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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251436

RESUMO

There is evidence that emotion induced during encoding impairs associative memory (e.g., Bisby, Horner, Bush, & Burgess, 2018), yet the effect of post-encoding emotion (particularly positive emotion) on associative memory remains largely unclear. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of post-encoding positive emotion on associative memory for English vocabulary. In Experiment 1, high school students memorized Chinese definitions of a list of English words, immediately recalled the Chinese definitions, watched a neutral or comic video, and took a delayed memory test 25 minutes after encoding. The result showed a significant impairing effect of post-encoding positive emotion on memory for Chinese definitions. In Experiment 2, primary school students encoded English words with their associative pictures, took an immediate test where, on each trial, they were asked to choose the correct English word that matches a picture. Following the test, they watched a neutral or comic video, and took a memory test 10 minutes after encoding. Consistent with Experiment 1, Experiment 2 showed an impairing effect of positive emotion. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that post-encoding positive emotion can impair associative memory, providing important implications for acquisition of vocabulary of English as a foreign language.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Idioma , Memória/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Afeto/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
2.
J Vis ; 20(3): 4, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181860

RESUMO

This study focused on the potential role of incidental, auditory perceptual learning in among children learning new words. To this end, we examined how irrelevant auditory similarities across words, that provide no cues regarding their visual or conceptual attributes, influence pseudo-word learning in a name/picture matching paradigm. Two types of irrelevant auditory similarities were used: shared sequences of vowels or consonants. Learning word-to-picture associations in these two conditions was compared to a baseline condition in which items did not share either sequence. Kindergarten children readily learned items in all conditions, but auditory similarity interfered with learning (odds ratio, 1.12). Individual differences in reasoning and vocabulary did not account for the interference effect. These findings suggest that the sensory properties of words continue to influence language learning during the preschool years through rapid incidental learning, even if the effect is relatively small. Consistent with previous studies in the visual modality, we now suggest that incidental perceptual learning occurs in the auditory modality. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that this learning can interfere with word learning, highlighting the importance of the perceptual structure of words in real-world-like learning environments.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Vocabulário
3.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 97-101, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191215

RESUMO

The short literature overview is organized around the idea that during our life course there is a classic competition between accumulated experience and the increased metacognitive reflection possibilities as the positive side, and the rusting of fast mental processes, mental slowdown with age as a negative side. This is non trivially crossed by the issue that in language, grammar corresponds to the early stabilizing procedural system, while vocabulary is a system that remains open during all our life regarding its acquisition, but shows signs of access problems due to the age sensitivity of the declarative memory system. Language and speech in this regard as well are subject to multiple determination: different age parameters characterize its acquisition and usage. I show some summaries of age related changes in grammar, vocabulary, and articulation. The review specifically discusses the possible role of age related in memory and executive functions during physiological ageing. In this domain as well, the new IT system brought in new environmental and research method challenges.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Memória , Fala , Comportamento Verbal , Vocabulário , Função Executiva , Humanos
4.
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1227, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988352

RESUMO

Effortless learning during sleep is everybody's dream. Several studies found that presenting odor cues during learning and selectively during slow wave sleep increases learning success. The current study extends previous research in three aspects to test for optimization and practical applicability of this cueing effect: We (1) performed a field study of vocabulary-learning in a regular school setting, (2) stimulated with odor cues during the whole night without sleep monitoring, and (3) applied the odor additionally as retrieval cue in a subsequent test. We found an odor cueing effect with comparable effect sizes (d between 0.6 and 1.2) as studies with sleep monitoring and selective cueing. Further, we observed some (non-significant) indication for a further performance benefit with additional cueing during the recall test. Our results replicate previous findings and provide important extensions: First, the odor effect also works outside the lab. Second, continuous cueing at night produces similar effect sizes as a study with selective cueing in specific sleep stages. Whether odor cueing during memory recall further increases memory performance hast to be shown in future studies. Overall, our results extend the knowledge on odor cueing effects and provide a realistic practical perspective on it.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Criança , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Odorantes , Vocabulário
6.
Codas ; 32(2): e20180107, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate lexical performance and verbal short-term memory ability in premature infants at preschool age and compare the results with their full-term peers. METHODS: Forty preschool children aged between 4 and 5 years and 11 months participated on the study and were equally divided into two groups considering their gestational age: preterm and full-term. Groups did not differ on age, family income and maternal education. Participants were paired according to their chronological age and their socioeconomic status. Their performance was assessed using expressive vocabulary and verbal short-term memory tests. Inferential statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney and the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Group performance did not differ on vocabulary, but premature children showed an inferior performance on nonword repetition tasks. CONCLUSION: These data indicates that preschoolers born premature performed statistically lower than their peers born full-term on nonword repetition task. Thus, premature birth was associated to vocabulary development on typically developing range, but also to verbal short-term memory impairments.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos
7.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12879, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180601

RESUMO

English-monolingual children develop a shape bias early in language acquisition, such that they more often generalize a novel label based on shape than other features. Spanish-monolingual children, however, do not show this bias to the same extent (Hahn & Cantrell, 2012). Studying children who are simultaneously learning both Spanish and English presents a unique opportunity to further investigate how this word-learning bias develops. Thus, we asked how Spanish-English bilingual children (Mage  = 21.31 months) perform in a novel-noun generalization (NNG) task, specifically examining how past language experience (i.e. language exposure and vocabulary size) and present language context (i.e. whether the NNG task was conducted in Spanish or English) influence the strength of the shape bias. Participants completed the NNG task either entirely in English (N = 16) or entirely in Spanish (N = 16), as well as language understanding tasks in both English and Spanish to ensure that they understood what the experimenter was asking them to do. Parents completed a language exposure survey and vocabulary checklists in Spanish and English. There was a significant interaction between condition and choice type: Bilingual children in the English condition showed a shape bias in the NNG task, but bilingual children in the Spanish condition showed no reliable biases. No measures of past language experience were related to NNG task performance. These results suggest that when learning new words, bilingual children are attuned to the regularities of the present language context, and prior language experiences may play a more secondary role.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Vocabulário , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104708, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698097

RESUMO

One of the key questions in the study of human language acquisition is the extent to which the development of neural processing networks for different components of language are modulated by exposure to linguistic stimuli. Sign languages offer a unique perspective on this issue, because prelingually Deaf children who receive access to complex linguistic input later in life provide a window into brain maturation in the absence of language, and subsequent neuroplasticity of neurolinguistic networks during late language learning. While the duration of sensitive periods of acquisition of linguistic subsystems (sound, vocabulary, and syntactic structure) is well established on the basis of L2 acquisition in spoken language, for sign languages, the relative timelines for development of neural processing networks for linguistic sub-domains are unknown. We examined neural responses of a group of Deaf signers who received access to signed input at varying ages to three linguistic phenomena at the levels of classifier signs, syntactic structure, and information structure. The amplitude of the N400 response to the marked word order condition negatively correlated with the age of acquisition for syntax and information structure, indicating increased cognitive load in these conditions. Additionally, the combination of behavioral and neural data suggested that late learners preferentially relied on classifiers over word order for meaning extraction. This suggests that late acquisition of sign language significantly increases cognitive load during analysis of syntax and information structure, but not word-level meaning.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Surdez/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Linguística , Línguas de Sinais , Adulto , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal , Vocabulário
9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(1): 349-355, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571067

RESUMO

In this preliminary study, we examined peer victimization in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) and how it relates to language and communication skills. We modified the Childrens' Social Experience Questionnaire (Crick and Grotpeter in Dev Psychopathol 8:367-380, 1996) to better suit adolescents with DS by simplifying vocabulary and syntax, using two step interview response format. Internal reliability was adequate, and all peer victimization measures were significantly elevated compared to a typically developing sample. Further, peer victimization (especially relational victimization) correlated with speech intelligibility, pragmatic judgment, conversational behavior, and receptive vocabulary. These preliminary data suggest that having DS may put adolescents at risk for peer victimization, but having relatively good language/communication skills may be a protective factor. Further research is warranted on this topic.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Comunicação , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vocabulário
10.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol ; 86(1): 91-98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The cochlear implant is an effective device for children with severe and/or profound prelingual hearing loss, since it provides considerable improvement in oral language acquisition through the auditory pathway. The use of a cochlear implant contributes to the development of auditory perception, favoring the acquisition of the linguistic processes related to communication skills, which might have a positive effect on other areas of development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the performance of children using cochlear implants for expressive and receptive oral language. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study that used the following tests: Child language test in the phonology, vocabulary, fluency and pragmatics areas, and the Peabody picture vocabulary test. Thirty children participated in this study, of both genders, aged between 36 and 72 months, with severe and/or profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, without other impairments and users of unilateral cochlear implant with full electrode insertion for a minimum of 12 months. RESULTS: The longer duration of the cochlear implant use, the younger age at surgery and the better performance in the auditory perception of speech influenced the performance in expressive and receptive oral language. Even though when compared to the normative language acquisition process, the results showed that these children had patterns of linguistic skills that are below their chronological age; the results indicate that these children are developing expressive and receptive oral language skills, and this is the outcome that should be taken into account in this study. CONCLUSION: The longer duration of the cochlear implant use, the younger age at surgery and the better performance in the auditory perception of speech influenced the performance in expressive and receptive oral language skills, but not in all the studied semantic categories.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Fatores Etários , Audiometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Percepção da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Vocabulário
11.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12843, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045301

RESUMO

What aspects of infants' prelinguistic communication are most valuable for learning to speak, and why? We test whether early vocalizations and gestures drive the transition to word use because, in addition to indicating motoric readiness, they (a) are early instances of intentional communication and (b) elicit verbal responses from caregivers. In study 1, 11 month olds (N = 134) were observed to coordinate vocalizations and gestures with gaze to their caregiver's face at above chance rates, indicating that they are plausibly intentionally communicative. Study 2 tested whether those infant communicative acts that were gaze-coordinated best predicted later expressive vocabulary. We report a novel procedure for predicting vocabulary via multi-model inference over a comprehensive set of infant behaviours produced at 11 and 12 months (n = 58). This makes it possible to establish the relative predictive value of different behaviours that are hierarchically organized by level of granularity. Gaze-coordinated vocalizations were the most valuable predictors of expressive vocabulary size up to 24 months. Study 3 established that caregivers were more likely to respond to gaze-coordinated behaviours. Moreover, the dyadic combination of infant gaze-coordinated vocalization and caregiver response was by far the best predictor of later vocabulary size. We conclude that practice with prelinguistic intentional communication facilitates the leap to symbol use. Learning is optimized when caregivers respond to intentional vocalizations with appropriate language.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Comunicação , Comportamento do Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Gestos , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Masculino , Vocabulário
12.
Elife ; 82019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818369

RESUMO

Diabetes is a diverse and complex disease, with considerable variation in phenotypic manifestation and severity. This variation hampers the study of etiological differences and reduces the statistical power of analyses of associations to genetics, treatment outcomes, and complications. We address these issues through deep, fine-grained phenotypic stratification of a diabetes cohort. Text mining the electronic health records of 14,017 patients, we matched two controlled vocabularies (ICD-10 and a custom vocabulary developed at the clinical center Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen) to clinical narratives spanning a 19 year period. The two matched vocabularies comprise over 20,000 medical terms describing symptoms, other diagnoses, and lifestyle factors. The cohort is genetically homogeneous (Caucasian diabetes patients from Denmark) so the resulting stratification is not driven by ethnic differences, but rather by inherently dissimilar progression patterns and lifestyle related risk factors. Using unsupervised Markov clustering, we defined 71 clusters of at least 50 individuals within the diabetes spectrum. The clusters display both distinct and shared longitudinal glycemic dysregulation patterns, temporal co-occurrences of comorbidities, and associations to single nucleotide polymorphisms in or near genes relevant for diabetes comorbidities.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 16): 502, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, deep learning methods have been applied to many natural language processing tasks to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, in the biomedical domain, they have not out-performed supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) methods based on support vector machines or random forests, possibly due to inherent similarities of medical word senses. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose two deep-learning-based models for supervised WSD: a model based on bi-directional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) network, and an attention model based on self-attention architecture. Our result shows that the BiLSTM neural network model with a suitable upper layer structure performs even better than the existing state-of-the-art models on the MSH WSD dataset, while our attention model was 3 or 4 times faster than our BiLSTM model with good accuracy. In addition, we trained "universal" models in order to disambiguate all ambiguous words together. That is, we concatenate the embedding of the target ambiguous word to the max-pooled vector in the universal models, acting as a "hint". The result shows that our universal BiLSTM neural network model yielded about 90 percent accuracy. CONCLUSION: Deep contextual models based on sequential information processing methods are able to capture the relative contextual information from pre-trained input word embeddings, in order to provide state-of-the-art results for supervised biomedical WSD tasks.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Vocabulário , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 627, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bacteria Biotope (BB) task is a biomedical relation extraction (RE) that aims to study the interaction between bacteria and their locations. This task is considered to pertain to fundamental knowledge in applied microbiology. Some previous investigations conducted the study by applying feature-based models; others have presented deep-learning-based models such as convolutional and recurrent neural networks used with the shortest dependency paths (SDPs). Although SDPs contain valuable and concise information, some parts of crucial information that is required to define bacterial location relationships are often neglected. Moreover, the traditional word-embedding used in previous studies may suffer from word ambiguation across linguistic contexts. RESULTS: Here, we present a deep learning model for biomedical RE. The model incorporates feature combinations of SDPs and full sentences with various attention mechanisms. We also used pre-trained contextual representations based on domain-specific vocabularies. To assess the model's robustness, we introduced a mean F1 score on many models using different random seeds. The experiments were conducted on the standard BB corpus in BioNLP-ST'16. Our experimental results revealed that the model performed better (in terms of both maximum and average F1 scores; 60.77% and 57.63%, respectively) compared with other existing models. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that our proposed contributions to this task can be used to extract rich lexical, syntactic, and semantic features that effectively boost the model's performance. Moreover, we analyzed the trade-off between precision and recall to choose the proper cut-off to use in real-world applications.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Pesquisa Biomédica , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Semântica , Vocabulário
15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226482, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869374

RESUMO

In an overt visual priming experiment, we investigate the role of orthography in native (L1) and non-native (L2) processing of German morphologically complex words. We compare priming effects for inflected and derived morphologically related prime-target pairs versus otherwise matched, purely orthographically related pairs. The results show morphological priming effects in both the L1 and L2 group, with no significant difference between inflection and derivation. However, L2 speakers, but not L1 speakers, also showed significant priming for orthographically related pairs. Our results support the claim that L2 speakers focus more on surface-level information such as orthography during visual word recognition. This can cause orthographic priming effects in morphologically related prime-target pairs, which may conceal L1-L2 differences in morphological processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Multilinguismo , Leitura , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grey matter volume (GMV) decline is a frequent finding in multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common chronic neurological disease in young adults. Increases of GMV were detected in language related brain regions following second language (L2) learning in healthy adults. Effects of L2 learning in people with MS (pwMS) have not been investigated so far. METHODS: This study prospectively evaluated the potential of an eight-week L2 training on grey matter plasticity measured by 3T-MRI, L2 proficiency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with relapsing-remitting MS (pwMS, n = 11) and healthy, sex- and age-matched controls (HCs; n = 12). RESULTS: Categorical voxel-based analysis revealed significantly less GMV bilaterally of the insula extending to the temporal pole in pwMS at baseline. Following L2 training, significant increases of GMV were evident in the right hippocampus, parahippocampus and putamen of pwMS and in the left insula of HCs. L2 training resulted in significant improvements of listening comprehension, speaking fluency and vocabulary knowledge in both pwMS and HCs. GMV increases of right hippocampus and parahippocampus significantly correlated with vocabulary knowledge gain and L2 learning was associated with a significant increase of HRQoL in pwMS. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate distinct patterns of GMV increases of language related brain regions in pwMS and HCs and indicate disease-related compensatory cortical and subcortical plasticity to acquire L2 proficiency in pwMS.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Multilinguismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Vocabulário
17.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2353, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846007
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226647, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856230

RESUMO

Several dictionary websites are available on the web to access semantic, synonymous, or spelling information about a given word. During nine years, we systematically recorded all the entered letter sequences from a French web dictionary. A total of 200 million orthographic forms were obtained allowing us to create a large-scale database of spelling errors that could inform psychological theories about spelling processes. To check the reliability of this big data methodology, we selected from this database a sample of 100 frequently misspelled words. A group of 100 French university students had to perform a spelling-to-dictation test on this list of words. The results showed a strong correlation between the two data sets on the frequencies of produced spellings (r = 0.82). Although the distributions of spelling errors were relatively consistent across the two databases, the proportion of correct responses revealed significant differences. Regression analyses allowed us to generate possible explanations for these differences in terms of task-dependent factors. We argue that comparing the results of these large-scale databases with those of standard and controlled experimental paradigms is certainly a good way to determine the conditions under which this big data methodology can be adequately used for informing psychological theories.


Assuntos
Alfabetização/normas , Vocabulário , Processamento de Texto/normas , Redação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização/psicologia , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225756, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860640

RESUMO

Current models of word-production in Broca's area (i.e. left ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex, VLPFC) posit that sequential and staggered semantic, lexical, phonological and articulatory processes precede articulation. Using millisecond-resolution intra-cranial recordings, we evaluated spatiotemporal dynamics and high frequency functional interconnectivity between left VLPFC regions during single-word production. Through the systematic variation of retrieval, selection, and phonological loads, we identified specific activation profiles and functional coupling patterns between these regions that fit within current psycholinguistic theories of word production. However, network interactions underpinning these processes activate in parallel (not sequentially), while the processes themselves are indexed by specific changes in network state. We found evidence that suggests that pars orbitalis is coupled with pars triangularis during lexical retrieval, while lexical selection is terminated via coupled activity with M1 at articulation onset. Taken together, this work reveals that speech production relies on very specific inter-regional couplings in rapid sequence in the language dominant hemisphere.


Assuntos
Área de Broca/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Fala/fisiologia
20.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(11): 933-939.e2, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant amount of clinical information captured as free-text narratives could be better used for several applications, such as clinical decision support, ontology development, evidence-based practice, and research. The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is specifically used for semantic comparisons for diagnostic purposes. All these functions require quality coverage of the domain of interest. The authors used natural language processing to capture craniofacial and oral phenotype signatures from electronic health records and then used these signatures for evaluation of existing oral phenotype ontology coverage. METHODS: The authors applied a text-processing pipeline based on the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System to annotate the clinical notes with Unified Medical Language System codes. The authors extracted the disease or disorder phenotype terms, which were then compared with HPO terms and their synonyms. RESULTS: The authors retrieved 2,153 deidentified clinical notes from 558 patients. Finally, 2,416 unique diseases or disorders phenotype terms were extracted, which included 210 craniofacial or oral phenotype terms. Twenty-six of these phenotypes were not found in the HPO. CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrated that natural language processing tools could extract relevant phenotype terms from clinical narratives, which could help identify gaps in existing ontologies and enhance craniofacial and dental phenotyping vocabularies. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The expansion of terms in the dental, oral, and craniofacial domains in the HPO is particularly important as the dental community moves toward electronic health records.


Assuntos
Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Vocabulário , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Narração , Fenótipo
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