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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360488

RESUMO

There seems to be a broad consensus that there is a positive correlation between resilience and sport performance. However, different studies show divergent results on the role played by certain variables in this relationship. This study aimed to analyze the possible relationships between resilience levels and the practiced sport according to gender, age, and competitive level of the athletes in 1047 competitive athletes from five different sports (handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics, and judo). Resilience was assessed with the Spanish version of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS). Results of independent samples t-tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant differences on the level of resilience according to the practiced sport or the competitive level. However, the analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that they were related to the gender and age of the athletes, being higher in males than in females, and there was a positive correlation with age. These results seem to suggest the convenience of using differentiated strategies, according to gender and age, when working on all those protective factors that could allow the athlete to perform better when facing adversity in the competitive environment.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Artes Marciais , Voleibol , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção
2.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 579-583, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391290

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is possible to quantify changes in movement patterns through kinematic analysis of landing, especially to quantify changes in pre and post exhaustion situations, however the reliability of this post exhaustion analysis is not known. OBJECTIVE: To verify the inter and intra-examiner reliability of two-dimensional kinematic analysis during the landing of a vertical jump of volleyball athletes, pre and post exhaustion protocol. EXPERIMENTAL: Thirty volleyball athletes were recruited, and kinematic analysis was performed during landing, pre and post exhaustion protocol. The angular measurements analyzed were: 1) frontal plane: knee valgus and 2) sagittal plane: anterior trunk inclination, knee flexion and tibiotarsal angle, performed by two examiners. The reliability calculation used the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), in addition to the error of measurement (SEM), the coefficient of variation (CV) and the minimum detectable difference (MDD). RESULTS: Regarding reliability: ICC = 0.95-0.98 (pre) and ICC = 0.83-0.98 (post exhaustion). The CV presented heterogeneous values for the knee valgus and the inclination of the trunk, both pre and post protocol. The SEM from all angles presented values that varied from 0.74°-2.33° and the MDD ranged from 2.55°-5.54° pre protocol and 2.05°-6.45° post protocol. CONCLUSION: 2D kinematic evaluation can be used during landing, before and after the application of an exhaustion protocol, but professionals should pay attention to the angles of the knee valgus and the inclination of the trunk, as they have a large CV.


Assuntos
Voleibol , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Movimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444126

RESUMO

Although absolute jump heights should be considered an important factor in judging the performance requirements of volleyball players, limited data is available on age-appropriate categories. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in specific anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance variables in under-19 female volleyball players in relation to playing position and performance level. The sample of subjects consisted of 354 players who prepared for the U19 Women's Volleyball European Championship 2020 (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 67.5 ± 7.1 kg). Playing positions analyzed were setters (n = 55), opposites (n = 37), middle blockers (n = 82), outside hitters (n = 137), and liberos (n = 43). The results showed player position differences in every performance level group in variables of body height, spike, and block jump. Observed differences are a consequence of highly specific tasks of different positions in the composition of the team. Players of different performance levels are significantly different, with athletes of higher-ranked teams achieving better results. The acquired data could be useful for the selection and profiling of young volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444598

RESUMO

This preliminary study examined the effects of a stretching intervention after training and its duration (15 vs. 30 min) on participants' shank circumference (SC) reduction and subjective discomfort score. Ten male volleyball players underwent a routine 3 h training. A two-way analysis of variance revealed that the stretching intervention had significant effects on SC reduction (p < 0.01) and subjective discomfort scores (p < 0.001). Stretching after training could help eliminate shank strain, and a slighter discomfort in shanks when stretching was also seen (score, 20.1/100). An independent-samples t test revealed a significantly higher SC reduction (p < 0.01) with 30 min of stretching (5.6 mm) than with 15 min of stretching (2.7 mm); both stretching durations reduced SC significantly more than the no-stretching condition did. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for volleyball players to alleviate shank strain after daily routine training.


