Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.422
Filtrar
1.
Planta ; 253(3): 73, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615406

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A reprogramming of secondary metabolism to acclimate to nitrogen deficiency was seen in grapevine eliciting an accumulation of strigolactones and jasmonate. This response links with photosynthetic compensation and enhanced ripening. In addition to the metabolism directly related to nitrogen assimilation, long-term nitrogen depletion may affect plant secondary metabolism, in turn affecting grapevine performance. In this work, the effect of nitrogen deficit was investigated in V. vinifera cv. Barbera potted vines following three years of deprivation, using a combination of morpho-physiological assessments and mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics. Plants grown under nitrogen limitation showed reduced growth and even more curtailed yields, lowered SPAD values, and a quite preserved leaf gas exchange, compared to plants grown under non-limiting nitrogen availability. Ripening was decidedly accelerated, and berry composition improved in terms of higher sugar and phenolic contents under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Metabolomics showed the broad involvement of secondary metabolism in acclimation to nitrogen deficiency, including a distinctive modulation of the phytohormone profile. Several nitrogen-containing metabolites were down accumulated under nitrogen-limiting conditions, including alkaloids, glucosinolates, hypoxanthine, and inosine. On the other hand, phenylpropanoids showed an accumulation trend. Concerning the recruitment of hormones, nitrogen deprivation elicited an accumulation of strigolactones and jasmonate. Noteworthy, both strigolactones and jasmonates have been previously related to increased photosynthetic efficiency under abiotic stress. Furthermore, the severe reduction of lateral shoot development we recorded in N-deprived vines is consistent with the accumulation of strigolactones. Overall, our results suggest that nitrogen deprivation induced a rather broad metabolic reprogramming, mainly including secondary metabolism and hormones profile, reflected in the modulation of photosynthetic performance, canopy growth, and possibly fruit quality.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Vitis/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 158: 146-157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310482

RESUMO

Dehydrins, a family of hydrophilic and intrinsically disordered proteins, are a subgroup of late embryogenesis abundant proteins that perform different protective roles in plants. Although the transition from a disordered to an ordered state has been associated with dehydrin function or interactions with specific partner molecules, the question of how the primary and secondary dehydrin protein structure is related to specific functions or target molecule preferences remains unresolved. This work addresses the in silico sequencing analysis and in vitro functional characterization of two dehydrin isoforms, VviDHN2 and VviDHN4, from Vitis vinifera. Conformational changes suggest potential interactions with a broad range of molecules and could point to more than one function. The in silico analysis showed differences in conserved segments, specific amino acid binding sequences, heterogeneity of structural properties and predicted sites accessible for various post-translational modifications between the sequence of both dehydrins. Moreover, in vitro functional analysis revealed that although they both showed slight antifungal activity, only VviDHN4 acts as a molecular shield that protects proteins from freezing and dehydration. VviDHN4 also demonstrated high potential as a chaperone and reactive oxygen species scavenger, in addition to presenting antifreeze activity, all of which confirms its multifunctional nature. Our findings highlight the significant role of Y-segments and the differential and specific amino acid composition of less conserved segments that are rich in polar/charged residues between S- and K-segments, coupled with post-translational modifications, in modulating and switching dehydrin biological function.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 339: 127852, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889133

RESUMO

A set of 917 wines of Czech origin were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) with the aim of building and evaluating multivariate statistical models and machine learning methods for the classification of 6 types based on colour and residual sugar content, 13 wine grape varieties and 4 locations based on 1H NMR spectra. The predictive models afforded greater than 93% correctness for classifying dry and medium dry, medium, and sweet white wines and dry red wines. The trained Random Forest (RF) model classified Pinot noir with 96% correctness, Blaufränkisch 96%, Riesling 92%, Cabernet Sauvignon 77%, Chardonnay 76%, Gewürtztraminer 60%, Hibernal 60%, Grüner Veltliner 52%, Pinot gris 48%, Sauvignon Blanc 45%, and Pálava 40%. Pinot blanc and Chardonnay, varieties that are often mistakenly interchanged, were discriminated with 71% correctness. The findings support chemometrics as a tool for predicting important features in wine, particularly for quality assessment and fraud detection.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vinho/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Cor , República Tcheca , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Componente Principal , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 340: 127906, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890857

