Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25.965
Filtrar
1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 682-685, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030846

RESUMO

We conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in poorly controlled severe asthmatic patients treated with maximal inhaled therapy and biologics. The objective of yoga was to improve breathing consciousness, exercising controlled ventilation with and without retention, abdominal breathing observation, improvement of inspiratory and expiratory muscles, opening of the chest, diaphragm exercises and relaxation. We measured exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, asthma control and quality of life questionnaires, anxiety and depression questionnaires before and after the tenth yoga course (performed twice a week). Half of the patients who were invited to participate to the study declined due to organization problems. Two patients were excluded due to bronchitis and arthralgia respectively. The analysis of the data from 12 participants revealed significant improvement in asthma control and asthma quality of life questionnaires and a reduction of anxiety.The regular practice of yoga in severe asthmatics insufficiently controlled despite maximal inhaled treatment and biotherapy seems to be an interesting complementary option to improve asthma control. Our results must be confirmed in larger randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Asma , Produtos Biológicos , Ioga , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(5): 3447-3452, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary function of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-induced pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 137 patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia who were discharged from the Enze Hospital, Taizhou Enze Medical Center (Group) from January 31 2020 to March 11 2020 was conducted. Follow-up occurred 2 weeks after hospital discharge, during which patients underwent a pulmonary function test. RESULTS: Of the 137 patients who underwent a pulmonary function test 2 weeks after discharge, 51.8% were male, and the mean age was 47 years. Only 19.7% of the patients were identified as having severe COVID-19-induced pneumonia. The pulmonary function tests showed that for a small number of patients the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC)/% values were <70%, and the mean forced inspiratory volume (IVC) and FVC values were 2.4±0.7 and 3.2±0.8 L, respectively. In severe cases, 88.9% of patients had an IVC <80% of the predicted value, and 55.6% of patients had an FVC <80% of the predicted value. The proportion of patients with maximum expiratory flow rate at 25%, 50% and 75% of the vital capacity (MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75) values <70% were 55.6%, 40.7%, and 25.9%, respectively. In the non-severe group, 79.1% of patients had an IVC <80% of the predicted value, and 16.4% of patients had an FVC <80% of the predicted value. The mean MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75 <70% values were 57.3%, 30%, and 13.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the pulmonary function of patients with COVID-19-induced pneumonia predominantly manifested as restrictive ventilation disorder and small airway obstruction, which was increased in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória , Masculino , Fluxo Expiratório Máximo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Vital
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21945, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871941

RESUMO

An association between pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment has been reported, but studies are lacking that focus on individuals without advanced impairment in the pulmonary or cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the relationship between myocardial microdamage and reduced pulmonary function in the Japanese population without a history of cardiopulmonary disease and to assess whether oxidative stress links the 2 features.We enrolled patients undergoing an annual health check-up and measured serum high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM) to evaluate myocardial microdamage and oxidative stress. To assess pulmonary function, we calculated forced vital capacity as a percentage of predicted value, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted value, and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity. Possible associations between each parameter of pulmonary function, hs-cTnI, and d-ROM were cross-sectionally investigated.The study included 1265 participants (57 ±â€Š12 years). In multivariate regression analysis, the forced vital capacity as a percentage of predicted value was inversely associated with hs-cTnI levels after adjustment for possible confounders. In another multivariate model, all indices of pulmonary function were inversely correlated with d-ROM levels. We observed similar relationships in a multivariate regression model that included hs-cTnI and d-ROM simultaneously as independent variables. Levels of d-ROM and hs-cTnI also were significantly associated.These results highlight an inverse association of pulmonary function with hs-cTnI and d-ROM in the Japanese population without a history of cardiopulmonary disease. The findings suggest that in individuals without obvious cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, reduced pulmonary function could reflect myocardial microdamage, at least in part through increased oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estresse Oxidativo , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cardiomiopatias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 516-519, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880483

