabolites were compared between red 'Summer Black' (SB) and white 'Shine Muscat' (SM) table grapes during fruit development based on widely targeted metabolome. A total of 134 flavonoids were identified in two cultivars, including 37 flavones, 33 flavonols, and 11 anthocyanidins, and so on. From young to veraison, the composition and the content of most flavonoids were decreasing in both cultivars but increased at maturation in SB. In general, SB has higher flavonoid compositions and content than SM during the whole fruit development, especially the content of anthocyanin after veraison. While the SM had higher content of flavonols such as quercetin, kaempferol and their derivatives. The expression of anthocyanin-related genes such as UFGT, OMT, GST, MATE, MYBA1, and MYBA2 was remarkably higher in SB than those in SM, which may attribute to higher anthocyanin content, while the higher expression of F3H and FLS resulted higher level of flavonols in SM. These results improve our understanding of flavonoid profiles and molecular mechanism in table grape cultivars.


Assuntos
Vitis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo
6.
Food Funct ; 13(8): 4315-4330, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297910

RESUMO

Phenolic rich 100% grape juice has been associated with many health benefits, but its place in dietary guidance is controversial relative to whole fruit. Direct comparisons of phenolic profiles and bioavailability between these food forms are needed. Phenolic bioaccessibility and metabolism from Concord (CG) and Niagara (NG) grapes and corresponding 100% juices were investigated using an in vitro digestion coupled with anaerobic gut fermentation model. Intestinal transport of resulting bioaccessible phenolics and microbial metabolites was estimated using a Caco-2 cell model. Total bioaccessible phenolics from both upper and lower digestion were similar (P > 0.05) between NG (400.9 ± 26.3 µmol per 100 g) and NGJ (349.5 ± 8.3 µmol per 100 g) and significantly different (P < 0.05) between CG (417.2 ± 24.4 µmol per 100 g) and CGJ (294.3 ± 45.4 µmol per 100 g) total cellular transport of phenolics was similar (P > 0.05) between whole grapes (89.4 ± 5.3 µmol per 100 g for CG, and 71.8 ± 2.4 µmol per 100 g for NG) and 100% juices (88.0 ± 5.6 µmol per 100 g for CGJ, and 85.3 ± 9.4 µmol per 100 g for NGJ). Differences were observed between the location of phenolic metabolism, bioaccessibility and subsequent cellular transport of individual phenolics between grapes and juice matrices. Specifically, greater amounts of phenolics were transported from grape juices than whole grapes from the upper tract. However, cumulative bioaccessibility and transport from upper and lower GI digestion/fermentation together indicates that the absorbable phenolics from 100% grape juice is similar to that of whole grapes, suggesting that phenolic-mediated health benefits from consumption of whole fruit and juice may be similar.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vitis , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Vitis/metabolismo
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 272: 153668, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306297

RESUMO

MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) transcription factors make up one of the largest protein families in plants. The TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling network plays a pivotal role in sugar metabolism and plant growth. In this article, we utilized grape (Vitis vinifera) calli to explore the relationship between VvMYB1 and VvTOR. By using yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase reporter system, we speculated that there may be other proteins that help VvMYB1 and VvTOR promoter bond in grape calli, and the interaction action sites were located between the VvTOR 400-bp promoter fragment and the 1200-bp promoter fragment. The subcellular localization results suggest that VvMYB1 is found in the nucleus. Moreover, the expression level of VvTOR increased in the transgenic calli with overexpression of VvMYB1. These findings provide further evidence that VvMYB1 regulates VvTOR expression. We also found that overexpression of VvMYB1 increased glucose accumulation and affected expression of sugar-related genes. Our results suggest that there is a crosstalk between VvMYB1, VvTOR, and glucose accumulation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Vitis , Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
8.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35204683

