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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127720, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777572

RESUMO

The sensorial and chemical differences among Pinot noir wines from different vineyard locations were investigated. Grapes of a single Pinot noir clone were grown on twelve different vineyard sites along the U.S. West Coast. Wines from a single vintage (2015) were made using a standardized protocol and equipment. Sensorial (i.e. aroma, taste, and mouthfeel) and chemical (i.e. polyphenolic and volatile) differences were observed among these wines at two aging time points (8- and 20- months). Vineyard location (i.e. latitude and longitude) was one of the main factors describing the major differences between the wines, while other details (i.e. soil type (60 cm), rootstock age, soil pH, rootstock type, and vines/acres) were possibly important for defining unique aging characteristics of certain vineyards. Overall, single clone Pinot noir grapes grown in different regions but made under standardized winemaking produced wines with unique chemical and sensorial profiles, which generally persisted throughout aging.


Assuntos
Paladar , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vinho/análise , Fazendas , Solo , Estados Unidos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127723, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799160

RESUMO

The present study aimed to verify the efficiency of microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) by partially removing water from grapes while simultaneously obtaining a phenolic-rich extract. In addition, the effect of heating on phenolic compound degradation of pre-dehydrated grapes, the extract, and economic viability to produce both products were evaluated. Thus, a 50% reduction of moisture in the grapes was observed after 10 min while simultaneously obtaining a grape extract. Both products obtained by MHG presented high phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity. In addition, the use of MHG on an industrial scale was found to be economically viable based on the analysis time, labor cost, and financial return of the products obtained. Thus, the method is efficient, fast, economically viable, and sustainable while simultaneously producing pre-dehydrated grapes and a phenolic-rich extract.


Assuntos
Gravitação , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Água/química , Difusão , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Food Chem ; 336: 127710, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763739

RESUMO

Conventional gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) usually suffers a huge challenge in measuring target concentration in food matrices with dark color because of its poor resistance to the background matrix and color interference. To address this issue, we first report a novel bifunctional magneto-gold nanohybrid (MGNH) for the simultaneous magnetic separation and colorimetric target sensing by integrating MGNHs into LFIA. Under optimum conditions, an ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice was achieved with a limit of detection at 0.094 ng mL-1. The average recoveries of this MGNH-LFIA ranged from 92.31% to 108.97% with a coefficient of variation of below 12%. The excellent selectivity of our MGNH-LFIA against OTA was demonstrated. Besides, our MGNH-LFIA is comparable to liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in terms of accuracy, reproducibility, and practicability. The designed MGNH-LFIA platform is readily extended for improving other small molecule detection in food samples.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ocratoxinas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ouro/química , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Ocratoxinas/imunologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Vitis/química
4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127386, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712494

RESUMO

Elemental composition was used to characterize and differentiate 14 wines made from the identical clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir (clone 667). The vineyards span distances which range from several hundred meters to 1540 km and their elevations vary from near sea level to nearly 500 m. Twenty-seven elements were observed above the limit of quantitation by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the wines from at least half of the 14 sites. Concentrations of several elements, including Mo, Er, Na, Li, Cs and Pb, varied by 10-fold across the 14 wines. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) of elemental composition with juice chemistry and site characterization show associations consistent with expectations, such as high Ca with high clay content. These results demonstrate that even when grapevine clone and winemaking protocol are controlled, composition differences in wines produced from sites are mediated by diverse soil and microclimate conditions.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Vitis , Vinho/análise , California , Fazendas , Espectrometria de Massas , Microclima , Solo/química , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(10): 1147-1161, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908097

RESUMO

To present a systematic review of published studies in databases such as PUBMED, REDALYC, SCIELO, DIALNET, SCOPUS, EBSCO and CONRICYT related to the role-played by the components present in the vegetable oil of grape seed (Vitis vinífera) and the prevention or delay in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of the research revealed that neurodegenerative diseases causes alterations in consciousness or in the nervous system leading to severe damage in neuronal cells, these pathologies are considered gradual and progressive. Various syndromes manifest the degenerative diseases of the nervous system; in some of them the predominant symptom is the progressive dementia. Among the components of the diet that in numerous epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association are vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols, the latter being the ones addressed in this document. There is an important evidence that a nutritional support based on polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants can be applied to subjects with a history of neurodegenerative conditions in order to act as neuroprotectors. This requires the determination of the nutritional benefits of these nutrients or of nutraceuticals for the health of this group of patients.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva/administração & dosagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Animais , Antioxidantes , Terapias Complementares , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946525

RESUMO

Agro-waste reduction and reuse are among the current main social challenges. In this perspective, the present research was aimed at the complete valorisation of Garganega grape pomace by recovering bioactive phenol extracts and by testing the solid fibre extract residues in composite formulation for packaging applications. The pomace was derived from white wine production, therefore, respect to red pomace, it was promptly removed from must after pressing, and its exploitation can be particularly interesting and valuable as still rich in active compounds. Phenol extracts were obtained both via solvent-based and pressurised liquid extractions and their phytochemical compositions were compared in terms of total amount of phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and reducing sugars. Antioxidant activity and detailed phenol profiles were also achieved. The highest phenol yield was obtained via solvent-based extraction with 75% acetone (v/v), solid/liquid ratio 1:5, 2h incubation at 50°C (77.9 gGAeq/kgDW). The fibrous solid residue of the extraction was characterized via thermogravimetric analysis and used for composite preparation by melt mixing with the renewable and biodegradable PHBV polymer through a green approach (solvent-less process). The composites resulted thermally stable at high temperatures, showing initial degradation processes only at temperatures higher than 250°C. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses were carried out to study melting and crystallization phenomena, while mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests. The materials finally showed properties similar to those of the matrix. The bio-composites can be considered as an alternative to plain PHBV, since they are less expensive and eco-friendlier thanks to a reduced polymeric content, and they could represent a suitable way for full agro-waste exploitation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Resíduos Industriais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitis/química , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/química , Vinho
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on dyslipidemia, resistance to insulin, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in mice homozygous for the absence of the LDL receptor gene (LDLr -/-) under a hyperlipidemic diet. METHODOLOGY: We divided 30 male mice (3 months old) into three groups (n = 10); the HL group was fed a high-fat diet, the HLU group received a high-fat diet and 2 g/kg/day of grape juice, and the HLS group was fed a high-fat diet and simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day). We assessed the blood pressure profile of the mice. We also determined the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profile, glycemic and insulinemic profiles, and calculated the HOMA-IR. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial collagen deposit, and the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) and metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were assessed immunohistologically. RESULTS: After 60 days, the mice treated with grape juice showed similar results as those of the group treated with simvastatin. The use of grape fruit attenuated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance and significantly increased the levels of high cholesterol density lipoproteins (HDLc). The antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds associated with the increase in HDLc levels in the mice of the HLU group prevented the development of LVH and arterial hypertension since it inhibited the inflammatory response induced by the CD40 pathway and its ligand CD40L. Consequently, there was a lower expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and lower serum levels of CRP. CONCLUSION: Grape juice has a hypolipidemic and cardiac protective potential, presenting a similar effect as that of simvastatin through a direct antioxidant action of phenolic compounds, or indirectly, via antioxidant action and anti-inflammatory activity of the HDLc. These results suggest that grape juice is a functional food possessing a high potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/patologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/prevenção & controle , Vitis/química , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Ligante de CD40/genética , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Vitis/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127339, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659697

RESUMO

Non-targeted NMR-based approach has received great attention as a rapid method for food product authenticity assessment. The availability of a database containing many comparable NMR spectra produced by different spectrometers is crucial to develop functional classifiers able to discriminate rapidly the commodity class of a given food product. Nevertheless, variability in spectrometer features may hamper the production of comparable spectra due to inherent variations in signal resolution. In this paper, we report on the development of a class-discrimination model for grape juice authentication by application of non-targeted NMR spectroscopy. Different approaches for the pre-treatment of data will be described along with details about the model validation. The developed model performed excellently (95.4-100% correct predictions) even when it was tested against 650 spectra produced by 65 spectrometers with different configurations (magnetic field strength, manufacturer, age). This study may boost the use of non-targeted NMR methods for food control.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Campos Magnéticos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Vitis/química
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110899, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678747

RESUMO

Liver is the earliest target for AFB1 toxicity in both human and animals. In the last decade, plant derived by-products have been used in animal feed to reduce AFB1 induced toxicity. In the present study we investigated whether the presence of 8% grape seed meal by-product is able to counteract the hepatotoxic effects produced by AFB1 in liver of pig after weaning exposed to the toxin through the contaminated feed for 28 days. Twenty four weaned cross-bred TOPIGS-40 piglets with an average body weight of 9.13±0.03 were allocated to the following experimentally treatments: control diet without AFB1 (normal compound feed for weaned pigs); contaminated diet with 320 mg kg-1 AFB1; GSM diet (compound feed plus 8% grape seed meal) and AFB1+GSM diet (320 mg kg-1 AFB1 contaminated feed plus 8% grape seed meal). Pigs fed AFB1 diet had altered performance, body weight decreasing with 25.1% (b.w.: 17.17 kg for AFB1 vs 22.92 kg for control). Exposure of piglets to AFB1 contaminated diet caused liver oxidative stress as well as liver histological damage, manly characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and parenchyma cells vacuolation when compared to control and GSM meal group. 94.12% of the total analysed genes (34) related to inflammation and immune response was up-regulated. The addition of GSM into the AFB1 diet diminished the gene overexpression and ameliorate histological liver injuries and oxidative stress. The protective effect of GSM diet in diminishing the AFB1 harmful effect was mediated through the decreasing of gene and protein expression of MAPKs and NF-κB signalling overexpressed by AFB1 diet. The inclusion of grape seed by-products in the diet of pigs after weaning might be used as a novel nutritional intervention to reduce aflatoxin toxicity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dieta , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Desmame
10.
Food Chem ; 332: 127417, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629332

RESUMO

The use of UHPH sterilization in the absence of SO2 has been used to eliminate wild microorganisms and inactivate oxidative enzymes. A white must of the Muscat of Alexandria grape variety was continuously processed by UHPH at 300 MPa (inlet temperature: 23-25 °C). The initial microbial load of the settled must was 4-log CFU/mL for both yeast and moulds, and slightly lower for bacteria. After UHPH processing, no microorganisms were detected in 1 mL. UHPH musts remain without fermentative activity for more than 60 days. Concentrations of the thermal markers indicated the absence of thermal damage in the UHPH-treated musts, since 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was not detected. In addition, the must treated by UHPH keeps terpene concentrations similar to those of the untreated controls. A strong inactivation of the oxidative enzymes was observed, with no browning at room temperature for more than 3 days. The antioxidant value of the UHPH-treated must was 156% higher than the control.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterilização/métodos , Vinho/análise , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Paladar , Temperatura , Vitis/química
11.
Food Chem ; 332: 127437, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645670

RESUMO

In 'Crimson Seedless' grapes, the appearance of senescence caused by abnormal dark red color, the loss of crisp taste caused by the decrease in firmness, and the fading of sweetness caused by the decrease in total soluble sugar (TSS) are the main problems affecting its edible qualities after storage. In the mesocarp, burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) restricted sucrose export; therefore, more carbohydrates were retained directly leading to higher TSS and sweetness, and cell osmotic pressure and firmness were retained indirectly. In the exocarp, BFO restricted sucrose import; therefore, the signal molecule sucrose was reduced and the senescence-related processes were inhibited. The downregulation of SUC12 and SUC27 by BFO may play an important role in restricting sucrose transportation. The opposing effects exhibited by exogenous sucrose treatments compared to those of BFO further verified these mechanisms. Based on the above mechanisms, sucrose transportation mediates the fresh-keeping effects of BFO in 'Crimson Seedless' grapes.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Sacarose/análise , Vitis/química
12.
Food Chem ; 328: 127164, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485587

RESUMO

The identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genotypes is conventionally a laborious activity that must be carried out by specialized staff. In this work a novel and simple method for differentiation of grapevine genotypes is presented. Direct measurements of leaves by attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) combined with chemometric methods were used for classification of six genotypes (five varieties and a pair of clones), viz. Cinsault, Gewurztraminer (clone 643), Moscatel de Alejandría, País, Pinot Noir (French clone 777), Pinot Noir (local clone 'Valdivieso'). These were successfully classified and identified through supervised pattern recognition methods such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The error rate for spectra classification of test sets by both models was 0.08. The results demonstrate the advantages of using ATR-FTIR as a rapid and non-destructive tool that achieves accurate grapevine genotype differentiation.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Vitis/química , Vitis/genética , Chile , Análise Discriminante , Genótipo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Food Chem ; 329: 127155, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512393

RESUMO

Melatonin (MLT) has gained increasing attention due to its pleiotropic effects. In present study, 'Kyoho' grapes were immersed in 200 µM of MLT to investigate the role of exogenous melatonin in postharvest metabolism response. Results indicated that berry abscission and rotten index was reduced by 37.50% and 58.37%, respectively, by exogenous MLT treatment, while the amino acid accumulation was greatly enhanced. Furthermore, the endogenous MLT biosynthesis was activated, where the transcript expression of genes, encoding tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptophan decarboxylase, N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase and N-acetyltransferae were upregulated significantly (p < 0.05), in accordance with the increase of endogenous MLT. Phenolic biosynthesis related genes were upregulated significantly, accompanied with the significantly higher phenolics content (p < 0.05). On day 15, the expression level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in MLT-treated group was twice of that in control. Therefore, this study provides the first evidence pertinent to the contribution of exogenous melatonin to the phenolics metabolism in postharvest table grape.


Assuntos
Melatonina/química , Fenóis/química , Vitis/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 331: 127279, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563800

RESUMO

Stability of protein-polyphenol aggregate particles, created by complexing polyphenols from blueberry and muscadine grape pomaces with a rice-pea protein isolate blend, was evaluated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Recovery index (RI; % total phenolics present post-digestion) was 69% and 62% from blueberry and muscadine grape protein-polyphenol particles, compared to 23% and 31% for the respective pomace extracts. Anthocyanins RI was 52% and 42% from particles (6% and 13% from pomace extracts), and proanthocyanidins RI was 77% and 73% from particles (25% and 14% from pomace extracts), from blueberry and grape, respectively. Protein-polyphenol particle digests retained 1.5 to 2-fold higher antioxidant capacity and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, IL6, and IL1ß, compared to unmodified extract digests, which only suppressed IL6. Protein-polyphenol particles as a delivery vehicle in foods may confer better stability during gastrointestinal transit, allow protected polyphenols to reach the gut microbiota, and preserve polyphenol bioactivity.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Vitis/química , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/análise , Digestão , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Células RAW 264.7
15.
Food Chem ; 331: 127207, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569964

RESUMO

Reconstituted polyphenolic and aromatic fractions (PAFs) from 33 different Garnacha and Tempranillo grapes were incubated in strict anoxia (75 °C × 24 h). Obtained hydrolyzates were characterized by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five different aroma categories emerged. Garnacha may develop specific tropical/citrus fruit, kerosene and floral and Tempranillo toasty-woody and red-fruit characteristics. Those notes seem to mask alcoholic and fruit-in-syrup descriptors and the common vegetal background. Twenty-seven odorants were detected by GC-O. GC-MS data showed a clustering closely matching the one found by sensory analysis, suggesting the existence of five specific metabolomic profiles behind the five specific sensory profiles. Overall results suggest that 3-mercaptohexanol is responsible for tropical/citrus fruit, TDN for kerosene, volatile phenols for woody/toasty, ß-damascenone and massoia lactone, likely with Z-1,5-octadien-3-one for fruit-in-syrup and alcoholic notes. Nine lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes and ketones may be responsible for the vegetal background.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hexanóis/química , Norisoprenoides/química , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Análise de Componente Principal , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2032-2040, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567698

RESUMO

Terpene glycosides (TGs) in the berry skins of Ecolly and Cabernet Gernischet (CG) grapes were profiled by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and compared to that of Muscat Hamburg (MH) grapes. The aroma glycosides in grape skins were extracted by methanol, purified using Amberlite XAD-2 resins, eluted in methanol/ethyl acetate, and analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. MS/MS fragmentation and the TG database were used for identification, while semiquantification was achieved by the internal standard, octyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside. Seven, nine, and thirteen TGs were identified in Ecolly, CG, and MH, respectively, whereas only four TGs were detected in all the varieties. Compared to MH, linalool-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside was unique for Ecolly, and pyran linalool oxide-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside was unique for CG. Furthermore, the total concentrations of TGs were 7.32, 3.50, and 81.27 mg/kg in Ecolly, CG, and MH, respectively. Diendiol I-α-D-apiofuranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside, furanosyl-linalool oxide-7-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside, and nerol-l-O-α-D-apiofuranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside were most abundant in Ecolly, CG, and MH, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Terpene glycosides (TGs) are important aroma precursors for wines and it is meaningful to reveal the profiles of TGs in grapes. By analyzing the differences of TGs among the Ecolly, Cabernet Gernischet (CG), and Muscat Hamburg grape varieties, it is expected to provide guidance for the study on the aroma characteristics and aroma enhancing brewing of Ecolly and CG grapes. The results may provide technical experience on aroma glycoside identification and their quantification in grapes and wines for future studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Terpenos/química , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 1997-2003, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572983

RESUMO

Designing modified atmosphere packages (MAPs) for fresh produce requires respiration rate (RR) data. A steady-state (SS) approach is widely used but is expensive, tedious, and time-consuming. Unsteady-state (USS) methods mitigate shortcomings of the SS approach, but comparisons between the two approaches have not been done to verify the design outcomes of MAPs, especially those with microperforations. RR measurement methods for grape tomatoes and blueberries were compared. Data were then used to design microperforated MAP packages to compare predicted design specifications created from RR data with observed shelf life. Results show that the USS method provides similar magnitudes of RR and predicts similar numbers of perforations as the SS method. Observations of packages produced using 100 µm perforations, using measured respiration data, suggest that both methods underestimated what might have been deemed correct by about one microperforation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Designing packaging for fresh produce requires the knowledge of produce respiration. Steady-state methods are conceptually simple, but time-consuming. Unsteady-state methods are rapid. This work compares methods on design of packages.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Vitis/química , Atmosfera , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(4): 369-376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249264

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to analyze the expression of Ki-67 in ovary, testis of aging mice with anthocyanidin extract from Summer-black-grape. ICR mice (the aging group and the anthocyanidin-groups (50 mg/kg/D-group, 75 mg/kg/D-group and 100 mg/kg/D-group) were employed to evaluate the effect of grape anthocyanidin on reproductive system. The results showed that the anthocyanidin had strong scavenging ability for free radicals, the level of oxidation in serum of mice treated with anthocyanidin was low, and the pathological changes were not obvious. In the anthocyanidin group, the Ki-67 positive particles in the testis and ovary tissue were significantly decreased. The anthocyanidin of Summer-black-grape reduces the expression of Ki-67 protein in the testis or ovary of aging mice. In gonadal cells of aging mice, the anthocyanidin were shown protective effect in the proliferation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Animais , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Animais
19.
Food Chem ; 320: 126633, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240924

RESUMO

In winemaking, exogenous tannins are added before maceration to improve future wine color characteristics derived from extracted grape anthocyanins. The study aimed to investigate the relation between different grape varieties, selected according to their anthocyanin profile, and the effect of five exogenous tannin formulations differing in origin and chemical features. Anthocyanin content, polymeric pigments, and color traits were assessed during a 72-hour skin simulated maceration. Grape skin-derived tannins increased color intensity (up to one unit) and polymeric pigments formation (up to 6.5%) in malvidin-prevalent Merlot and Cabernet sauvignon, with different extent depending on the anthocyanin richness. Grape seed-derived and ellagic formulations favored the pigment polymerization, the first in Nebbiolo and Sangiovese (up to 8.2%), which are characterized by high ratios of disubstituted anthocyanins, and the latter in malvidin-rich Syrah and Aglianico (up to 5%). A positive effect of quebracho regarded the defense of anthocyanin forms, particularly in Sangiovese and Nebbiolo.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Taninos/química , Vitis/química , Cor , Frutas/química , Polimerização
20.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(7): 593-598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241220

RESUMO

The grape skins after pressing the juice are a major problem for winery. However, because it contains a large amount of polyphenols, development of effective usages are expected to construct sustainable waste use. In this study, we examined whether grape skin extract is effective for recovery of DNA damage caused by UV irradiation. Extract from Zweigelt and Niagara skin was prepared by methanol, and UV irradiation was performed at 10 mJ/cm2 (250 nm) and 15 mJ/cm2 (290 nm) using human normal skin cells. As results, the decreased cell viability due to UV irradiation was improved by adding Niagara or Zweigelt skin extract. On the other hand, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer production due to UV irradiation decreased significantly by Niagara or Zweigelt extract. In addition, the effects of grape skin extracts on the expression of sirtuin gene were also examined.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Dímeros de Pirimidina/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitis/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Dímeros de Pirimidina/antagonistas & inibidores
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