RESUMO

Wine quality and character are defined in part by the terroir in which the grapes are grown. Metabolomic techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), are used to characterise wines and to detect wine fraud in other countries but have not been extensively trialled in Australia. This paper describes the use of ICP-MS and NMR to characterise a selection of Pinot noir wines. Wines from varying terroirs could be somewhat distinguished by their mineral content using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA was able to separate wines by their Australian states more clearly than by region. Metabolomic analysis of the wines using NMR did not find any correlations with climate/daytime temperatures, or region. An analysis of coinertia suggested that the two datasets were not redundant, and it is proposed that ICP-MS data is the most useful for determining regionality.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vinho/análise , Austrália , Clima , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Metabolômica , Nova Zelândia , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 337: 127772, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777571

RESUMO

Chitosan can function a key role in plant resistant against Botrytis cinerea infection, while its mechanism is unclear in ripened fruits. In this study, we investigated the chitosan effect on two type of ripened fruits including strawberry and grapes (Kyoho and Shine-Muscat) when were infected with B. cinerea. Results showed that chitosan inhibited B. cinerea growth, increased phenolic compounds and cell wall composition, modulated oxidative stress and induced jasmonic acid (JA) production in ripened fruits. Data-independent acquisition (DIA) showed that 224 and 171 proteins were upregulated 1.5-fold by chitosan in Kyoho and Shine-Muscat grape, respectively. Topless-related protein 3 (TPR3) were identified and interacted with histone deacetylase 19 (HDAC19) and negatively regulated by JA and chitosan. Meanwhile, overexpression of VvTPR3 and VvHDAC19 reduced the stability of cell wall against B. cinerea in strawberry. Taken together, chitosan induces defense related genes and protect the fruit quality against Botrytis infection through JA signaling.


Assuntos
Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Botrytis/fisiologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/microbiologia
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 128030, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932090

RESUMO

A liquid chromatography method coupling diode-array and fluorescence detectors (DAD and FLD, respectively) has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of 32 phenolic compounds (PCs) in winemaking products. With the combination of both detectors it was possible to determine phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols, stilbenes and other PCs in the matrices under study. An excitation wavelength of 290 nm was selected and three different emission wavelengths (315, 360 and 400 nm) were recorded. The method provided detection and quantification limits (LODs and LOQs) within the ranges of 0.01-1.46 mg/L and 0.03-4.9 mg/L, respectively. The LODs and LOQs using FLD for flavanols, stilbenes and phenyl ethanol analogues were improved between 65 and 1000% as compared with DAD. The combination of DAD with FLD increased both, sensitivity and the ability to reduce interfering signals. The developed method was applied for the characterization of PCs of wines, bunch stems and grape canes.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estilbenos/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 338: 127623, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861132

RESUMO

Grape controlled dehydration of "Cesanese" and "Sangiovese" wine grapes, followed by an innovative vinification protocol, was studied. Fresh grapes of both varieties were processed into basic wines (IW = initial wine). 'Cesanese' must from pressed dehydrated grapes (solid and liquid) was directly added (15 and 30% v/v) into the IW activating a refermentation. 'Sangiovese' must (solid and liquid) from pressed dehydrated grapes was fermented and, when the wine reached 5% alcohol concentration, every day, the IW was added until a final concentration of 40 or 60% (v/v). The produced "blended wines" (BW) had significantly higher alcohol, glycerol, extract, and polyphenol concentration. Malolactic fermentation was completely ended in all BW with no malic acid and formation of lactic acid (0.5-1 g/L). All wines showed a significant higher concentration in 4-vinylguaiacol, acetovanillone, and 3-oxo-α-ionol, providing spicy and fruity notes at the sensory analyses, and being appreciated for their body balance, less acidity, and flavor intensity.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Dessecação , Análise Discriminante , Etanol/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Vitis/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022025

RESUMO

A two-year field trial was conducted in a vineyard (northern Egypt)cultivated with Thompson seedless grapevines to evaluate the effectiveness of four "alternative" (biological/chemical) treatments, Bacillus megaterium, boric acid, calcium nitrate and chitosan, against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Mi), compared to that of the nematicide oxamyl. The influence of these treatments on plant nutritional status and fruit yield and quality was also assessed. All treatments significantly inhibited Mi reproduction parameters in both seasons, decreasing the numbers of nematode galls and egg masses (roots) and of second-stage juveniles (soil). Oxamyl application resulted in the highest reductions in Mi-reproduction parameters, followed by boric acid, which also showed the highest relative nematicidal efficacy (respect to oxamyl). In the 1st season, the highest fruit yield (10.34 kg/grapevine) was recorded from boric acid-treated plants, followed by that from oxamyl-treated plants (7.50 kg/grapevine); in the subsequent season (2019), oxamyl use led to the highest yield, followed by boric acid + chitosan use (10.04 and 8.62 kg/grapevine, respectively). In both seasons, application of boric acid alone and combined with chitosan enhanced the total soluble solids (TSS)/total acidity ratio in grape juice. All treatments led to higher nutrient contents (leaf petioles) and chlorophyll levels (leaves) as well as enhanced fruit size and weight. We conclude that the tested treatments can be safely applied for nematode management in Thompson seedless grapevines, with positive effects on fruit yield and quality.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Controle da População/métodos , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Bóricos/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Clorofila/análise , Egito , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915849

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi produce many novel bioactive metabolites that are directly used as drugs or that function as the precursor structures of other chemicals. The metabolic shaping of endophytes on grape cells was reported previously. However, there are no reports on the interactions and metabolic impact of endophyte symbiosis on in vitro vine leaves, which may be examined under well-controlled conditions that are more representative of the natural situation of endophytes within grapevines. The present study used an in vitro leaf method to establish endophyte symbiosis of grapevines and analyze the effects on the metabolic profiles of grape leaves from two different cultivars, 'Rose honey' (RH) and 'Cabernet sauvignon' (CS). The effects of endophytic fungi on the metabolic profiles of grape leaves exhibited host selectivity and fungal strain specificity. Most of the endophytic fungal strains introduced novel metabolites into the two varieties of grape leaves according to the contents of the detected metabolites and composition of metabolites. Strains RH49 and MDR36, with high or moderate symbiosis rates, triggered an increased response in terms of the detected metabolites, and the strains MDR1 and MDR33 suppressed the detected metabolites in CS and RH leaves despite having strong or moderate symbiosis ability. However, the strain RH12 significantly induced the production of novel metabolites in RH leaves due to its high symbiosis ability and suppression of metabolites in CS leaves.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Simbiose , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on dyslipidemia, resistance to insulin, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in mice homozygous for the absence of the LDL receptor gene (LDLr -/-) under a hyperlipidemic diet. METHODOLOGY: We divided 30 male mice (3 months old) into three groups (n = 10); the HL group was fed a high-fat diet, the HLU group received a high-fat diet and 2 g/kg/day of grape juice, and the HLS group was fed a high-fat diet and simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day). We assessed the blood pressure profile of the mice. We also determined the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile, glycemic and insulinemic profiles, and calculated the HOMA-IR. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial collagen deposit, and the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were assessed immunohistologically. RESULTS: After 60 days, the mice treated with grape juice showed similar results as those of the group treated with simvastatin. The use of grape fruit attenuated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and significantly increased the levels of high cholesterol density lipoproteins (HDLc). The antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds associated with the increase in HDLc levels in the mice of the HLU group prevented the development of LVH and arterial hypertension since it inhibited the inflammatory response induced by the CD40 pathway and its ligand CD40L. Consequently, there was a lower expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and lower serum levels of CRP. CONCLUSION: Grape juice has a hypolipidemic and cardiac protective potential, presenting a similar effect as that of simvastatin through a direct antioxidant action of phenolic compounds, or indirectly, via antioxidant action and anti-inflammatory activity of the HDLc. These results suggest that grape juice is a functional food possessing a high potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/patologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Vitis/química , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Ligante de CD40/genética , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Vitis/metabolismo
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108807, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835997

RESUMO

The main goal of this study was to describe impact of preharvest application of methyl salicylate (MeSA), acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) on the reduction of disease caused by Botrytis cinerea in two table grape cultivars ('Crimson' and 'Magenta'). Based on previous studies, MeSA and SA were applied at 0.1 and 0.01 mM for both cultivars, while ASA was applied at 1 mM in 'Crimson' and 0.1 mM in 'Magenta'. At time of harvest, berry maturity-quality attributes, bioactive compounds and antioxidant enzymes were determined. In addition, grapes were artificially inoculated with B. cinerea spores, and the berries were ranked for visual decay incidence after 5 days of inoculation. Salicylates preharvest treatments led to higher total acidity, content of bioactive compounds and activity of antioxidant enzymes in treated than in control berries. The application of salicylate derivatives induced resistance to B. cinerea spoilage, since higher percentage of berries with no symptoms was observed and on the contrary, the highest percentages of berries were obtained in control grapes. All preharvest treatments with SA, ASA and MeSA alleviated postharvest disease caused by B. cinerea probably due to increasing levels of phenolic compounds and activity of antioxidant enzymes, although the best results were obtained with MeSA at 0.1 mM. Also, for this treatment and dose, higher quality properties, such as higher concentrations of ascorbic, succinic and fumaric acids, were observed compared with no treated-grapes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Vitis/microbiologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/metabolismo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823843

RESUMO

Grape stalks, an inedible lignocellulosic residue from winemaking and agro-industrial grape juice production, can be valorized as a source of bioactive compounds and as feedstock for the saccharification and bioconversion of soluble sugars. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) by six white-rot fungi was applied as pretreatment. Fiber composition, free radical scavenging activity, four ligninolytic, and three hydrolytic enzyme activities were determined. Saccharification kinetics, yield, and productivity were evaluated and complemented with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification of monosaccharides, and principal component analysis (PCA). After SSF, the biomass exhibited a drastic free radical scavenging activity decrease and the main enzymes produced were manganese-dependent peroxidase and xylanase. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the erosion of cell walls, and PCA exhibited a negative correlation between saccharification, and neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin. Phlebia rufa pretreated biomass gave the highest sugars yield and productivity, representing a nearly three-fold increase compared to untreated samples. Also, monosaccharides quantification revealed that the 1:1 ratio of glucose to the sum of xylose plus galactose changes to the value of 2:1 after pretreatment. In this work, and for the first time, P. rufa proved to be an effective pretreatment of grape stalks for the saccharification and further bioconversion into value-added chemicals. In addition, lignocellulolytic enzymes were also produced through SSF.


Assuntos
Monossacarídeos , Vitis/microbiologia , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Fermentação , Cinética , Lignina/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127437, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645670

RESUMO

In 'Crimson Seedless' grapes, the appearance of senescence caused by abnormal dark red color, the loss of crisp taste caused by the decrease in firmness, and the fading of sweetness caused by the decrease in total soluble sugar (TSS) are the main problems affecting its edible qualities after storage. In the mesocarp, burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) restricted sucrose export; therefore, more carbohydrates were retained directly leading to higher TSS and sweetness, and cell osmotic pressure and firmness were retained indirectly. In the exocarp, BFO restricted sucrose import; therefore, the signal molecule sucrose was reduced and the senescence-related processes were inhibited. The downregulation of SUC12 and SUC27 by BFO may play an important role in restricting sucrose transportation. The opposing effects exhibited by exogenous sucrose treatments compared to those of BFO further verified these mechanisms. Based on the above mechanisms, sucrose transportation mediates the fresh-keeping effects of BFO in 'Crimson Seedless' grapes.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Sacarose/análise , Vitis/química
14.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108471, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622788

RESUMO

Stilbenes, an active substances closely related to resistance and quality of grapes, are rarely found in natural resources. However its cumulative amount is affected by ultraviolet radiation (UV). The purpose of this study is to screen key genes in biosynthesis of stilbenes Trans-scripusin A and explore its synthetic pathway. We tested content of stilbenes with UHPLC-QQQ-MS2, results revealed that stilbenes accumulation is positively correlated with UV-B exposure time. Then, we performed transcriptome high-throughput sequencing of grapes under treatments. Results shown that 13,906 differentially expressed genes were obtained, which were mainly enriched in three major regions (ribosome, plant-pathogen interaction and biosynthesis of flavonoid). Three genes of trans-scripusin A synthesis pathway key got by combining KEGG annotation and reference gene HsCYP1B1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SAH genes had high homology with other hydroxylase genes, and distributed in two subgroups. Gene structure analysis showed that SAH genes contained four exons, indicating that gene has low genetic diversity. Chromosome localization revealed that SAH genes were distributed on different chromosomes, in addition, the number of gene pairs between Vitis vinifera and other species was not related to genome size of other species. The expression profiles of SAH genes in different parts of Vitis vinifera L. were analyzed using qRT-PCR analysis, results indicated that expression of SAH genes be specific to fruit part. These paper provide theoretical basis for further study of polyphenols biosynthesis pathway in grape fruits. The study provides novel insights for further understanding quality of grapes response to UV radiation.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos da radiação , Vitis/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/efeitos da radiação
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 329: 108651, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512285

RESUMO

In Latin, 'pulcherrima' is a superlative form of an adjective that translates as beautiful. Apart from being 'the most beautiful' yeast, Metschnikowia pulcherrima has a remarkable potential in production of wines with lower ethanol content. The oenological performance of six M. pulcherrima strains was hereby tested in sequential cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The best-performing strain MP2 was further characterised in fermentations with different S. cerevisiae inoculation delays in both white grape juice and Chemically Defined Grape Juice Medium (CDGJM). The analysis of main metabolites, undertaken prior to sequential inoculations and upon fermentation completion, highlighted metabolic interactions and carbon sinks other than ethanol in MP2 treatments. Depending on the inoculation delay, MP2 white wines contained between 0.6% and 1.2% (v/v) less ethanol than the S. cerevisiae monoculture, with even larger decreases detected in the CDGJM. The MP2 treatments also contained higher concentrations of TCA cycle by-products (i.e. fumarate and succinate) and glycerol, and lower concentrations of acetic acid. The analysis of volatile compounds showed increased production of acetate esters and higher alcohols in all MP2 wines, alongside other compositional alterations arising from the S. cerevisiae inoculation delay.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Metschnikowia/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 329: 127089, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516705

RESUMO

Schizophyllum commune VE_07 was produced in different culture media containing pine sawdust (PS), grape residue (GR), cotton cake (CC) and jatropha seed cake (JC). The content of phenolics and antioxidant activity were determined for the substrates and mushrooms produced. The content of ß-glucans and the composition of S. commune were also evaluated. The medium formulated with 94% grape residue enabled the highest values of yield, biological efficiency, and productivity. Mushrooms grown in this condition showed the highest value (13.14%) of ß-glucans. The contents of proteins and dietary fibre were 16.59% and 59.61%, respectively. Mushrooms grown in cotton cake showed the highest phenolic content (291.51 ± 1.83 mg GAE/ 100 g mushroom) and antioxidant activity (58.15 ± 0.86 DPPH % scavenging). The results obtained indicate that substrate composition affected the production of S. commune and its chemical composition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Biocombustíveis , Schizophyllum/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Glucanos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Schizophyllum/química , Vitis/metabolismo
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 1997-2003, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572983