RESUMO

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is a valuable crop in Europe for both economical and cultural reasons, but highly susceptible to Downy mildew (DM). The generation of resistant vines is of critical importance for a sustainable viticulture and can be achieved either by introgression of resistance genes in susceptible varieties or by mutation of Susceptibility (S) genes, e.g., by gene editing. This second approach offers several advantages: it maintains the genetic identity of cultivars otherwise disrupted by crossing and generally results in a broad-spectrum and durable resistance, but it is hindered by the poor knowledge about S genes in grapevines. Candidate S genes are Downy mildew Resistance 6 (DMR6) and DMR6-Like Oxygenases (DLOs), whose mutations confer resistance to DM in Arabidopsis. In this work, we show that grapevine VviDMR6-1 complements the Arabidopsis dmr6-1 resistant mutant. We studied the expression of grapevine VviDMR6 and VviDLO genes in different organs and in response to the DM causative agent Plasmopara viticola. Through an automated evaluation of causal relationships among genes, we show that VviDMR6-1, VviDMR6-2, and VviDLO1 group into different co-regulatory networks, suggesting distinct functions, and that mostly VviDMR6-1 is connected with pathogenesis-responsive genes. Therefore, VviDMR6-1 represents a good candidate to produce resistant cultivars with a gene-editing approach.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Peronospora , Vitis , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205325

RESUMO

Root restriction (RR) has been reported to enhance grape berry quality in diverse aspects of grape life. In this study, RR-induced increases in the main primary metabolites in the grape berry and the expression of their related genes were studied at different developmental stages. Mainly the transcriptomic and metabolomic level were analyzed using 'Summer Black' grape berry as a material. The main results were as follows: A total of 11 transcripts involved in the primary metabolic pathways were significantly changed by the RR treatment. Metabolites such as sugars, organic acids, amino acids, starch, pectin, and cellulose were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed along with their metabolic pathways. Sucrose synthase (VIT_07s0005g00750, VIT_11s0016g00470) and sucrose phosphate synthase (VIT_18s0089g00410) were inferred to play critical roles in the accumulation of starch, sucrose, glucose, and fructose, which was induced by the RR treatment. RR treatment also promoted the malic acid and tartaric acid accumulation in the young berry. In addition, the grape berries after the RR treatment tended to have lower pectin and cellulose content.


Assuntos
Vitis , Celulose/metabolismo , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pectinas/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Transcriptoma/genética , Vitis/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162980

RESUMO

Protein expression from the berry skin of four red grape biotypes with varying hybrid character was compared at a proteome-wide level to identify the metabolic pathways underlying divergent patterns of secondary metabolites. A bottom-up shotgun proteomics approach with label-free quantification and MaxQuant-assisted computational analysis was applied. Red grapes were from (i) purebred Vitis vinifera (Aglianico cv.); (ii) V. vinifera (local Sciascinoso cv.) grafted onto an American rootstock; (iii) interspecific hybrid (V. vinifera × V. labrusca, Isabel), and (iv) uncharacterized grape genotype with hybrid lineage, producing relatively abundant anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides. Proteomics supported the differences between hybrids and purebred V. vinifera grapes, consistently with distinct phenotypic metabolite assets. Methanol O-anthraniloyltransferase, which catalyses the synthesis of methyl anthranilate, primarily responsible for the "foxy" odour, was exclusive of the Isabel hybrid grape. Most of the proteins with different expression profiles converged into coordinated biosynthetic networks of primary metabolism, while many possible enzymes of secondary metabolism pathways, including 5-glucosyltransferases expected for hybrid grapes, remained unassigned due to incomplete protein annotation for the Vitis genus. Minor differences of protein expression distinguished V. vinifera scion grafted onto American rootstocks from purebred V. vinifera skin grapes, supporting a slight influence of the rootstock on the grape metabolism.


Assuntos
Vitis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Proteômica , Vitis/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216359

RESUMO

Leaves, considered as the 'source' organs, depend on the development stages because of the age-dependent photosynthesis and assimilation of leaves. However, the molecular mechanisms of age-dependent limitations on the function of leaves are seldom reported. In the present study, the photosynthesis-related characteristics and photoassimilates were investigated in grape leaves at six different age groups (Ll to L6) at micro-morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. These results showed lower expression levels of genes associated with stomatal development, and chl biosynthesis resulted in fewer stomata and lowered chlorophyll a/b contents in L1 when compared to L3 and L5. The DEGs between L5 and L3/L1 were largely distributed at stomatal movement, carbon fixation, and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways, such as STOMATAL ANION CHANNEL PROTEIN 1 (SLAC1), FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATE ALDOLASE (FBA1), SUCROSE-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (SPP1), and SUCROSE-PHOSPHATE PHOSPHATASE (SPS2, 4). These genes could be major candidate genes leading to increased photosynthesis capacity and sugar content in L5. The accumulation of starch grains in the chloroplast and palisade tissue of L5 and higher transcription levels of genes related to starch biosynthesis in L5 further supported the high ability of L5 to produce photoassimilates. Hence, our results provide insights for understanding different photosynthetic functions in age-dependent leaves in grape plants at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/genética , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Carboidratos/genética , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163979