RESUMO

This paper describes the process involved in conducting an online spirometry practical through Zoom. The teacher demonstrated the practical from the medical school, and the students observed the procedure from the comfort of their own homes. Students were able to analyze the graphs captured in the teacher's laptop by remotely controlling the teacher's laptop. This method may be useful for places where face-to-face classes are suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espirometria , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Capacidade Vital
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD001912, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested the following hypotheses to investigate whether prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. leads to fewer isolates of Staphylococcus aureus; 3. causes adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 4. leads to fewer isolates of other common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 5. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies manufacturing anti-staphylococcal antibiotics were contacted. Most recent search of the Group's Register: 27 February 2020. Online trials registries were also searched. Most recent search of online trials registries: 15 September 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of continuous oral prophylactic antibiotics (given for at least one year) compared to intermittent antibiotics given 'as required', in people with cystic fibrosis of any disease severity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors assessed studies for eligibility and methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE criteria. The review's primary outcomes of interest were lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)) and the number of people with one or more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (sensitive strains). MAIN RESULTS: We included four studies, with a total of 401 randomised participants aged zero to seven years on enrolment; one study is ongoing. The two older included studies generally had a higher risk of bias across all domains, but in particular due to a lack of blinding and incomplete outcome data, than the two more recent studies. We only regarded the most recent study as being generally free of bias, although even here we were not certain of the effect of the per protocol analysis on the study results. Evidence quality was judged to be low for all outcomes assessed after being downgraded based on GRADE assessments. Downgrading decisions were due to limitations in study design (all outcomes), for imprecision and for inconsistency . Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics probably make little or no difference to lung function measured as FEV1 % predicted after six years (mean difference (MD) -2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) -13.59 to 8.99, one study, n = 119, low-quality evidence); but may reduce the number of children having one or more isolates of Staphylococcus aureus at two years (odds ratio (OR) 0.21, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35, three studies, n = 315, low-quality evidence). At the same time point, there may be little or no effect on nutrition as reported using weight z score (MD 0.06, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.45, two studies, n = 140, low-quality evidence), additional courses of antibiotics (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.60, one study, n = 119, low-quality evidence) or adverse effects (low-quality evidence). There was no difference in the number of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa between groups at two years (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.23, three studies, n = 312, low-quality evidence), though there was a trend towards a lower cumulative isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the prophylaxis group at two and three years and towards a higher rate from four to six years. As the studies reviewed lasted six years or less, conclusions cannot be drawn about the long-term effects of prophylaxis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Anti-staphylococcal antibiotic prophylaxis may lead to fewer children having isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, when commenced early in infancy and continued up to six years of age. The clinical importance of this finding is uncertain. Further research may establish whether the trend towards more children with CF with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after four to six years of prophylaxis, is a chance finding and whether choice of antibiotic or duration of treatment might influence this.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764779

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated corticosteroid administration on the neonatal intensive care unit was associated with reduced lung function at 11 to 14 years of age in children born very prematurely. The objective of this observational study was to assess if lung function remained impaired at 16 to 19 years of age in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids and whether the trajectory of lung function with increasing age differed between those who had and had not received corticosteroids. One hundred and fifty-nine children born prior to 29 weeks of gestational age had comprehensive lung function measurements; 49 had received postnatal dexamethasone. Lung function outcomes were compared between those who had and had not received postnatal dexamethasone after adjustment for neonatal factors. Forced expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, 25% and 25-75% of the expired vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow and forced vital capacity and lung volumes (total lung capacity and residual volume) were assessed. The majority of results were significantly lower in those who received dexamethasone (between 0.61 to 0.78 standard deviations). Lung function reduced as the number of courses of dexamethasone increased. Between 11 and 14 years and 16 to 19 years, lung function improved in the unexposed group, but forced expiratory flow at 75% of the expired vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second deteriorated in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids (p = 0.0006). These results suggest that prematurely born young people who received postnatal corticosteroids may be at risk of premature onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Criança , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817718