Assuntos
Voleibol , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Masculino
5.
J Athl Train ; 56(7): 666-673, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280268

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Women's volleyball is a globally popular sport with widespread participation at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) level. BACKGROUND: Routine examinations of NCAA women's volleyball injuries are important for recognizing emerging injury-related patterns in this population. METHODS: Exposure and injury data collected in the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2014-2015 through 2018-2019 athletic years were analyzed. Injury counts, rates, and proportions were used to describe injury characteristics, and injury rate ratios were used to examine differences in injury rates. RESULTS: The overall injury rate was 6.73 per 1000 athlete-exposures. Knee (14.6%) and ankle (13.8%) injuries accounted for the largest proportion of all reported injuries, and most injuries were attributed to overuse (26.1%) or noncontact (22.7%) mechanisms. Lateral ankle ligament complex tears (11.1%) and concussions (7.3%) were the most commonly reported specific injury. SUMMARY: Results indicate an increasing burden of practice-related injuries and the need to further examine overuse injuries. Lower-extremity injury prevention strategies and mechanisms of concussion also warrant further attention.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Voleibol/lesões , Adulto , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/classificação , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the level of muscle strength by using isokinetic and isometric measurements-more specifically, the force ratio between the knee flexors and extensors (values of the torques). METHODS: An experimental group of elite volleyball players (n = 14) were compared to a control group (n = 14) of healthy non-athletes of comparable ages. Torque measurements were obtained under three concentric conditions (angular velocities of 60 °/s, 180 °/s, and 300 °/s) and one static condition by utilizing the Biodex System 3. RESULTS: In all trials, the volleyball players achieved significantly higher peak torque (PT) values for both the extensors and flexors (p < 0.05) than those of the control group. However, the strength ratio of the flexors and extensors (H/Q) in the experimental group was only 83% of the standard reported in the literature. The most developed and dominating muscles in the knee joints of the volleyball players were the extensors, which accounted for the low strength ratio and dynamic instability of this joint. CONCLUSION: Based on a proper assessment of the strength ratio of the knee flexors and extensors, properly selected and implemented resistance training can improve the maximum strength and power production and reduce the incidence of injuries in volleyball.


Assuntos
Voleibol , Humanos , Joelho , Articulação do Joelho , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Torque
7.
Phys Ther Sport ; 51: 29-35, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report point prevalence of anterior knee pain (AKP) in adolescent athletes by (1) maturation status, (2) chronological age, (3) sex, and (4) primary sport. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Male and female participants aged 11-15 years were recruited from specialised sports programs for basketball, volleyball, Australian Rules Football and tennis. Standing height, sitting height, and body mass were measured and used to calculate maturity status. Past injury history, self-reported physical activity, and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Questionnaire Patellar Tendon (VISA-P) questionnaires were completed. Anterior knee pain was defined as any pain experienced on the anterior surface of the knee and recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS). A single leg decline squat (SLDS) was performed for provocation of AKP. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventeen male and female adolescent athletes participated in this study. Twenty participants were excluded from data analysis. Point prevalence of AKP was 39% (N = 76). Average self-reported physical activity/week was 7.9 ± 4.1 h of their specialised sport and 2.0 ± 2.0 h of other physical activity/week. Maturation status, chronological age, sex nor primary sporting program was statistically significant in explaining the presence or absence of AKP. CONCLUSION: Due to the right-skewed maturation sample, the authors cannot state conclusively that maturation status was not associated with AKP. Nearly 40% of this cohort reported AKP during a pain provocation test. The presence of AKP was not explained by maturation status, age, sex or primary sport program. Given the chronic nature of AKP and future morbidity reported, this high prevalence provides rationale for intervention or prevention studies targeting younger athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Voleibol , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor
8.
Phys Ther Sport ; 51: 79-84, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preseason functional tests have been previously associated with noncontact time-loss lower extremity injuries in a variety of athletic populations. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of one or more functional tests to discriminate injury risk in a cohort of female collegiate volleyball players in the United States. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II & III, National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics female volleyball players; PARTICIPANTS: 130 female volleyball players (mean age: 19.31 ± 1.1 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Lower extremity functional test, single limb hop for distance, standing long jump, previous injury history, lower quarter Y-balance test, and limb symmetry index were measured prior to the season beginning. Noncontact time-loss lower quarter injuries were tracked during the season. RESULTS: Athletes with suboptimal scores on the single limb hop test (<70% of height) and standing long jump (<80% of height), combined with a previous history of injury, were three times more likely to sustain an injury during the season (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.09 to 8.30). Individual functional tests did not discriminate injury risk. CONCLUSIONS: A battery of preseason functional tests and injury history discriminates injury risk in female collegiate volleyball players.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Voleibol , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070091

RESUMO

To program proper reactions, athletes must anticipate opponents' actions on the basis of previous visuomotor experience. In particular, such abilities seem to rely on processing others' intentions to act. We adopted a new approach based on an attentional spatial compatibility paradigm to investigate how elite volleyball players elaborate both spatial and motor information at upper-limb posture presentation. Forty-two participants (18 volleyball players and 17 nonathlete controls assigned to Experiments 1 a and b, and eight basketball players assigned to Experiment 2) were tested to study their ability to process the intentions to act conveyed by hands and extract motor primitives (i.e., significant components of body movements). Analysis looked for a spatial compatibility effect between direction of the spike action (correspondence factor) and response side for both palm and back of the hand (view factor). We demonstrated that volleyball players encoded spatial sport-related indices from bodily information and showed preparatory motor activation according to the direction of the implied spike actions for the palm view (Experiment 1; hand simulating a cross-court spike, p = 0.013, and a down-the-line spike, p = 0.026) but both nonathlete controls (Experiment 1; both p < 0.05) and other sports athletes (basketball players, Experiment 2; p = 0.34, only cross-court spike) did not. Results confirm that elite players' supremacy lies in the predictive abilities of coding elementary motor primitives for their sport discipline.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Voleibol , Atletas , Cognição , Gestos , Humanos
10.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(4): 1851-1871, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082634

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore any differences in game performance variables and knowledge among a cohort of high school students who participated in either homogeneous or heterogeneous skill level groups (N = 126) across a 12-lesson mini-volleyball sport education unit of study. This study followed a mixed-methods approach using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design. The quantitative variables analyzed were decision making, skill execution, game performance, game involvement, and game knowledge. We also evaluated students' performance qualitatively, employing two methods: (a) experts' analysis of students' game performance, and (b) students' and teachers' perceptions of students' performance. We analyzed quantitative data through a series of paired samples t-tests comparing pre- and post-test scores according to the grouping strategy. Students became more competent in their game play and more knowledgeable in their technique, the sport's rules, tactical awareness, and general game knowledge. However, grouping students by skill level had no impact on gains in game performance variables and knowledge. Although sport education literature shows a preference for heterogeneity in ability-based grouping, within our data both heterogeneous and homogenous groups of higher and lower skilled students achieved improvements in game performance and knowledge, leading us to suggest that teachers who are interested in grouping students to create a meaningful learning experience should consider criteria other than student ability.


Assuntos
Voleibol , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 578, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischial tuberosity apophyseal fractures are avulsion fractures of the anatomic footprint of the proximal hamstring tendons. Generally, these injuries are rare and frequently occur in skeletally immature, active patients due to incomplete ossification. Depending on the fragment displacement, non-operative or operative treatment approaches are used. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 29-year-old professional volleyball athlete who has suffered from a nonunion avulsion fracture for 14 years. Isolated suture anchor fixation was performed after open excision of a large bony fragment followed by excellent clinical and functional outcome at 1 year postoperatively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, avulsion fractures of the ischial tuberosity with large fragments and restrictions to activities of daily living due to pain can, in individualized cases, be treated with an open excision of the fragment followed by repair of the proximal hamstring tendons using suture anchors.


Assuntos
Tendões dos Músculos Isquiotibiais , Voleibol , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Atletas , Humanos , Ísquio/diagnóstico por imagem , Ísquio/cirurgia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798256

RESUMO

Understanding the relationship between mechanical variables derived from actions such as jumping, sprinting, or ballistic bench press throwing and sport-specific performance moves is of scientific and practical interest for strength and conditioning coaches for improving training programs. We examined the association between mechanical variables derived from the force-velocity (FV) profiles of the aforementioned actions and spike and serve ball speeds in elite volleyball players. Twenty-two male elite volleyball players (age: 24.3 ± 4.5 years; height: 1.89 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 86.3 ± 8.6 kg) were tested in two sessions. Squatting, sprinting, and bench press throwing FV profiles were determined in the first session, while spike and serve ball speeds were assessed in the second session. The theoretical maximal force (F0) of vertical jumping, the theoretical maximal velocity of sprinting, and the F0 of bench press throwing in ascending order, were strongly associated (rs range 0.53-0.84; p<0.05) with spike and serve ball speeds. These mechanical variables explained 20%-36% of the variability in spike and serve ball speeds, with a greater influence on the serve speed. These results suggest that assessing jumping, sprinting, and bench press throwing force-velocity profiles might help provide player-specific training programs and optimize performance in these technical-tactical actions in male elite volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Voleibol/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Treinamento de Força , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917433

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of the bench press exercise with predetermined velocity loss percentage on subsequent bench press throw (BPT) performance with raised legs or feet on the floor among disabled, sitting volleyball players. Twelve elite sitting volleyball athletes (age = 33 ± 9 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 14.7 kg; relative bench press maximum strength = 1.0 ± 0.3 kg/body mass) took part in this study. The experiment was performed following a randomized crossover design, where each participant performed a single set of bench press with a 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM) to a 10% decrease of mean bar velocity as a conditioning activity (CA). The BPT with a 60%1RM was performed to assess changes in peak power (PP), peak velocity (PV) before and after the CA. The differences between analyzed variables before and after the CA were verified using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (condition × time; 2 × 2). The ANOVA showed a significant main effect of time for peak bar velocity (p = 0.03; η2 = 0.312) and peak power output (p = 0.037; η2 = 0.294). The post hoc comparison showed a significant increase in post-CA peak bar velocity and peak power for raised legs condition in comparison with pre-CA value (p = 0.02, p = 0.041, respectively). The present study showed that the subsequent BPT performed with raised legs could be enhanced by the bench press with a 60% 1RM to a 10% mean bar velocity decrease as a CA among disabled sitting volleyball players. Therefore, athletes and coaches can consider performing a bench press throw with raised legs without compromising performance.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Voleibol , Adulto , Atletas , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Postura Sentada , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(6): 1559-1567, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927118

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bozzini, BN, McFadden, BA, Scruggs, SK, and Arent, SM. Evaluation of performance characteristics and internal and external training loads in female collegiate beach volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res 35(6): 1559-1567, 2021-Although women's beach volleyball is the fastest growing collegiate sport, the training demands and performance characteristics have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate internal and external training loads throughout a competitive season and to quantify the performance characteristics of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's beach volleyball players. Female beach volleyball players (N = 20) were monitored throughout the 6-week competitive season (T1-T6) using integrative global positioning systems (GPS) and heart rate (HR)-monitoring technology, which was individualized based on preseason testing, for the determination of workload metrics. In addition to team data, all variables were analyzed between travel (n = 11, regular match participation) and non-travel (n = 7) squad athletes (p < 0.05). Team performance metrics demonstrated the explosive power emphasis of the sport, with travel squad players exhibiting significantly greater vertical jump and jump velocity abilities than their non-travel counterparts (p < 0.05). Although few time main effects from T1 to T6 were observed for team workload metrics, follow-ups revealed significant time × group interactions for training load (TL), exercise energy expenditure (EEE), total distance covered, and minutes spent in HR zones (HRZ1-Z5) over the season (p < 0.05). Finally, although average workloads were greater in practices than in matches, when accounting for pre-match warm-ups, competition load was greater than practice (p < 0.05). National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's beach volleyball is a demanding, explosive power sport characterized by overall large TL and EEE, particularly in-season when athletes compete in 4 matches per weekend. The workloads observed point to the need to assess and manage training loads and fueling requirements to optimize performance and decrease injury risk.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Universidades
15.
J Biomech ; 121: 110380, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether "hang", an extended period of greatly reduced or zero vertical velocity of the head and trunk created by inter-segmental interactions, would be seen during skilled volleyball player spike jumps. METHOD: Fifteen skilled volleyball hitters (eight men and seven women, age 23.26 ± 3.22 years, height 1.86 ± 0.08 m, mass 77.53 ± 10.45 kg) performed spike jumps in two hitting conditions, flexing their knees during flight as much as possible and not flexing their knees during flight. We analyzed the effect of knee flexion on the vertical and temporal components of the trajectories of the head, trunk, legs and wrist of the hitting arm to study the existence of "hang" and its underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: With knee flexion, unlike no knee flexion, the head and trunk (HT) demonstrated "hang", characterized by a longer time of near-zero vertical velocity of the head and trunk near mid-flight (p < 0.001). Analysis of the influence of the timing and extent of knee flexion on the HT center of mass trajectory revealed significant effects (p < 0.001).Women demonstrated longer "hang" during flight than men. Athletes in this study hit the ball later in flight in the "hang" condition (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: An extended period of reduced vertical velocity of the head and trunk near mid-flight resulted from knee flexion and then extension. This additional time at the peak of the jump could be useful to adjust to ball trajectory and to decide where, when and how to hit the ball.


Assuntos
Voleibol , Adulto , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho , Masculino , Tronco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921458

RESUMO

Athletes' lifestyles have been dramatically affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system and to a lesser degree the cardiovascular system, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of COVID-19-caused detraining on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of recently recovered volleyball athletes. Sixteen experienced volleyball athletes (age 24 ± 4.5 years) who were recently diagnosed and recovered from a COVID-19 infection volunteered to participate in this study and were tested for CRF and spirometry. Given that participants had only mild symptoms of infection, the primary focus of this study was on the effects of detraining on CRF. On average, the time to exhaustion was 9.4 ± 1.4 min. VE, VCO2, RER and oxygen pulse increased, heart rate exceeded 90% of predicted values, and peak VO2 values were typical for this level of athlete (44.1 ± 3.4 mL/kg). Pulmonary function reflected in FVC, FEV1/FVC and MVV values were well above 80% of predicted values for each of the participants while electrocardiography revealed no ischemia, arrythmias or conduction and repolarization abnormalities were found in the tested subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that participants experienced typical consequences of detraining. Due to a lack of CRF data prior to COVID-19 infection, we were unable to estimate the magnitude detraining had on CRF. Complete CRF assessment after COVID-19 infection in athletes can be useful for screening of residual myocardial and/or respiratory system damage for safe return-to-play decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Voleibol , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923156

RESUMO

Elite volleyball athletes experience significant physical and psychological demands during the competitive season. The aim was to compare the dietary intake of male volleyball athletes with recommendations for sport and health, and to examine the association of physique traits and knee health on eating behaviours and of eating behaviours on reported dietary intake. Using a retrospective cross-sectional design, 22 male athletes from a national indoor volleyball program underwent anthropometric, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and resting metabolic rate testing, 4-day dietary intake and hematological analysis, and also completed the three-factor eating questionnaire-R18 for eating behaviours and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patellar tendon (VISA-P) questionnaire for knee health. Most players under-consumed energy compared to reference guidelines, secondary to under-consuming carbohydrate for exercise. The primary eating behaviour was cognitive restraint, which was associated with body mass index and ectomorphy. Emotional eating behaviour was associated with VISA-P. Differences in emotional and cognitive restraint eating behaviours did not impact dietary intake. The findings suggest that players are at risk of an impaired ability to adapt to and recover from training during an important segment of the competitive season. Future work should explore the presence of low energy availability in elite male volleyball players.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Voleibol , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Antropometria , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Sports Sci ; 39(17): 1911-1925, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781180

RESUMO

In many sports, elite players outperform novices on tests for perceptual-cognitive skills, such as anticipation, decision-making and pattern recall. However, the developmental trajectory of these perceptual-cognitive skills has received limited attention. Therefore, this study examined the development of anticipation, decision-making and pattern recall in 202 female volleyball players aged between 7 and 26 years old. Participants were categorized into six age groups: U9, U11, U13, U15, U17 and Seniors. Using a video-based occlusion protocol, we assessed participants' ability to predict pass direction, decide the most optimal attack zone, or recall the opponents' defence positions. The results demonstrated that U17 and adult players had superior accuracy and shorter response times than younger players on all three tests. Notably, U9 players performed worse than older players on all tests. Binomial distributions showed that decision-making was above chance for U17 players and adults, whereas anticipation was above chance for almost all players. Our findings indicate that age-related improvements of perceptual-cognitive skills are evident at 11 years old. However, decision-making seems to develop considerably later than anticipation and pattern recall, suggesting different developmental trajectories for the different perceptual-cognitive skills. Longitudinal research regarding the development of perceptual-cognitive skills and their underlying mechanisms is warranted, as this could have important implications for talent detection and development.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Cognição , Percepção Visual , Voleibol/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antecipação Psicológica , Atletas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(6): 1634-1641, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussions may have a neurobiological recovery period that exceeds the period of clinical recovery, and one consequence of an extended neurobiological recovery may be the risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injuries. Most literature citing an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury after a sports-related concussion has been reported in populations other than adolescent athletes. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose was to prospectively determine if incidence rates of musculoskeletal injury differ between adolescent athletes with and without a previous sports-related concussion, while controlling for sex, sport, and age. A secondary aim was to determine if this relationship differs between male and female athletes of the same sport. Our hypotheses were that acute-noncontact injury rates would be higher in athletes with a previous sports-related concussion when compared with athletes without a previous sports-related concussion, and that this relationship would exist only in female athletes and not male athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: High school soccer and volleyball players were recruited in 2 prospective cohort studies that observed 4837 athletes during their sporting season (females, 80%; soccer, 57%; mean [SD] age, 15.6 [1.1] years). At preseason, all participants self-reported demographics and previous sports-related concussion within the past 12 months. During the sport season, team athletic trainers electronically recorded athlete exposures and injury data, including injury characteristics. Injury rates per 1000 athlete exposures and injury rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All injury rates and IRRs were adjusted for sex, age, and sport. RESULTS: The rate of acute-noncontact lower extremity injury was 87% greater (IRR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.29-2.74) in participants with a previous sports-related concussion versus those without one. The acute-noncontact lower extremity injury rates (IRRs) for females and males with a previous sports-related concussion were 1.76 (95% CI, 1.19-2.59) and 2.83 (95% CI, 0.85-9.50), respectively. No difference was detected in acute-contact (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.56-1.73) or overuse (IRR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.51-2.37) lower extremity injury rates by previous sports-related concussion. CONCLUSION: Female adolescent athletes who reported a sports-related concussion within the past 12 months were more likely to sustain an acute-noncontact lower extremity injury during their high school sports season when compared with female athletes without a previous sport-related concussion.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol , Voleibol , Adolescente , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
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