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of defoliation performed in the Babica red grape variety on the volatile compounds in produced wine. Three treatments were performed during 2017 and 2018: the removal of six leaves before flowering (FL) and at the end of veraison (VER), as well as control (C). Volatile compounds were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrophotometric detector. Results were statistically evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA at the p = 0.05 level) and principal component analysis (PCA). Defoliation treatments were affected by the concentration of several compounds, but only in one year. The VER2017 treatment significantly increased the concentration of three aliphatic esters up to 8 C atoms and octanoic acid ethyl ester. The FL2017 treatment increased the concentration of three aliphatic alcohols. The FL2018 treatment has significantly enhanced the concentration ethyl cinnamate but decreased the concentrations of eugenol and dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-thiophenone. Both defoliation treatments reduced the concentration of γ-decanolactone in 2017. Aldehydes, monoterpenoles, and monoterpenes remained unaffected by the defoliation treatments. Vintage was found to be the largest source of variability for most volatile compounds under investigation, which was confirmed by PCA. The effect of defoliation in the mild-Mediterranean climate was found to mostly depend on seasonal weather conditions.


Assuntos
Desfolhantes Químicos/efeitos adversos , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Clima , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vinho/análise
13.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164310

RESUMO

Twelve polyphenols from three distinct families (dihydroflavonols, flavan-3-ols, and flavanones) were studied as potential substrates of anthocyanidin synthase from Vitis vinifera (VvANS). Only flavan-3-ols of (2R,3S) configuration having either a catechol or gallol group on ring B are accepted as substrates. Only dihydroflavonols of (2R,3R) configuration are accepted as substrates, but a catechol or gallol group is not mandatory. Flavanones are not substrates of VvANS. HPLC and MS/MS analyses of the enzymatic products showed that the VvANS-catalyzed oxidative transformation of (+)-dihydroflavonols, such as dihydroquercetin, dihydrokaempferol and dihydromyricetin, leads only to the corresponding flavonols. Among the flavan-3-ols recognized as substrates, (+)-gallocatechin was only transformed into delphinidin by VvANS, whereas (+)-catechin was transformed into three products, including two major products that were an ascorbate-cyanidin adduct and a dimer of oxidized catechin, and a minor product that was cyanidin. Data from real-time MS monitoring of the enzymatic transformation of (+)-catechin suggest that its products are all derived from the initial C3-hydroxylation intermediate, i.e., a 3,3-gem-diol, and their most likely formation mechanism is discussed.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/metabolismo , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 233: 113305, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189519

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is known to induce toxic responses in many organs of human beings and animals. However, research concerning toxicity in the stomach is limited. In this study, arsenic-induced gastric toxicity was investigated in a mouse model, and grape skin extract (GSE) was confirmed to have protective effects against arsenic toxicity. Our experimental results showed that exposure to 10 mg/l arsenic via drinking water for 56 days caused oxidative damage and inflammatory responses. The H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly increased, accompanied by significant decreases in total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in the gastric tissue of arsenic-treated mice. Two inflammatory signalling pathways, i.e., TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB and IL-6/STAT-3, were activated, along with inflammatory cell infiltration and the elevated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IFN-γ) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the gastric tissue of mice exposed to arsenic. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of the ZO-1, ZO-2 and occludin genes, which encode the key components of tight junction (TJ) complexes, were downregulated. However, the application of GSE (300 mg/kg bw) significantly inhibited the arsenic-induced increases in H2O2 and MDA contents and the decreases in T-SOD activity and GSH content. The arsenic-mediated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IFN-γ), MPO and IL-6/STAT3 and TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathways was found down-regulated. Moreover, the arsenic-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibition of TJ genes transcription were markedly attenuated in the As+GSE (300 mg/kg bw) group. Based on the present findings, arsenic intake appears to cause gastric toxicity via oxidative stress and inflammation, and the application of GSE offers significant protection against arsenic toxicity in a mouse model by attenuating the oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Our results suggest that GSE by oral administration might function as a candidate therapeutic supplement to antagonize arsenic toxicity.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Vitis , Animais , Arsênio/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Inflamação , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estômago , Vitis/metabolismo
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0090721, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107347

RESUMO

Titanium (Ti) is an element beneficial to plant growth. Application of titanium to roots or leaves at low concentrations can improve crop yield and performance. However, the effect of titanium ions on the bulk soil microbial community of planted crops remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of titanium on soil bacterial and fungal communities. Field surveys were conducted to determine the effect of titanium ions on bulk soil microbial communities in pitaya and grape plantations of Panzhihua and Xichang areas, respectively. Full-length 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon sequencing were performed using PacBio Sequel to further explore the composition and structure of soil microbiota. The application of titanium ions significantly altered the composition and structure of soil microbiota. Root irrigation with titanium ions in pitaya gardens reduced the diversity of soil fungi and bacteria. However, the decline in bacterial diversity was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, foliar spray of titanium ions on grapes greatly reduced the soil microbial diversity. The bulk soil microbiota had a core of conserved taxa, and titanium ions significantly altered their relative abundances. Furthermore, the application of titanium increased the interaction network of soil fungi and bacteria compared with the control group. Thus, titanium ions potentially improve the stability of the soil microbial community. IMPORTANCE Pitaya and grape are important cash crops in the Panzhihua and Xichang areas, respectively, where they are well adapted. Titanium is a plant growth-promoting element, but the interaction between titanium and soil microorganisms is poorly understood. Titanium ions are still not widely used for growing pitaya and grape in the two regions. Thus, we investigated the effects of titanium ions on soil microbial communities of the two fruit crops in these two regions. Microbial diversity decreased, and the community structure changed; however, the addition of titanium ions enhanced cooccurrence relationships and improved the stability of the community. This study provides a basis for the importance of titanium ion application in crop cultivation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Titânio/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Titânio/análise , Vitis/metabolismo
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(8): 2501-2509, 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179384

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds that are natural color pigments occurring in various colored plants, such as berry fruits, vegetables, and grapes. With the elucidation of their various physiological effects, anthocyanins have been identified as promising functional food ingredients. However, findings on the bioavailability of anthocyanins, which are present in various chemical structures in foods, are limited; their intestinal absorption behaviors, including their transport route(s), have not been fully explained. This perspective overviews the current knowledge and issues and discusses advanced techniques, such as in situ matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging, and future perspectives on the study of the bioavailability of anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Vitis , Antocianinas/química , Frutas/química , Absorção Intestinal , Verduras/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(7): 2169-2178, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143724

RESUMO

The ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthetic gene cluster includes a bZIP transcription factor (TF) gene (OTAbzip) that has been identified in different fungal species. However, most previous studies identified the OTAbzip gene in ochratoxigenic fungi using bioinformatics methods, while few studies focused on deleting the gene, let alone overexpressing it, to characterize the function of the OTAbZIP TF. Here, we characterized the AnOTAbZIP TF in an ochratoxigenic isolate of Aspergillus niger by deleting and overexpressing the AnOTAbzip gene and examining the role of AnOTAbZIP in morphological development, OTA biosynthesis, and pathogenicity. Chemical and gene expression analyses revealed that AnOTAbZIP positively regulates OTA biosynthesis, since the loss of OTA production and the downregulation of the OTA biosynthetic genes were observed in the ΔAnOTAbzip strain, compared with the wild-type (WT) and OE::AnOTAbzip strains. In terms of pathogenicity, the ΔAnOTAbzip strain produced a greater lesion on grape berries, especially with respect to the OE::AnOTAbzip strain, rather than WT. Finally, the ΔAnOTAbzip strain was also more tolerant to oxidative stress with respect to the OE::AnOTAbzip and WT strains in that order. These new findings improve our understanding of the AnOTAbZIP regulatory mechanism and help develop strategies to attenuate plant pathogenicity and reduce OTA biosynthesis of A. niger.


Assuntos
Ocratoxinas , Vitis , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Genes vif , Ocratoxinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Vitis/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163458

RESUMO

In order to unravel the functions of ASR (Abscisic acid, Stress, Ripening-induced) proteins in the nucleus, we created a new model of genetically transformed grape embryogenic cells by RNAi-knockdown of grape ASR (VvMSA). Nuclear proteomes of wild-type and VvMSA-RNAi grape cell lines were analyzed by quantitative isobaric tagging (iTRAQ 8-plex). The most significantly up- or down-regulated nuclear proteins were involved in epigenetic regulation, DNA replication/repair, transcription, mRNA splicing/stability/editing, rRNA processing/biogenesis, metabolism, cell division/differentiation and stress responses. The spectacular up-regulation in VvMSA-silenced cells was that of the stress response protein VvLEA D-29 (Late Embryogenesis Abundant). Both VvMSA and VvLEA D-29 genes displayed strong and contrasted responsiveness to auxin depletion, repression of VvMSA and induction of VvLEA D-29. In silico analysis of VvMSA and VvLEA D-29 proteins highlighted their intrinsically disordered nature and possible compensatory relationship. Semi-quantitative evaluation by medium-throughput immunoblotting of eighteen post-translational modifications of histones H3 and H4 in VvMSA-knockdown cells showed significant enrichment/depletion of the histone marks H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K9me1, H3K9me2, H3K36me2, H3K36me3 and H4K16ac. We demonstrate that grape ASR repression differentially affects members of complex nucleoprotein structures and may not only act as molecular chaperone/transcription factor, but also participates in plant responses to developmental and environmental cues through epigenetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Vitis/citologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Código das Histonas , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1323, 2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35079016

RESUMO

Phytohormones play important roles in germination, blossom, senescence, abscission of plants by a series of signal transduction and molecular regulation. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of root restriction (RR) cultivation on plant endogenous hormone variation tendency at different growth stages in diverse organs or tissues. 'Muscat Hamburg' (Vitis 'Muscat of Alexandria' × Vitis 'Trollinger') grapevine was used as test material. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify hormone levels, qRT-PCR was used to quantify the expression of genes related to hormone biosynthesis pathway, and determined parameters of growth and photosynthetic, aiming to investigate the influence of root restriction on the formation and metabolism of phytohormones, as well as the degree of correlation between phytohormones and plant growth and photosynthetic intensity under root restriction. By measuring the photosynthetic rate of leaves at the stages of core-hardening, veraison and maturity, it was found that root restriction could reduce most photosynthetic parameters. The results also revealed that RR treatment increased abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), zeatin riboside (ZR), N6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)-adenine nucleoside (iPR) concentrations, while reduced auxin (IAA), 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA), 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA), gibberellin A3 (GA3), zeatin (ZT), N6-(delta 2-Isopentenyl)-adenine (iP), kinetin (KT), jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) concentrations in most organs and at most developmental stages. RT-qPCR was carried out to further explore the effect of root restriction on genes expression of ABA, SA and IAA biosynthesis pathways at molecular level. Meanwhile, through correlation analysis, we found that different phytohormones contributed differently to physiological indicators, there existed strong correlation of ABA, KT, MeJA, iPR, SA, JA with leaf photosynthesis, GA3, IBA, ZR, IAA, ZT with fruit quality. In addition, we also found that the shoot growth related parameters were closely correlated with JA, IPA and iP. To sum up, our results suggested that RR treatment could significantly increase soluble solid content, regulate the growth and photosynthesis of grapevine, by affecting the biosynthesis of phytohormones. It could further prove that root restriction was a feasible technique to ameliorate the phenomenon of low quality in grape berry in southern China.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas , Vitis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/metabolismo
20.
J Exp Bot ; 73(7): 2061-2076, 2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022731

RESUMO

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) displays wide plasticity to climate; however, the physiology of dormancy along a seasonal continuum is poorly understood. Here we investigated the apparent disconnect between dormancy and the underlying respiratory physiology and transcriptome of grapevine buds, from bud set in summer to bud burst in spring. The establishment of dormancy in summer was pronounced and reproducible; however, this was coupled with little or no change in physiology, indicated by respiration, hydration, and tissue oxygen tension. The release of dormancy was biphasic; the depth of dormancy declined substantially by mid-autumn, while the subsequent decline towards spring was moderate. Observed changes in physiology failed to explain the first phase of dormancy decline, in particular. Transcriptome data contrasting development from summer through to spring also indicated that dormancy was poorly reflected by metabolic quiescence during summer and autumn. Gene Ontology and enrichment data revealed the prevailing influence of abscisic acid (ABA)-related gene expression during the transition from summer to autumn, and promoter motif analysis suggested that photoperiod may play an important role in regulating ABA functions during the establishment of dormancy. Transcriptomic data from later transitions reinforced the importance of oxidation and hypoxia as physiological cues to regulate the maintenance of quiescence and resumption of growth. Collectively these data reveal a novel disconnect between growth and metabolic quiescence in grapevine following bud set, which requires further experimentation to explain the phenology and dormancy relationships.


Assuntos
Dormência de Plantas , Vitis , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotoperíodo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Estações do Ano , Vitis/metabolismo
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