RESUMO

Designing modified atmosphere packages (MAPs) for fresh produce requires respiration rate (RR) data. A steady-state (SS) approach is widely used but is expensive, tedious, and time-consuming. Unsteady-state (USS) methods mitigate shortcomings of the SS approach, but comparisons between the two approaches have not been done to verify the design outcomes of MAPs, especially those with microperforations. RR measurement methods for grape tomatoes and blueberries were compared. Data were then used to design microperforated MAP packages to compare predicted design specifications created from RR data with observed shelf life. Results show that the USS method provides similar magnitudes of RR and predicts similar numbers of perforations as the SS method. Observations of packages produced using 100 µm perforations, using measured respiration data, suggest that both methods underestimated what might have been deemed correct by about one microperforation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Designing packaging for fresh produce requires the knowledge of produce respiration. Steady-state methods are conceptually simple, but time-consuming. Unsteady-state methods are rapid. This work compares methods on design of packages.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Vitis/química , Atmosfera , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8505, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444786

RESUMO

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is one of the most important viruses of grapevine but, despite this, there remain several gaps in our understanding of its biology. Because of its narrow host range - limited to Vitis species - and because the virus is restricted to the phloem, most GLRaV-3 research has concentrated on epidemiology and the development of detection assays. The recent discovery that GLRaV-3 can infect Nicotiana benthamiana, a plant model organism, makes new opportunities available for research in this field. We used RNA-seq to compare both V. vinifera and P1/HC-Pro N. benthamiana host responses to GLRaV-3 infection. Our analysis revealed that the majority of DEGs observed between the two hosts were unique although responses between the two hosts also showed several shared gene expression results. When comparing gene expression patterns that were shared between the two hosts, we observed the downregulation of genes associated with stress chaperones, and the induction of gene families involved in primary plant physiological processes. This is the first analysis of gene expression profiles beyond Vitis to mealybug-transmitted GLRaV-3 and demonstrates that N. benthamiana could serve as a useful tool for future studies of GLRaV-3-host interactions.


Assuntos
Closteroviridae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/virologia , Transcriptoma , Vitis/genética , Vitis/virologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324780

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT) has many important functions in plants. In this study, different concentrations of MT (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µmol/L) were sprayed on grape seedlings, and its effects on plant growth and sucrose metabolism were determined. The results show that there was a mutual influence and promotional relationship between growth and sugar metabolism in grape seedlings. The MT treatments promoted the development and growth of grape seedlings by increasing their biomass and promoting the photosynthetic performance of leaves. This resulted in increased nutrient absorption and a greater ability to compete for resources. The increase in photosynthesis resulted in greater sucrose production. The MT treatments increased the activities of enzymes related to sucrose metabolism, so that a large amount of sucrose was hydrolysed into glucose and fructose to meet the rapid growth requirements of grape seedlings. The increased total soluble sugars contents and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes resulted in greater resistance of grape seedlings, and greater adaptability to environmental changes. In general, MT treatments had beneficial effects on grape seedling growth, glucose metabolism, and resistance. Under these conditions, foliar spraying with MT at 150 µmol/L had the best effects.


Assuntos
Melatonina/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20181174, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187277

RESUMO

Grape pomace from Vitis labrusca is an important sub-product of the "American table wine" industry. It is recalcitrant to degradation, and its accumulation is a serious problem with negative environmental impacts. We analyzed the ability of five white-rot fungi to transform this residue in-vitro. Mass loss and phenol removal in grape pomace treated with each fungus were compared after 30-day solid-state fermentation. Since Peniophora albobadia isolate LPSC 285 was the fungus that showed the highest degradative ability and the lowest free phenol levels in the residue transformed, we selected this fungus to monitor its effect on this residue after 30, 60, and 90 days of incubation. We analyzed mass loss of the residue caused by the fungus activity and its chemical changes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After 90 days of incubation, Peniophora albobadia isolate LPSC 285 reduced grape pomace mass by 20.48%, which was associated with degradation of polysaccharides and aromatic structures. We concluded that Peniophora albobadia LPSC # 285 isolate is a promising fungus to transform grape pomace from Vitis labrusca under solid-state fermentation conditions.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Vitis/química , Resíduos Industriais , Fenóis/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo , Vitis/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA