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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26163, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087875

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The premise of this study is that spoken word recognition and object knowledge are impaired in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (svPPA) and are spared in logopenic variant (lvPPA) and nonfluent agrammatic primary progressive aphasia (nfaPPA) at disease onset. Over time, however, there may be heterogeneity in these abilities in lvPPA and nfaPPA. We hypothesized that individuals with svPPA would demonstrate poorer performance on baseline spoken word recognition and object knowledge than those with lvPPA and nfaPPA) as documented in the literature, but that rates of decline over time on spoken word recognition and object knowledge would be similar in all 3 PPA variants because these become less distinguishable with disease progression.The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal patterns of decline in spoken word recognition and object knowledge across PPA variants.Ninety-five individuals with PPA completed the Semantic Word Picture Matching and Semantic Associates tests at baseline to establish expected performance in these areas. Thirty-five individuals completed follow-up testing.The distributions of trichotomized mean rates of decline in object knowledge were similar for lvPPA and svPPA (P = .05). There were weak negative correlations between symptom duration and baseline scores on Semantic Word Picture Matching (r[37] = -0.399, P = .01), and baseline scores on Semantic Associates (r[37] = -0.394, P = .01) in lvPPA.Degradation of spoken word recognition and object knowledge occurs over time in lvPPA. Further investigation of the receptive language deficits in PPA is warranted to characterize language changes that lessen the distinctions between PPA variants with disease progression.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/patologia , Vocabulário , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Codas ; 33(2): e20190154, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978102

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to describe the performance of children between three and seven years of age in using an expressive and receptive screening instrument. METHODS: the sample consisted of 133 children between 3 and 7 years of age, without diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disabilities or disorders. The screening was performed with the TRILHAR instrument, which includes receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. The data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman Correlation tests. RESULTS: we observed a statistical difference in the groups' performance, in addition to a positive correlation between the age group and the final score in the screening. There was statistical difference in the performance on the receptive and expressive vocabulary subtests. CONCLUSION: We observed difference in the performance of the groups in receptive and expressive tasks, and in the final score, with better performance for the children with 7 years. In addition, age and performance on the screening test were positively correlated, that is, the older the age, the better the performance.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Projetos Piloto
3.
Codas ; 33(2): e20200068, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978108

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify whether the performance in the first assessment of pretend play of children with diagnostic hypothesis of developmental language disorder, correlates with the performance in formal tests of non-verbal intellectual function and both receptive and expressive vocabulary after 5 years old. METHODS: The research comprised 26 subjects, 19 of whom were male, and 7 were female, with an mean age of 4:10. All participants presented a diagnostic hypothesis of developmental language disorder based on inclusion and exclusion criteria described internationally. Data were analyzed in relation to pretend play, vocabulary and performance in standardized intellectual assessment test; we also investigated correlation between them. All data underwent statistical analysis and the confidence intervals were 95%. RESULTS: As for pretend play, it was found that most children with suspected developmental language disorder present more primitive symbolic development. Regarding vocabulary, the data show greater performance in receptive vocabulary than in expressive. In the assessment of the intelligence quotient, the children obtained, in their majority, classifications in the mean score and superior score to their age. Regarding the interaction between studied variables, no correlation was found. CONCLUSION: No relationship was found between the studied variables. The data are discussed in the light of international literature and promote important reflections on the symbolic-linguistic development of this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 247, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The idea of the '30 million word gap' suggests families from more socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds engage in more verbal interactions with their child than disadvantaged families. Initial findings from the Language in Little Ones (LiLO) study up to 12 months showed no word gap between maternal education groups. METHODS: Families with either high or low maternal education were purposively recruited into a five-year prospective study. We report results from the first three waves of LiLO when children were 6, 12 and 18 months old. Day-long audio recordings, obtained using the Language Environment Analysis software, provided counts of adult words spoken to the child, child vocalizations and conversational turns. RESULTS: By the time children were 18 months old all three measures of talk were 0.5 to 0.7 SD higher among families with more education, but with large variation within education groups. Changes in talk from 6 to 18 months highlighted that families from low educated backgrounds were decreasing the amount they spoke to their children (- 4219.54, 95% CI -6054.13, - 2384.95), compared to families from high educated backgrounds who remained relatively stable across this age period (- 369.13, 95% CI - 2344.57, 1606.30). CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic word gap emerges between 12 and 18 months of age. Interventions to enhance maternal communication, child vocalisations and vocabulary development should begin prior to 18 months.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Vocabulário , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 1023-1024, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042832

RESUMO

Lexical simplification (LS) can decrease the communication gap between medical experts and laypeople by replacing medical terms with layperson counterparts. In this paper, we present: 1) a rule-based approach to LS using a consumer health vocabulary, and 2) an unsupervised approach using BERT to generate word candidates. Human evaluation shows that the unsupervised model performed better for simplicity and grammaticality, while the rule-based method was better at meaning preservation.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Vocabulário Controlado , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Vocabulário
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1948): 20202581, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823673

RESUMO

Words are the building blocks of communicating science. As our understanding of the world progresses, scientific disciplines naturally enrich their specialized vocabulary (jargon). However, in the era of interdisciplinarity, the use of jargon may hinder effective communication among scientists that do not share a common scientific background. The question of how jargon limits the transmission of scientific knowledge has long been debated but rarely addressed quantitatively. We explored the relationship between the use of jargon and citations, using 21 486 articles focusing on cave research, a multidisciplinary field particularly prone to terminological specialization, and where linguistic disagreement among peers is frequent. We demonstrate a significant negative relationship between the proportion of jargon words in the title and abstract and the number of citations a paper receives. Given that these elements are the hook to readers, we urge scientists to restrict jargon to sections of the paper where its use is unavoidable.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Vocabulário , Linguística
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924798

RESUMO

With the rapid development of speech assistants, adapting server-intended automatic speech recognition (ASR) solutions to a direct device has become crucial. For on-device speech recognition tasks, researchers and industry prefer end-to-end ASR systems as they can be made resource-efficient while maintaining a higher quality compared to hybrid systems. However, building end-to-end models requires a significant amount of speech data. Personalization, which is mainly handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words, is another challenging task associated with speech assistants. In this work, we consider building an effective end-to-end ASR system in low-resource setups with a high OOV rate, embodied in Babel Turkish and Babel Georgian tasks. We propose a method of dynamic acoustic unit augmentation based on the Byte Pair Encoding with dropout (BPE-dropout) technique. The method non-deterministically tokenizes utterances to extend the token's contexts and to regularize their distribution for the model's recognition of unseen words. It also reduces the need for optimal subword vocabulary size search. The technique provides a steady improvement in regular and personalized (OOV-oriented) speech recognition tasks (at least 6% relative word error rate (WER) and 25% relative F-score) at no additional computational cost. Owing to the BPE-dropout use, our monolingual Turkish Conformer has achieved a competitive result with 22.2% character error rate (CER) and 38.9% WER, which is close to the best published multilingual system.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Acústica , Interface para o Reconhecimento da Fala , Vocabulário
8.
Codas ; 33(1): e20190285, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909843

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the validity evidence based on response processes of a vocabulary-screening tool. METHODS: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study, applied in a sample of 133 children between 3 and 7 years of age, divided into five groups, according to their age range. This research evaluates the instrument TRILHAR, which is a screening of receptive and expressive vocabulary, composed by ten activities for each age range. The collected data were the application time in minutes and seconds, screening instructions comprehension and behavior during the screening. The data were analyzed descriptively as mean, standard deviation and percentage using the IBM SPSS Statistics. RESULTS: The application time was short, with less time for the greater ages. The mean time of application was 05m19s for G1, 04m29s for G2, 04m11s for G3, 03m40s for G4 and 02m13s for G5. Only one child (4.8%) from G2 required repetition of the instructions for the receptive vocabulary, and two children (6.3%) from G4 for the expressive vocabulary. We observed little occurrence of behaviors like disinterest, inattention and agitation. CONCLUSION: The application of the instrument required a short period, with a longer time for the group of 3-years children. The little necessity of repetition of the instructions indicates that children can easily comprehend the instrument.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Vocabulário , Criança , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Programas de Rastreamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802793

RESUMO

(1) Background: the objective of this study was to improve certain psycholinguistic and cognitive skills that are fundamental to the development of the reading process, such as phonological awareness, reading decoding, vocabulary and oral narrative comprehension, through the introduction of an Home Literacy Environment Active (HLE(A)) program that involved 54 participants enrolled in the first and second grades of elementary school (from 6 to 8 years old) in the city of Malaga area. (2) Methods: The central task of the intervention program was for the child to read aloud to an adult in the family for between 10 and 15 min, four days per week. In addition, the school students were evaluated on four occasions, at the beginning and end of each academic year, using the Batería de Evaluación de los Procesos Lectores Revisada, Test para la Detección de la Dislexia en niños and Escala Weschsler de Inteligencia instruments. (3) Results: the results demonstrated the efficacy of the HLE(A) program in the improvement of psycholinguistic and cognitive variables measured and, consequently, to an improvement in reading learning and cognitive development. Ultimately, the scientific literature on the subject and the data from the study led us to suggest that it would not only be beneficial for HLE(A) programs to be instituted in early childhood education stage (up to 6 years of age), but that they should be continued after age 6, in elementary education.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Leitura , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Escolaridade , Humanos , Vocabulário
10.
Codas ; 33(1): e20190284, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886747

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present a brief report of the first steps that involved the process of the cultural translation and adaptation of the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, fourth edition to Brazilian Portuguese (BP). METHODS: The process of translation and adaptation of this instrument was performed in the following steps: (1) translation of the original text (English) to Brazilian Portuguese (target culture) by two different sworn translators oriented towards our research goal; (2) parity analysis between both translations and design, by a group of experts, of a synthesis version; (3) back translation of the synthesis version by two other sworn translators who did not participate in step 1; and (4) Comparison between back-translation and the original version made by a group of specialists, thus shaping the pre-final adapted version of the EOWPVT-4. RESULTS: In the Brazilian version, the number of items from the original version was maintained and the cultural adaptation of the EOWPVT-4 to BP followed the steps recommended in the literature besides considering the differences in the socio-cultural context, showing no significant discrepancies regarding semantic equivalence. Relevant adaptations (e.g., items not representative within the Brazilian culture) were required during this process so that the instrument could be used with the same methodological rigor as the original instrument. CONCLUSION: The process of cultural adaptation of this instrument indicated that there was theoretical, semantic, idiomatic and cultural equivalence with the original version in English.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Vocabulário , Brasil , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800901

RESUMO

The home language environment is critical to early language development and subsequent skills. However, few studies have quantitatively measured the home language environment in low-income, developing settings. This study explores variations in the home language environment and child language skills among households in poor rural villages in northwestern China. Audio recordings were collected for 38 children aged 20-28 months and analyzed using Language Environment Analysis (LENA) software; language skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Mandarin Communicative Developmental Inventories expressive vocabulary scale. The results revealed large variability in both child language skills and home language environment measures (adult words, conversational turns, and child vocalizations) with 5- to 6-fold differences between the highest and lowest scores. Despite variation, however, the average number of adult words and conversational turns were lower than found among urban Chinese children. Correlation analyses did not identify significant correlations between demographic characteristics and the home language environment. However, the results do indicate significant correlations between the home language environment and child language skills, with conversational turns showing the strongest correlation. The results point to a need for further research on language engagement and ways to increase parent-child interactions to improve early language development among young children in rural China.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Adulto , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562715

RESUMO

Sign language is the most important way of communication for hearing-impaired people. Research on sign language recognition can help normal people understand sign language. We reviewed the classic methods of sign language recognition, and the recognition accuracy is not high enough because of redundant information, human finger occlusion, motion blurring, the diversified signing styles of different people, and so on. To overcome these shortcomings, we propose a multi-scale and dual sign language recognition Network (SLR-Net) based on a graph convolutional network (GCN). The original input data was RGB videos. We first extracted the skeleton data from them and then used the skeleton data for sign language recognition. SLR-Net is mainly composed of three sub-modules: multi-scale attention network (MSA), multi-scale spatiotemporal attention network (MSSTA) and attention enhanced temporal convolution network (ATCN). MSA allows the GCN to learn the dependencies between long-distance vertices; MSSTA can directly learn the spatiotemporal features; ATCN allows the GCN network to better learn the long temporal dependencies. The three different attention mechanisms, multi-scale attention mechanism, spatiotemporal attention mechanism, and temporal attention mechanism, are proposed to further improve the robustness and accuracy. Besides, a keyframe extraction algorithm is proposed, which can greatly improve efficiency by sacrificing a little accuracy. Experimental results showed that our method can reach 98.08% accuracy rate in the CSL-500 dataset with a 500-word vocabulary. Even on the challenging dataset DEVISIGN-L with a 2000-word vocabulary, it also reached a 64.57% accuracy rate, outperforming other state-of-the-art sign language recognition methods.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Línguas de Sinais , Algoritmos , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Vocabulário
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244954, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481800

RESUMO

Language is acquired in part through statistical learning abilities that encode environmental regularities. Language development is also heavily influenced by social environmental factors such as socioeconomic status. However, it is unknown to what extent statistical learning interacts with SES to affect language outcomes. We measured event-related potentials in 26 children aged 8-12 while they performed a visual statistical learning task. Regression analyses indicated that children's learning performance moderated the relationship between socioeconomic status and both syntactic and vocabulary language comprehension scores. For children demonstrating high learning, socioeconomic status had a weaker effect on language compared to children showing low learning. These results suggest that high statistical learning ability can provide a buffer against the disadvantages associated with being raised in a lower socioeconomic status household.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Estatística como Assunto/educação , Criança , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vocabulário
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481885

RESUMO

Microscopy is the main technique to visualize and study the structure and function of cells. The impact of optical and electron microscopy techniques is enormous in all fields of biomedical research. It is possible that different research areas rely on microscopy in diverse ways. Here, we analyzed comparatively the use of microscopy in pharmacology and cell biology, among other biomedical sciences fields. We collected data from articles published in several major journals in these fields. We analyzed the frequency of use of different optical and electron microscopy techniques: bright field, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, polarization, conventional fluorescence, confocal, live cell imaging, super resolution, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and cryoelectron microscopy. Our analysis showed that the use of microscopy has a distinctive pattern in each research area, and that nearly half of the articles from pharmacology journals did not use any microscopy method, compared to the use of microscopy in almost all the articles from cell biology journals. The most frequent microscopy methods in all the journals in all areas were bright field and fluorescence (conventional and confocal). Again, the pattern of use was different: while the most used microscopy methods in pharmacology were bright field and conventional fluorescence, in cell biology the most used methods were conventional and confocal fluorescence, and live cell imaging. We observed that the combination of different microscopy techniques was more frequent in cell biology, with up to 6 methods in the same article. To correlate the use of microscopy with the research theme of each article, we analyzed the proportion of microscopy figures with the use of cell culture. We analyzed comparatively the vocabulary of each biomedical sciences field, by the identification of the most frequent words in the articles. The collection of data described here shows a vast difference in the use of microscopy among different fields of biomedical sciences. The data presented here could be valuable in other scientific and educational contexts.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular , Microscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Microscopia Eletrônica/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Vocabulário
15.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 52(1): 153-164, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464976

RESUMO

Purpose Reading involves the ability to decode and draw meaning from printed text. Reading skill profiles vary widely among learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One fairly common pattern is relative strength in decoding combined with weak comprehension skills-indicators of this profile emerge as early as the preschool years. In order for children with ASD to develop a facility with language that prepares them for reading success, practitioners must intentionally create and provide appropriate instruction practices. Method In this tutorial, we describe ways in which practitioners can support language development and comprehension skills for children with ASD within the context of shared reading activities. We begin by providing known information about the reading performance of children with ASD using the Simple View of Reading as our guiding conceptual framework. Next, we present a number of practical, evidence-based strategies that educators can implement within the context of shared book reading activities. Case studies are embedded throughout the tutorial to demonstrate how practitioners may apply these strategies in their instructional settings. Conclusions Shared book reading interventions are a well-studied, developmentally appropriate approach for bringing about change in language and literacy in early childhood. The success of shared reading depends upon rich communication and interaction between the adult reader and the child. Many children with ASD will require strategies to support social communication and emergent literacy skill development (e.g., vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension) that are specifically linked to future reading comprehension.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Comunicação , Compreensão , Leitura , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Alfabetização , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos
16.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 52(1): 181-196, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464982

RESUMO

Purpose Reading comprehension is consistently poor in many school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview from a multicomponent view on the many predictors that may contribute to reading comprehension difficulties in ASD. Method This tutorial reviews current literature on profiles and predictors of reading comprehension in ASD. The review is situated from a multicomponent theoretical view based on the "direct and indirect effects of reading" model that builds on the familiar "simple view of reading." Each component, including word reading, listening comprehension, morphosyntax, vocabulary, working memory, comprehension monitoring, inferencing, and theory of mind, is separately reviewed, with consideration of the current evidence for their contribution to reading comprehension in ASD. At the end of each section, key takeaways are provided. To conclude, a summary with general clinical implications, case examples, and recommendations for future research across all components is offered. Conclusions Reading comprehension in ASD may be affected by any one or several components in any given individual. Speech-language pathologists have expertise and play a critical role in assessing and intervening on these components. The age and language status (language impaired or not) of a child are emerging as important factors for what to assess and consider for intervention. However, more research is needed that intentionally examines language status, evaluates reading comprehension at targeted ages or narrower age ranges, and/or examines language and reading development longitudinally.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Compreensão , Testes de Linguagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Vocabulário
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 327, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436581

RESUMO

Individuals vary widely in how they categorize novel and ambiguous phenomena. This individual variation has led influential theories in cognitive and social science to suggest that communication in large social groups introduces path dependence in category formation, which is expected to lead separate populations toward divergent cultural trajectories. Yet, anthropological data indicates that large, independent societies consistently arrive at highly similar category systems across a range of topics. How is it possible for diverse populations, consisting of individuals with significant variation in how they categorize the world, to independently construct similar category systems? Here, we investigate this puzzle experimentally by creating an online "Grouping Game" in which we observe how people in small and large populations collaboratively construct category systems for a continuum of ambiguous stimuli. We find that solitary individuals and small groups produce highly divergent category systems; however, across independent trials with unique participants, large populations consistently converge on highly similar category systems. A formal model of critical mass dynamics in social networks accurately predicts this process of scale-induced category convergence. Our findings show how large communication networks can filter lexical diversity among individuals to produce replicable society-level patterns, yielding unexpected implications for cultural evolution.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Rede Social , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Tempo , Vocabulário
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401547

RESUMO

Children from low-SES (socioeconomic status) and minority language immigrant families are at risk of vocabulary difficulties due to the less varied and complex language in the home environment. Children are less likely to be involved in home language activities (HLA) in interaction with adults in low-SES than in higher-SES families. However, few studies have investigated the HLA variability among low-SES, minority language bilingual immigrant families. This longitudinal study analyzes the frequency and duration of HLA and their predictive roles for expressive vocabulary acquisition in 70 equivalent low-SES monolingual and bilingual toddlers from minority contexts. HLA and vocabulary were assessed at 24 and 30 months in the majority language (Italian) and in total (majority+minority language) using parent and teacher reports. The frequency and duration of HLA in interaction with adults in total, but not in the majority language, at 24 months were similar for the two groups. These activities uniquely accounted for expressive vocabulary at 30 months, after accounting for total vocabulary at 24 months, in both groups. In conclusion, a minority-majority language context is not an additional risk factor for vocabulary acquisition if HLA is considered in interaction with adults in both languages. HLA are proximal environmental protective factors for vocabulary acquisition.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Pobreza , Vocabulário , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0242848, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406081

RESUMO

Understanding public attitudes towards death is needed to inform health policies to foster community death awareness and preparedness. Linguistic sentiment analysis of how people describe their feelings about death can add to knowledge gained from traditional self-reports. This study provided the first description of emotive attitudes expressed towards death utilising textual sentiment analysis for the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance. A linguistic lexicon of sentiment norms was applied to activities conducted in an online course for the general-public designed to generate discussion about death. We analysed the sentiment of words people chose to describe feelings about death, for themselves, for perceptions of the feelings of 'others', and for longitudinal changes over the time-period of exposure to a course about death (n = 1491). The results demonstrated that sadness pervades affective responses to death, and that inevitability, peace, and fear were also frequent reactions. However, words chosen to represent perceptions of others' feelings towards death suggested that participants perceived others as feeling more negative about death than they do themselves. Analysis of valence, arousal and dominance dimensions of sentiment pre-to-post course participation demonstrated that participants chose significantly happier (more positive) valence words, less arousing (calmer) words, and more dominant (in-control) words to express their feelings about death by the course end. This suggests that the course may have been helpful in participants becoming more emotionally accepting in their feelings and attitude towards death. Furthermore, the change over time appeared greater for younger participants, who showed more increase in the dominance (power/control) and pleasantness (valence) in words chosen at course completion. Sentiment analysis of words to describe death usefully extended our understanding of community death attitudes and emotions. Future application of sentiment analysis to other related areas of health policy interest such as attitudes towards Advance Care Planning and palliative care may prove fruitful.


Assuntos
Morte , Ego , Emoções , Vocabulário , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fatores de Tempo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243050, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347514

RESUMO

Spelling is a literacy skill that must be mastered during children's academic development. It involves a variety of cognitive factors, including morphological awareness. Studies in the alphabet and Chinese systems have shown that there is a close relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. Although there is clearly a significant unidirectional effect of morphological awareness on spelling significantly, few studies have explored the bidirectional relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. This three-time point longitudinal study was designed to investigate the reciprocal effects of morphological awareness and character spelling in Chinese. Participants included 124 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The students were tracked from first grade to third grade and were administered a battery of tests to measure morphological awareness (e.g., homophone awareness, homograph awareness, and compounding awareness) and spelling to dictation, controlling for IQ, phonological awareness, and orthographic awareness. A structural equation model was utilized to examine the reciprocal relation between the students' morphological awareness and character spelling. Results showed that earlier morphological awareness predicted subsequent spelling abilities from first grade to third grade and spelling in first grade predicted morphological awareness in second grade; however, spelling in second grade did not predict the subsequent morphological awareness in third grade. This study suggests that there is a bidirectional association between morphological awareness and spelling from first grade to second grade in Chinese, and a unidirectional association between morphological awareness and spelling from second grade to third grade. Future studies could examine the causal relationship between morphological awareness and character spelling by using an instructional intervention.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Alfabetização/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , China , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Fonética , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vocabulário
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