RESUMO

Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991-1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999-2003, and ECRHS III in 2010-2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protective causal effect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean ß (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21-95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36-130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Exercício Físico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1712-1719, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spirometry is the cornerstone of monitoring allograft function after lung transplantation (LT). We sought to determine the association of variables on best spirometry during the first year after bilateral LT with 3-year posttransplant survival. METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients who survived at least 3 months after bilateral LT (n = 157; age ± SD: 54 ± 13 y, male:female = 91:66). Best spirometry was calculated as the average of 2 highest measurements at least 3 weeks apart during the first year. Airway obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio <0.7. Survival was compared based on the ventilatory defect and among groups based on the best FEV1 and FVC measurements (>80%, 60%-80%, and <60% predicted). Primary outcome was 3-year survival. RESULTS: Overall, 3-year survival was 67% (n = 106). Obstructive defect was uncommon (7%) and did not have an association with 3-year survival (72% versus 67%, P = 0.7). Although one-half patients achieved an FVC>80% predicted (49%), 1 in 5 (19%) remained below 60% predicted. Irrespective of the type of ventilatory defect, survival worsened as the best FVC (% predicted) got lower (>80: 80.8%; 60-80: 63.3%; <60: 40%; P < 0.001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, transplant indication, and annual bronchoscopy findings, best FVC (% predicted) during the first year after LT was independently associated with 3-year survival. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of bilateral LT patients do not achieve FVC>80% predicted. Although the type of ventilatory defect on best spirometry does not predict survival, failure to achieve FVC>80% predicted during the first year was independently associated with 3-year mortality.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Espirometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
9.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1720-1725, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of opioid use in lung transplant candidates on posttransplant outcomes is unknown. Studies on opioid therapy in kidney and liver transplant candidates have suggested increased risk of graft failure or death. We sought to analyze the relationship between pretransplant opioid use in lung transplant candidates and retransplant-free survival. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed adult patients transplanted consecutively between November 2004 and August 2015. The exposure was any opioid use at time of transplant listing and primary outcome was retransplant-free survival, analyzed via Cox regression model adjusted for recipient age, gender, ethnicity, diagnosis, and bridging status. Secondary outcomes included duration of ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, 3-month and 1-year survival, continuing opioid use at 1 year, and time to onset of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. RESULTS: The prevalence of opioid use at time of listing was 14% (61/425). Median daily oral morphine equivalent dose was 31 mg (18-54). Recipient ethnicity was associated with pretransplant opioid use. Opioid use at time of listing did not increase risk of death or retransplantation in an adjusted model (hazard ratio 1.12 [95% confidence interval 0.65-1.83], P = 0.6570). Secondary outcomes were similar between groups except hospital length of stay (opioid users 35 versus nonusers 27 d, P = 0.014). Continued opioid use at 1-year posttransplant was common (27/56, 48%). CONCLUSIONS: Pretransplant opioid use was not associated with retransplant-free survival in our cohort and should not necessarily preclude listing. Further work stratifying opioid use by indication and the association with opioid use disorder would be worthwhile.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aloenxertos/fisiopatologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Transplante de Pulmão/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(8): 834-838, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intermittent versus daily inhalation of budesonide on pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in children with mild persistent asthma. METHODS: A total of 120 children, aged 6-14 years, with mild persistent asthma who attended the hospital from January 2016 to January 2018 were enrolled. The children were divided into an intermittent inhalation group with 60 children (inhalation of budesonide 200 µg/day for 6 weeks when symptoms of asthma appeared) and a daily inhalation group with 60 children (continuous inhalation of budesonide 200 µg/day) by stratified randomization. The children were followed up at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 of treatment. The two groups were compared in terms of baseline data, changes in FeNO and pulmonary function parameters, amount of glucocorticoid used, number of asthma attacks, and asthma control. RESULTS: At the start of treatment, there were no significant differences in baseline data, FeNO, and pulmonary function between the two groups (P>0.05). Over the time of treatment, FeNO gradually decreased and pulmonary function parameters were gradually improved in both groups (P<0.001). Compared with the intermittent inhalation group, the daily inhalation group had a better effect in reducing FeNO and increasing the predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%pred) (P<0.001). The inhalation method and treatment time had an interaction effect on FeNO and pulmonary function parameters (P<0.001). In the daily inhalation group, FeNO and lung function parameters were improved rapidly and stabilized after 3 months of treatment, while those in the intermittent inhalation group stabilized after 6 months. After 12 months of treatment, there were no significant differences in the increases in body height and body weight and the degree of disease control between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the daily inhalation group, the intermittent inhalation group had a significantly lower amount of budesonide inhaled (P<0.05) and a significantly higher number of asthma attacks (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent inhalation and daily inhalation of budesonide can achieve the same level of asthma control in children with mild persistent asthma and both have no influence on the increases in body height and body weight. Daily inhalation of budesonide can produce a better efficiency in reduing FeNO and increasing FEV1%pred. Although intermittent inhalation can reduce the amount of glucocorticoid used, it may lead to a higher risk of asthma attacks.


Assuntos
Asma , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico
12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(26): 2023-2027, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654447

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of bronchial thermoplasty (BT) in severe asthma patients with the first second forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) as a percentage of the predicted value (FEV(1)%pred) <60%. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 75 patients with asthma who were treated with BT at Shenzhen University Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from January 2016 to January 2018. The patients were divided into two groups based on the FEV(1)%pred before treatment: FEV(1)%pred <60% group (39 cases) and FEV(1)%pred ≥60% group (36 cases). Comparative analysis of glucocorticoid consumption, times of acute attack, asthma control test (ACT) score, changes in lung function, and adverse reactions at 3 weeks after treatment were performed between the two groups of patients. Results: Before BT treatment, the consumption of oral prednisone, the amount of budesonide inhaled, and the times of acute attack [M (Q(1), Q(3))] in the FEV(1)%pred <60% group were significantly greater than those in the FEV(1)%pred ≥60% group, and the ACT score was significantly lower than the FEV(1)%pred ≥60% group [10.00 (0, 20.00) vs 0(0, 3.75) mg/d, 960 (320, 960) vs 320 (320, 640) µg/d, 5(4, 8) vs 4 (4, 5) times/year, 13 (9, 15) vs 17 (13, 19) scores] (all P<0.05). Except that the oral prednisone dosage in the FEV(1)%pred<60% group was still higher 1 year after treatment [0 (0, 5.00) vs 0 (0, 0) mg/d] (P=0.009), there was no significant difference in the remaining indicators between the two groups 1 year after treatment and 2 years after treatment (all P>0.05). After 1 year and 2 years of treatment, all indicators in the two groups were better than before treatment (all P<0.05). The inhaled budesonide amount and the times of acute exacerbation in the FEV(1)%pred <60% group 2 years after treatment were less than those 1 year after treatment [320 (320, 320) vs 320 (320, 640) µg/d, 0 (0, 0) vs 0(0, 1) times/year] (all P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in the remaining indicators. In the FEV(1)%pred ≥60% group, there was no significant difference between 2 years after treatment and 1 year after treatment in the above indicators except the amount of inhaled budesonide (all P>0.05). In the FEV(1)%pred <60% group, FEV(1) and the FEV(1)%pred were significantly lower than the FEV(1)%pred ≥60% group before treatment, 1 year after treatment and 2 years after treatment [FEV(1):(1.21±0.41) vs (2.26±0.80)L, (1.84±0.73) vs (2.30±0.78)L, (1.70±0.66) vs (2.38±0.76)L; FEV(1)%pred:46.2 (38.5, 53.7)% vs 80.8(66.5, 93.6)%, 60.1 (48.2, 71.6)% vs 87.4 (68.5, 96.5)%, 58.5 (48.6, 74.8)% vs 86.6 (73.0, 97.3)%] (all P<0.05). In the FEV(1)%pred <60% group, FEV(1) and FEV(1)%pred 1 year after treatment and 2 years after treatment were all increased compared with before treatment (all P<0.05). In the FEV(1)%pred ≥60% group, there was no statistical difference in FEV(1) at each time point before and after treatment (all P>0.05), but the FEV(1)%pred at 2 years after treatment was higher than before treatment (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse events between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: BT can significantly improve the lung function, reduce the times of acute attack and the dosage of glucocorticoids in severe asthma patients with FEV(1)% pred<60%, which is safe and effective.


Assuntos
Asma , Termoplastia Brônquica , Asma/terapia , Termoplastia Brônquica/efeitos adversos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory system diseases are some of the most common pathologies worldwide. Although osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) is used predominantly to treat other pathologies, certain OMT techniques have been shown to improve patients' respiratory function. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of osteopathic techniques on breathing. METHODS: Tests were performed with the use of a spirometer and the results were expressed as Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Thirty healthy males and females between the age of 18 and 50 took part in the research. Fifteen individuals were randomly assigned to the experimental group and fifteen persons were assigned to the placebo group. The participants from the experimental group were treated with such osteopathic techniques aimed at the pulmonary system as the thoracic thrust (manipulations of vertebral joints and ribs), the sternal pump technique and stretching of the diaphragm. The placebo group was treated with soft tissue therapy (STT) techniques for the masseter muscle. RESULTS: The described set of osteopathic techniques exerts an influence on PEF in healthy individuals; however, it does not affect FVC and FEV1. CONCLUSION: Osteopathic techniques do not seem to improve lung health, as reflected in FEV1 and FVC, but they improve the respiratory function aspects reflected by PEF in the participants without any history of lung disease.


Assuntos
Manipulação Osteopática/métodos , Respiração , Adulto , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina Osteopática , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
14.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 163, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on lung function in early convalescence phase. METHODS: A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients at the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were conducted, with serial assessments including lung volumes (TLC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO),respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and high resolution CT being collected at 30 days after discharged. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients completed the serial assessments. There were 40 non-severe cases and 17 severe cases. Thirty-one patients (54.3%) had abnormal CT findings. Abnormalities were detected in the pulmonary function tests in 43 (75.4%) of the patients. Six (10.5%), 5(8.7%), 25(43.8%) 7(12.3%), and 30 (52.6%) patients had FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, TLC, and DLCO values less than 80% of predicted values, respectively. 28 (49.1%) and 13 (22.8%) patients had PImax and PEmax values less than 80% of the corresponding predicted values. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients showed higher incidence of DLCO impairment (75.6%vs42.5%, p = 0.019), higher lung total severity score (TSS) and R20, and significantly lower percentage of predicted TLC and 6MWD. No significant correlation between TSS and pulmonary function parameters was found during follow-up visit. CONCLUSION: Impaired diffusing-capacity, lower respiratory muscle strength, and lung imaging abnormalities were detected in more than half of the COVID-19 patients in early convalescence phase. Compared with non-severe cases, severe patients had a higher incidence of DLCO impairment and encountered more TLC decrease and 6MWD decline.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Convalescença , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Espirometria/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692772

RESUMO

Accurate prognosis information after a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) would facilitate earlier and better informed decisions about the use of prevention strategies and advanced care plans. We therefore aimed to develop and validate an accurate prognosis model for incident COPD cases using only information present in general practitioner (GP) records at the point of diagnosis. Incident COPD patients between 2004-2012 over the age of 35 were studied using records from 396 general practices in England. We developed a model to predict all-cause five-year mortality at the point of COPD diagnosis, using 47,964 English patients. Our model uses age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1) % predicted and 16 co-morbidities (the same number as the Charlson Co-morbidity Index). The performance of our chosen model was validated in all countries of the UK (N = 48,304). Our model performed well, and performed consistently in validation data. The validation area under the curves in each country varied between 0.783-0.809 and the calibration slopes between 0.911-1.04. Our model performed better in this context than models based on the Charlson Co-morbidity Index or Cambridge Multimorbidity Score. We have developed and validated a model that outperforms general multimorbidity scores at predicting five-year mortality after COPD diagnosis. Our model includes only data routinely collected before COPD diagnosis, allowing it to be readily translated into clinical practice, and has been made available through an online risk calculator (https://skiddle.shinyapps.io/incidentcopdsurvival/).


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599726

RESUMO

Background: Local spirometric prediction equations are of great importance for interpreting lung function results and deciding on the management strategies for respiratory patients, yet available data from African countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to collect lung function data using spirometry in healthy adults living in Maputo, Mozambique and to derive first spirometric prediction equations for this population. Methods: We applied a cross-sectional study design. Participants, who met the inclusion criteria, underwent a short interview, anthropometric measurements, and lung function testing. Different modelling approaches were followed for generating new, Mozambican, prediction equations and for comparison with the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) and South African equations. The pulmonary function performance of participants was assessed against the different reference standards. Results: A total of 212 males and females were recruited, from whom 155 usable spirometry results were obtained. The mean age of participants was 35.20 years (SD 10.99) and 93 of 155 (59.35%) were females. The predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ratio based on the Mozambican equations were lower than the South African-and the GLI-based predictions. Conclusions: This study provides first data on pulmonary function in healthy Mozambican adults and describes how they compare to GLI and South African reference values for spirometry.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Pulmão , Espirometria , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Moçambique , Valores de Referência , Capacidade Vital
17.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 1000-1012, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who are inadequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting ß2-adrenoceptor agonist (ICS-LABA) combinations might benefit from the addition of a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist. The aim of the IRIDIUM study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a once-daily, single-inhaler combination of mometasone furoate, indacaterol acetate, and glycopyrronium bromide (MF-IND-GLY) versus ICS-LABA in patients with inadequately controlled asthma. METHODS: In this 52-week, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, active-controlled phase 3 study, patients were recruited from 415 sites across 41 countries. Patients aged 18 to 75 years with symptomatic asthma despite treatment with medium-dose or high-dose ICS-LABA, at least one exacerbation in the previous year, and a percentage of predicted FEV1 of less than 80% were included. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) via interactive response technology to receive medium-dose or high-dose MF-IND-GLY (80 µg, 150 µg, 50 µg; 160 µg, 150 µg, 50 µg) or MF-IND (160 µg, 150 µg; 320 µg, 150 µg) once daily via Breezhaler, or high-dose fluticasone-salmeterol (FLU-SAL; 500 µg, 50 µg) twice daily via Diskus. The primary outcome was change from baseline in trough FEV1 with MF-IND-GLY versus MF-IND at week 26 in patients in the full analysis set, analysed by means of a mixed model for repeated measures. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02571777, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2015, and Jun 14, 2019, 3092 of 4851 patients screened were randomly assigned (medium-dose MF-IND-GLY, n=620; high-dose MF-IND-GLY, n=619; medium-dose MF-IND, n=617; high-dose MF-IND, n=618; high-dose FLU-SAL, n=618). 2747 (88·8%) patients completed the 52-week treatment and 321 (10·4%) started but discontinued study treatment prematurely. Medium-dose MF-IND-GLY (treatment difference [Δ] 76 mL [95% CI 41-111]; p<0·001) and high-dose MF-IND-GLY (Δ 65 mL [31-99]; p<0·001) showed superior improvement in trough FEV1 versus corresponding doses of MF-IND at week 26. Improvements in trough FEV1 were greater for both medium-dose MF-IND-GLY (99 mL [64-133]; p<0·001) and high-dose MF-IND-GLY (119 mL [85-154]; p<0·001) than for high-dose FLU-SAL at week 26. Overall, the incidence of adverse events was balanced across the treatment groups. Seven deaths were reported (one with medium-dose MF-IND-GLY, two with high-dose MF-IND-GLY, and four with high-dose MF-IND) during the study; none of these deaths was considered by the investigators to be caused by study drugs or other study-related factors. INTERPRETATION: Once-daily, single-inhaler MF-IND-GLY improved lung function versus ICS-LABA combinations (MF-IND and FLU-SAL) in patients with inadequately controlled asthma. The safety profile was similar across treatment groups. MF-IND-GLY therefore constitutes a good treatment option in these patients. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Glicopirrolato/administração & dosagem , Indanos/administração & dosagem , Furoato de Mometasona/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 987-999, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting ß2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA) are considered safe and efficacious in asthma management. Most available FDCs require twice-daily dosing to achieve optimum therapeutic effect. The objective of the PALLADIUM study was to assess the efficacy and safety of once-daily FDC of mometasone furoate plus indacaterol acetate (MF-IND) versus mometasone furoate (MF) monotherapy in patients with inadequately controlled asthma. METHODS: This 52-week, double-blind, triple-dummy, parallel-group, phase 3 study recruited patients from 316 centres across 24 countries. Patients aged 12 to 75 years with a documented diagnosis of asthma for at least 1 year, percentage of predicted FEV1 of 50-85%, and an Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 score of at least 1·5 despite treatment with medium-dose or high-dose ICS or low-dose ICS plus LABA were included. A history of asthma exacerbations was not a study requirement. Participants were randomily assigned (1:1:1:1:1) via interactive response technology to receive one of the following treatments for 52 weeks: high-dose MF-IND (320 µg, 150 µg) or medium-dose MF-IND (160 µg, 150 µg) once daily via Breezhaler; high-dose MF (800 µg [400 µg twice daily]) or medium-dose MF (400 µg once daily) via Twisthaler; or high-dose fluticasone propionate-salmeterol xinafoate (FLU-SAL; 500 µg, 50 µg) twice daily via Diskus. Participants received placebo via inhalation through the Breezhaler, Twisthaler, or Diskus devices in the mornings and evenings, as appropriate. The primary endpoint was improvement in trough FEV1 with high-dose and medium-dose MF-IND versus respective MF doses from baseline at 26 weeks, analysed in the full analysis set by means of a mixed model for repeated measures. High-dose MF-IND once daily was compared with high-dose FLU-SAL twice daily for non-inferiority on improving trough FEV1 at week 26 with a margin of -90 mL using mixed model for repeated measures as one of the secondary endpoints. Safety was assessed in all patients who had received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02554786, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Dec 29, 2015, and May 4, 2018, 2216 patients were randomly assigned (high-dose MF-IND, n=445; medium-dose MF-IND, n=439; high-dose MF, n=442; medium-dose MF, n=444; high-dose FLU-SAL, n=446), of which 1973 (89·0%) completed the study treatment and 234 (10·6%) prematurely discontinued study treatment. High-dose MF-IND (treatment difference [Δ] 132 mL [95% CI 88 to 176]; p<0·001) and medium-dose MF-IND (Δ 211 mL [167 to 255]; p<0·001) showed superiority in improving trough FEV1 over corresponding MF doses from baseline at week 26. High-dose MF-IND was non-inferior to high-dose FLU-SAL in improving trough FEV1 from baseline at week 26 (Δ 36 mL [-7 to 80]; p=0·101). Overall, the incidence of adverse events was similar across the treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: Once-daily FDC of ICS and LABA (MF-IND) significantly improved lung function over ICS monotherapy (MF) at week 26; high-dose MF-IND was non-inferior to twice-daily combination of ICS and LABA (high-dose FLU-SAL) for improvement in trough FEV1. The combination of MF-IND provides a novel once-daily dry powder option for asthma control. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Indanos/administração & dosagem , Furoato de Mometasona/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013268, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease. People with asthma have inflammation of their airways that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness and chest tightness, with or without a cough. Statins possess multiple therapeutic effects, including lowering lipid levels in the blood. Statins are reported to have a potential role as an adjunct treatment in asthma. However, comprehensive evidence of the benefits and harms of using statins is required to facilitate decision making. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of statins as an adjunct therapy for asthma in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for studies in the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid SP and Embase Ovid SP, from their inception dates We handsearched the proceedings of major respiratory conferences. We also searched clinical trials registries for completed, ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned the reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews to identify additional studies. The search is current to 7 February 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a parallel-group design that assessed statins for at least 12 weeks' duration. We considered all participants with a clinical diagnosis of asthma to be eligible, regardless of age, sex, disease severity and previous or current treatment. We planned to include studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only, and unpublished data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened and selected the studies, extracted outcome data and intervention characteristics from included studies, and assessed risk of bias according to standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We resolved any disagreement through discussion. MAIN RESULTS: We found only one trial involving a total of 60 people living with asthma. The trial compared the effect of atorvastatin with a placebo (dummy treatment containing lactose) in treating people with chronic asthma. The trial did not report data for the primary outcomes or adverse events. There was uncertainty about the relative effect on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the atorvastatin group compared with the placebo group. The study did not report serious adverse effects for the interventions. The included study had internal discrepancies in its reported data. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence was of very low certainty, so we are unable to draw conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of statins to treat asthma. High-quality RCTs are needed to assess the effect of statins on people with asthma. Well-designed multicentre trials with larger samples and longer duration of treatment are required, which assess outcomes such as adverse events, hospital utilisation and costs, to provide better quality evidence. Future studies that include subgroups of obese people with asthma are also required.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA