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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817718

RESUMO

Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991-1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999-2003, and ECRHS III in 2010-2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protective causal effect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean ß (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21-95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36-130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Exercício Físico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764779

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated corticosteroid administration on the neonatal intensive care unit was associated with reduced lung function at 11 to 14 years of age in children born very prematurely. The objective of this observational study was to assess if lung function remained impaired at 16 to 19 years of age in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids and whether the trajectory of lung function with increasing age differed between those who had and had not received corticosteroids. One hundred and fifty-nine children born prior to 29 weeks of gestational age had comprehensive lung function measurements; 49 had received postnatal dexamethasone. Lung function outcomes were compared between those who had and had not received postnatal dexamethasone after adjustment for neonatal factors. Forced expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, 25% and 25-75% of the expired vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow and forced vital capacity and lung volumes (total lung capacity and residual volume) were assessed. The majority of results were significantly lower in those who received dexamethasone (between 0.61 to 0.78 standard deviations). Lung function reduced as the number of courses of dexamethasone increased. Between 11 and 14 years and 16 to 19 years, lung function improved in the unexposed group, but forced expiratory flow at 75% of the expired vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second deteriorated in those who had received postnatal corticosteroids (p = 0.0006). These results suggest that prematurely born young people who received postnatal corticosteroids may be at risk of premature onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Criança , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
3.
Thorax ; 75(7): 539-546, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are four times more likely to fall than healthy peers, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Poor balance is a major risk factor for falls. This review aims to quantify the extent of balance impairment in COPD, and establish contributing clinical factors, which at present are sparse. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched, in July 2017 and updated searches were performed in March 2019, for studies comparing balance in COPD with healthy controls. Meta-analyses were conducted on sample mean differences (MD) and reported correlations between balance and clinical factors. Meta-regression was used to quantify the association between mean difference in percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and mean balance impairment. Narrative summaries were provided where data were insufficient for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included (n=2751). Meta-analysis indicated COPD patients performed worse than healthy controls on timed up and go (MD=2.77 s, 95% CI 1.46 s to 4.089 s, p=<0.005), single leg stance (MD=-11.75 s, 95% CI -15.12 s to -8.38 s, p=<0.005) and berg balance scale (MD=-6.66, 95% CI -8.95 to -4.37, p=<0.005). The pooled correlation coefficient between balance and reduced quadriceps strength was weak-moderate (r=0.37, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.45, p=<0.005). The relationship between differences in percentage predicted FEV1 and balance were negligible (r2 =<0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with healthy controls, people with COPD have a clinically meaningful balance reduction, which may be related to reduced muscle strength, physical activity and exercise capacity. Our findings support a need to expand the focus of pulmonary rehabilitation to include balance assessment and training, and further exploration of balance impairment in COPD. PROSPERO registration number CRD4201769041.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia
4.
J Bras Pneumol ; 46(3): e20190138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To generate reference values for spirometry in Brazilian children 3-12 years of age and to compare those values with the values employed in the equations currently in use in Brazil. METHODS: This study involved healthy children, 3-12 years of age, recruited from 14 centers (primary data) and spirometry results from children with the same characteristics in six databases (secondary data). Reference equations by quantile regressions were generated after log transformation of the spirometric and anthropometric data. Skin color was classified as self-reported by the participants. To determine the suitability of the results obtained, they were compared with those predicted by the equations currently in use in Brazil. RESULTS: We included 1,990 individuals from a total of 21 primary and secondary data sources. Of those, 1,059 (53%) were female. Equations for FEV1, FVC, the FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75%) and the FEF25-75%/FVC ratio were generated for white-, black-, and brown-skinned children. The logarithms for height and age, together with skin color, were the best predictors of FEV1 and FVC. The reference values obtained were significantly higher than those employed in the equations currently in use in Brazil, for predicted values, as well as for the lower limit of normality, particularly in children with self-reported black or brown skin. CONCLUSIONS: New spirometric equations were generated for Brazilian children 3-12 years of age, in the three skin-color categories defined. The equations currently in use in Brazil seem to underestimate the lung function of Brazilian children 3-12 years of age and should be replaced by the equations proposed in this study.


Assuntos
Espirometria/normas , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Espirometria/métodos
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(2): 210-218, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289231

RESUMO

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can develop not only through a lung function trajectory dominated by an accelerated decline of FEV1 from normal maximally attained FEV1 in early adulthood (normal maximally attained FEV1 trajectory) but also through a trajectory with FEV1 below normal in early adulthood (low maximally attained FEV1 trajectory).Objectives: To test whether the long-term risk of exacerbations and mortality differs between these two subtypes of COPD.Methods: The cohort included 1,170 young adults enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study during the 1970s and 1980s. In 2001-2003, which served as the baseline for the present analyses, 79 participants had developed COPD through normal maximally attained FEV1 trajectory, 65 had developed COPD through low maximally attained FEV1 trajectory, and 1,026 did not have COPD.Measurements and Main Results: From 2001 until 2018, we observed 139 severe exacerbations of COPD and 215 deaths, of which 55 were due to nonmalignant respiratory disease. In Cox models, there was no difference with regard to risk of severe exacerbations between the two trajectories, but individuals with normal maximally attained FEV1 had an increased risk of nonmalignant respiratory disease mortality (using inverse probability of censoring weighting with adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 6.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09-18.37; P = 0.001) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14-3.26; P = 0.01) compared with individuals with low maximally attained FEV1.Conclusions: COPD developed through normal maximally attained FEV1 trajectory is associated with an increased risk of respiratory and all-cause mortality compared with COPD developed through low maximally attained FEV1 trajectory.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
6.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(1): 13-17, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115457

RESUMO

Las guías ATS/ERS recomiendan utilizar valores de referencia nacionales para la interpretación de la espirometría. En 2014 se publicaron valores de referencia en población general chilena adulta, que difieren de los de Knudson actualmente en uso. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los laboratorios de función pulmonar siguen utilizando estas últimas ecuaciones. En 2012 se publicaron las ecuaciones multi-étnicas de la Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) a fin de estandarizar mundialmente la interpretación de los exámenes de función pulmonar Nuestro objetivo fue comparar la concordancia de los informes espirométricos utilizando las ecuaciones más usadas en Chile versus las GLI. Métodos: Se comparó la concordancia en interpretación del patrón espirométrico (normal, obstructivo y restrictivo) y el grado de alteración, entre GLI con Gutiérrez 2014, con Knudson, y con NHANES III según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias, a través del coeficiente de concordancia Kappa (K). Se estudiaron 315 sujetos mayores de 40 años (55% mujeres, edad: 59,3 ± 9,2 años), fumadores o ex fumadores, sanos o con EPOC, sometidos a una espirometría con broncodilatador como parte de un reconocimiento respiratorio. Se graficaron las diferencias utilizando el método de Bland-Altman. Resultados: La concordancia para patrón entre GLI con Gutiérrez 2014, con Knudson y con NHANES III fue buena (K = 0,73; 0,71 y 0,77 respectivamente), al igual que para patrón y grado de alteración (K = 0,68; 0,67 y 0,76 respectivamente). Conclusiones: Encontramos una buena concordancia entre las ecuaciones más usadas en Chile y las de GLI, en una muestra que incluyó adultos, fumadores, ex fumadores sanos y enfermos.


ATS/ERS recommend the use of national reference values for the interpretation of spirometry. Reference values were published (2014) in general adult Chilean population, which are different from those of Knudson currently in use. However, most pulmonary function laboratories continue to use these latter equations. Multi-ethnic Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) equations were published (2012) in order to standardize the interpretation of pulmonary function tests worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the agreement in the spirometric reports between the most used equations in Chile with those from GLI. Methods: We compared the agreement in the interpretation of the spirometric pattern (normal, obstructive and restrictive) and the degree of alteration between GLI with Gutiérrez 2014, with Knudson and with NHANES III according to recommendations of the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases, through the Kappa concordance coefficient (K). The sample correspond to 315 adults over 40 years of age (55% women, 59.3 ± 9.2 years-old), smokers or ex-smokers, healthy or with COPD, who underwent spirometry with a bronchodilator as part of a respiratory check-up. Differences were plotted using the Bland-Altman method. Results: agreement for pattern between GLI with Gutiérrez 2014, with Knudson and with NHANES III was good (K = 0.73, 0.71 and 0.77 respectively) and also was good for the pattern and degree of alteration (K = 0.68, 0.67 and 0.76 respectively). Conclusions: We found a good agreement between the equations most used in Chile and those from the GLI, for a sample that includes subjects with and without lung disease, smokers and ex-smokers.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Espirometria/métodos , Espirometria/normas , Pulmão/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Valores de Referência , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia
8.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Espec. Med. Trab ; 29(1): 34-41, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192281

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar la variación temporal de los valores espirométricos según la altitud geográfica de la sede laboral en un grupo de trabajadores de una minera. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal que usó los valores de espirometría tomados en varios años a trabajadores de dos sedes, una a nivel del mar y otra en gran altura de la serranía peruana. Se usó los valores del volumen espiratorio forzado al primer segundo (VEF1), la capacidad vital forzada (CVF) e índice TIffeneau (VEF1/CVF). Se analizó con modelos que permiten ajustar por el tiempo (PA-GEE), con familia Gaussian, función de enlace identity y modelos robustos, la variable tiempo fue el año de la toma de espirometría. Se encontró los valores p y signos de coeficiente en cada caso. RESULTADOS: De 1349 registros el 86% (1162) fueron varones, la mediana de las edades fue 35 años (rango intercuartílico: 22-66 años). En el análisis multivariado se encontró que hubo una variación en los valores del VEF1 y CVF, estos aumentaron en los hombres, entre los que tenían mayor estatura y en los operarios, pero disminuyeron conforme aumentaba la edad del trabajador. El índice TIffeneau únicamente disminuía según la edad del trabajador, ajustado por todas las variables mencionadas. CONCLUSIONES: Según lo analizado, el cambio en los valores espirométricos está influido por las variables socio-antropométricas y el tipo de trabajo que realizan. Esto debe ser aplicado para el seguimiento de trabajadores que estén expuestos a condiciones similares, como parte de programas de vigilancia ocupacional


OBJECTIVE: To determine the temporal variation in spirometric values according to the geographical altitude of labor location on a group of mining workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal study using spirometry values of workers taken several years at two locations, one at sea level and another at high altitude in the Peruvian highlands. The values of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and Tiffeneau index (FEV1/FVC) were used. It were analyzed with models that adjust for time (PA-GEE), with Gaussian family, identity link function and robust models, the time variable was the year of spirometry take. P value and coefficients were used in each case. RESULTS: From 1349 records, 86% (1162) were male, the median age was 35 years (interquartile range: 22-66). In multivariate analysis we found that there was a variation in the values of FEV1 and FVC, these increased in men, among those with greater stature and operators, but decreased with increasing age of the worker. The Tiffeneau index decreased only according to age of the worker, adjusted for all variables. CONCLUSIONS: According to these data, the change in spirometric values is influenced by the socio-anthropometric variables and the type of work they do. This must be applied for monitoring of employees who are exposed to similar conditions, as part of occupational surveillance programs


Assuntos
Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Altitude , Estudos Longitudinais , Espirometria , Peru
9.
Am Fam Physician ; 101(6): 362-368, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163256

RESUMO

High-quality, office-based spirometry provides diagnostic information as useful and reliable as testing performed in a pulmonary function laboratory. Spirometry may be used to monitor progression of lung disease and response to therapy. A stepwise approach to spirometry allows for ease and reliability of interpretation. Airway obstruction is suspected when there is a decreased forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio, but there is no strong evidence to clearly define what constitutes a significant decrease in this ratio. A low FVC is defined as a value below the 5th percentile in adults or less than 80% of predicted in children and adolescents five to 18 years of age. The FEV1/FVC ratio and FVC are used together to identify obstructive defects and restrictive or mixed patterns. Obstructive defects should be assessed for reversibility, as indicated by an improvement of the FEV1 or FVC by at least 12% and 0.2 L in adults, or by more than 12% in children and adolescents five to 18 years of age after the administration of a short-acting bronchodilator. FEV1 is used to determine the severity of obstructive and restrictive disease, although the values were arbitrarily determined and are not based on evidence from patient outcomes. Bronchoprovocation testing may be used if spirometry results are normal and allergen- or exercise-induced asthma is suspected. For patients with an FEV1 less than 70% of predicted, a therapeutic trial of a short-acting bronchodilator may be tried instead of bronchoprovocation testing.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Espirometria/métodos , Humanos , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(2): 140-144, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102152

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the cutoff value of FEV(1)/FVC for evaluating obstructive ventilation dysfunction in children. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-three healthy children (190 boys and 193 girls) aged 6-14 years in primary and middle school in Beijing, who were enrolled from May 2010 to June 2011, had their spirometry done with the Jaeger lung function instrument, and the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV(1)/FVC was calculated. Two hundred and thirteen asthmatic children (151 boys and 62 girls) aged 6-14 years from the outpatient Department of Allergy, Capital Institute of Pediatrics were enrolled consecutively from June to July 2018, whose clinical history and pulmonary function parameters were collected. The expected value of spirometric parameters of asthmatic children was calculated according to Zapletal prediction equations. And the LLN of FEV(1)/FVC in healthy children was used as the gold standard to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and Kappa value of FEV(1)/FVC<80% and FEV(1)/FVC< 92% predicted. Results: In healthy children, the FEV(1)/FVC and the LLN were 91%±5% and 82% respectively, while 90%±6% and 81% in boys, and 92%±5% and 84% in girls. There were 27 (12.7%) asthmatic children whose FEV(1)/FVC<80% but FEV(1)/FVC≥92% predicted (χ(2)=123.7, P<0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and Kappa value of FEV(1)/FVC<80% were 80.3%, 100%, 0.803 and 0.787 respectively when FEV(1)/FVC<80% was used as the criteria to assess lung function, while they were 57.3%, 100%, 0.573 and 0.547, respectively, when FEV(1)/FVC<92% predicted was used as criteria. Conclusions: The 80% of FEV(1)/FVC has a better consistency with the LLN of FEV(1)/FVC than 92% of FEV(1)/FVC% predicted. It is more accarate to use FEV(1)/FVC<80% as the diagnostic criteria for airway obstruction.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Capacidade Vital , Adolescente , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Pequim , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Espirometria
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(5): 461-474, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reslizumab 3 mg/kg administered intravenously is approved for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. We assessed the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous reslizumab 110 mg in two trials in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma and increased blood eosinophils. The aim was to establish whether subcutaneous reslizumab 110 mg can reduce exacerbation rates in these patients (study 1) or reduce maintenance oral corticosteroid dose in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma (study 2). METHODS: Both studies were randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies. Entry criteria for study 1 were uncontrolled severe asthma, two or more asthma exacerbations in the previous year, a blood eosinophil count of 300 cells per µL or more (including no more than 30% patients with an eosinophil count <400 cells/µL), and at least a medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids with one or more additional asthma controllers. Patients in study 2 had severe asthma, a blood eosinophil count of 300 cells per µL or more, daily maintenance oral corticosteroid (prednisone 5-40 mg, or equivalent), and high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus another controller. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to subcutaneous reslizumab (110 mg) or placebo once every 4 weeks for 52 weeks in study 1 and 24 weeks in study 2. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. Primary efficacy outcomes were frequency of exacerbations during 52 weeks in study 1 and categorised percentage reduction in daily oral corticosteroid dose from baseline to weeks 20-24 in study 2. Primary efficacy analyses were by intention to treat, and safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02452190 (study 1) and NCT02501629 (study 2). FINDINGS: Between Aug 12, 2015, and Jan 31, 2018, 468 patients in study 1 were randomly assigned to placebo (n=232) or subcutaneous reslizumab (n=236), and 177 in study 2 to placebo (n=89) or subcutaneous reslizumab (n=88). In study 1, we found no significant difference in the exacerbation rate between reslizumab and placebo in the intention-to-treat population (rate ratio 0·79, 95% CI 0·56-1·12; p=0·19). Subcutaneous reslizumab reduced exacerbation frequency compared with placebo in the subgroup of patients with blood eosinophil counts of 400 cells per µL or more (0·64, 95% CI 0·43-0·95). Greater reductions in annual exacerbation risk (p=0·0035) and longer time to first exacerbation were observed for patients with higher trough serum reslizumab concentrations. In study 2, we found no difference between placebo and fixed-dose subcutaneous reslizumab in categorised percentage reduction in daily oral corticosteroid dose (odds ratio for a lower category of oral corticosteroid use in the reslizumab group vs the placebo group, 1·23, 95% CI 0·70-2·16; p=0·47). The frequency of adverse events and serious adverse events with reslizumab were similar to those with placebo in both studies. INTERPRETATION: Fixed-dose (110 mg) subcutaneous reslizumab was not effective in reducing exacerbation frequency in patients with uncontrolled asthma and increased blood eosinophils (≥300 cells/µL), or in reducing the daily maintenance oral corticosteroid dose in patients with oral corticosteroid-dependent severe eosinophilic asthma. Higher exposures than those observed with 110 mg subcutaneous reslizumab are required to achieve maximal efficacy. FUNDING: Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R&D.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Asma/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Thorax ; 75(4): 313-320, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between weight increase and excess lung function decline in young adults followed for short periods. We aimed to estimate lung function trajectories during adulthood from 20-year weight change profiles using data from the population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). METHODS: We included 3673 participants recruited at age 20-44 years with repeated measurements of weight and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)) in three study waves (1991-93, 1999-2003, 2010-14) until they were 39-67 years of age. We classified subjects into weight change profiles according to baseline body mass index (BMI) categories and weight change over 20 years. We estimated trajectories of lung function over time as a function of weight change profiles using population-averaged generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: In individuals with normal BMI, overweight and obesity at baseline, moderate (0.25-1 kg/year) and high weight gain (>1 kg/year) during follow-up were associated with accelerated FVC and FEV1 declines. Compared with participants with baseline normal BMI and stable weight (±0.25 kg/year), obese individuals with high weight gain during follow-up had -1011 mL (95% CI -1.259 to -763) lower estimated FVC at 65 years despite similar estimated FVC levels at 25 years. Obese individuals at baseline who lost weight (<-0.25 kg/year) exhibited an attenuation of FVC and FEV1 declines. We found no association between weight change profiles and FEV1/FVC decline. CONCLUSION: Moderate and high weight gain over 20 years was associated with accelerated lung function decline, while weight loss was related to its attenuation. Control of weight gain is important for maintaining good lung function in adult life.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , União Europeia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227730, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with poor quality of life, hospitalization and mortality. COPD phenotype includes using pulmonary function tests to determine airflow obstruction from the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1):forced vital capacity. FEV1 is a commonly used value for severity but is difficult to identify in structured electronic health record (EHR) data. DATA SOURCE AND METHODS: Using the Microsoft SQL Server's full-text search feature and string functions supporting regular-expression-like operations, we developed an automated tool to extract FEV1 values from progress notes to improve ascertainment of FEV1 in EHR in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). RESULTS: The automated tool increased quantifiable FEV1 values from 12,425 to 16,274 (24% increase in numeric FEV1). Using chart review as the reference, positive predictive value of the tool was 99% (95% Confidence interval: 98.2-100.0%) for identifying quantifiable FEV1 values and a recall value of 100%, yielding an F-measure of 0.99. The tool correctly identified FEV1 measurements in 95% of cases. CONCLUSION: A SQL-based full text search of clinical notes for quantifiable FEV1 is efficient and improves the number of values available in VA data. Future work will examine how these methods can improve phenotyping of patients with COPD in the VA.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Software , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 6, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have reported the benefits of physical activity (PA) to lung function in middle-aged and older adults, the biological mechanisms are still unclear. This study aimed to assess the extent to which C-reactive protein (CRP) mediates the association between leisure-time PA and lung function. METHODS: A population-based sample was recruited from English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), Wave 6 (2012-2013). PA was self-reported by questionnaires. CRP was analyzed from peripheral blood. Lung function parameters including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured by using a spirometer. Baron and Kenny's causal steps method and multiple linear regression models based on the Karlson/Holm/Bree (KHB) method were used to assess the mediating effect. RESULTS: Among 6875 participants, 28.4% were classified into low PA, 49.8% into moderate PA, and 21.8% into high PA. Multiple linear regression models suggested that higher PA was associated with lower levels of CRP (ß = - 0.048, P = 0.002 for moderate PA; ß = - 0.108, P < 0.001 for high PA). CRP negatively correlated with FEV1 (ß = - 0.180, P < 0.001) and FVC (ß = - 0.181, P < 0.001). Higher levels of PA were associated with better FEV1 (ß = 0.085, P < 0.001 for moderate PA; ß = 0.150, P < 0.001 for high PA) and FVC (ß = 0.131, P < 0.001 for moderate PA; ß = 0.211, P < 0.001 for high PA). After introducing the CRP into the models, regression coefficients of PA with FEV1 (ß = 0.077, P < 0.001 for moderated PA; ß = 0.130, P < 0.001 for high PA) and FVC (ß = 0.123, P < 0.001 for moderated PA; ß = 0.188, P < 0.001 for high PA) decreased. The indirect effect of high PA on lung function via CRP was significant, with 9.42-12.99% of the total effect being mediated. CONCLUSIONS: The association between PA and lung function is mediated by CRP, suggesting that this association may be partially explained by an inflammation-related biological mechanism. This finding highlights the possible importance of PA in systemic inflammation and lung function, thus, middle-aged and older adults should be encouraged to enhance PA levels.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Autorrelato
15.
Thorax ; 75(2): 116-122, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractal dimension (D) characterises the size distribution of low attenuation clusters on CT and assesses the spatial heterogeneity of emphysema that per cent low attenuation volume (%LAV) cannot detect. This study tested the hypothesis that %LAV and D have different roles in predicting decline in FEV1, exacerbation and mortality in patients with COPD. METHODS: Chest inspiratory CT scans in the baseline and longitudinal follow-up records for FEV1, exacerbation and mortality prospectively collected over 10 years in the Hokkaido COPD Cohort Study were examined (n=96). The associations between CT measures and long-term outcomes were replicated in the Kyoto University cohort (n=130). RESULTS: In the Hokkaido COPD cohort, higher %LAV, but not D, was associated with a greater decline in FEV1 and 10-year mortality, whereas lower D, but not %LAV, was associated with shorter time to first exacerbation. Multivariable analysis for the Kyoto University cohort confirmed that lower D at baseline was independently associated with shorter time to first exacerbation and that higher LAV% was independently associated with increased mortality after adjusting for age, height, weight, FEV1 and smoking status. CONCLUSION: These well-established cohorts clarify the different prognostic roles of %LAV and D, whereby lower D is associated with a higher risk of exacerbation and higher %LAV is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and long-term mortality. Combination of %LAV and fractal D may identify COPD subgroups at high risk of a poor clinical outcome more sensitively.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Fractais , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Japão , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(5): 1496-1501, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The largest randomised controlled trial evaluating results of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was conducted by the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) that published a series of reports for outcomes up to 24 months. However, patient outcomes were difficult to interpret due to limitations in and the presentation of conventional statistical analyses applied to longitudinal data. We reevaluated the NETT results using longitudinal data methodology to report longer-term outcomes to facilitate interpretation by clinicians and patients who are considering LVRS for emphysema management. METHODS: Trial data were released by the United States National Institutes of Health and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and analyzed using a mixed-effects model. Data on the difference in lung function variables between patients receiving LVRS vs medical care out to 5 years were estimated and are presented. RESULTS: The 5-year differences in patients randomised to LVRS were a small but sustained improvement in lung function indicators of forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and residual volume of +1.4% (P < .001), +3.44% (P < .001) and -19.49% (P < .001) of the predicted values, respectively. With regards to physiological function, the 5-year difference in patients randomised to LVRS was an overall 0.89 W improvement in maximum workload (P = .069), -4.12 improvement in shortness of breath score (P < .001), and 0.088 improvement in quality of well-being score (P = .102). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LVRS continues to have an important role in the treatment of patients with severe emphysema, with long-term benefits to lung function variables and a sustained improvement to the relief of dyspnea.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Enfisema Pulmonar/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pulmão/cirurgia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pediatrics ; 145(2)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much remains unknown about the consequences of very low birth weight (VLBW) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on adult lungs. We hypothesized that VLBW adults would have impaired lung function compared with controls, and those with a history of BPD would have worse lung function than those without. METHODS: At age 26 to 30 years, 226 VLBW survivors of the New Zealand VLBW cohort and 100 term controls born in 1986 underwent lung function tests including spirometry, plethysmographic lung volumes, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and single-breath nitrogen washout (SBN2). RESULTS: An obstructive spirometry pattern was identified in 35% VLBW subjects versus 14% controls, with the majority showing mild obstruction. Compared with controls, VLBW survivors demonstrated significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (FEV1/FVC), forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of FVC and higher residual volume (RV), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio (RV/TLC), decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and increased phase III slope for SBN2. The differences persisted after adjustment for sex and smoking status. Within the VLBW group, subjects with BPD showed significant reduction in FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of FVC, and increase in RV, RV/TLC, and phase III slope for SBN2, versus subjects without. The differences remained after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Adult VLBW survivors showed a higher incidence of airflow obstruction, gas trapping, reduced gas exchange, and increased ventilatory inhomogeneity versus controls. The findings suggest pulmonary effects due to VLBW persist into adulthood, and BPD is a further insult on small airway function.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar/fisiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Sobreviventes , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
18.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 26, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that acute decreases in lung hyperinflation at rest improves cardiac function and increases lung vascular perfusion from decompression of a compromised heart. In those studies, changes in resting oxygen uptake induced by medications, an alternative explanation for compensatory increased cardiac function, were not explored. METHODS: This double-blind, multicenter, double-crossover study enrolled adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, resting hyperinflation, and > 10% improvement in inspiratory capacity after 2 inhalations of budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 µg. Metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory function were measured 60 min pre-/post-dose at each visit. Primary endpoint was change in resting oxygen uptake for budesonide/formoterol versus placebo. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (median age: 63 years) received treatment. Compared with placebo, budesonide/formoterol significantly increased resting oxygen uptake (mean change from baseline: 1.25 vs 11.37 mL/min; P = 0.007) as well as tidal volume and minute ventilation. This occurred despite improvements in the inspiratory capacity, forced vital capacity, and expiratory volume in 1 s. No significant treatment differences were seen for oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and resting dyspnea. There was a numerical increase in oxygen pulse (oxygen uptake/heart rate). Correlations between inspiratory capacity and oxygen pulse were weak. CONCLUSIONS: Budesonide/formoterol treatment in resting hyperinflated patients with COPD results in significant deflation. The increase in oxygen uptake and minute ventilation at lower lung volumes, without changes in heart rate and with minimal improvement in oxygen pulse, suggests increased oxygen demand as a contributor to increased cardiac function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02533505.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Capacidade Inspiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur Radiol ; 30(5): 2502-2512, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by variable contributions of emphysema and airway disease on computed tomography (CT), and still little is known on their temporal evolution. We hypothesized that quantitative CT (QCT) is able to detect short-time changes in a cohort of patients with very severe COPD. METHODS: Two paired in- and expiratory CT each from 70 patients with avg. GOLD stage of 3.6 (mean age = 66 ± 7.5, mean FEV1/FVC = 35.28 ± 7.75) were taken 3 months apart and analyzed by fully automatic software computing emphysema (emphysema index (EI), mean lung density (MLD)), air-trapping (ratio expiration to inspiration of mean lung attenuation (E/I MLA), relative volume change between - 856 HU and - 950 HU (RVC856-950)), and parametric response mapping (PRM) parameters for each lobe separately and the whole lung. Airway metrics measured were wall thickness (WT) and lumen area (LA) for each airway generation and the whole lung. RESULTS: The average of the emphysema parameters (EI, MLD) increased significantly by 1.5% (p < 0.001) for the whole lung, whereas air-trapping parameters (E/I MLA, RVC856-950) were stable. PRMEmph increased from 34.3 to 35.7% (p < 0.001), whereas PRMNormal decrased from 23.6% to 22.8% (p = 0.012). WT decreased significantly from 1.17 ± 0.18 to 1.14 ± 0.19 mm (p = 0.036) and LA increased significantly from 25.08 ± 4.49 to 25.84 ± 4.87 mm2 (p = 0.041) for the whole lung. The generation-based analysis showed heterogeneous results. CONCLUSION: QCT detects short-time progression of emphysema in severe COPD. The changes were partly different among lung lobes and airway generations, indicating that QCT is useful to address the heterogeneity of COPD progression. KEY POINTS: • QCT detects short-time progression of emphysema in severe COPD in a 3-month period. • QCT is able to quantify even slight parenchymal changes, which were not detected by spirometry. • QCT is able to address the heterogeneity of COPD, revealing inconsistent changes individual lung lobes and airway generations.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espirometria , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(4): 414-422, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644879

RESUMO

Rationale: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), increased activity of neck inspiratory muscles has been reported as a compensatory response to hyperinflation-related diaphragmatic dysfunction. The persistence of this activity during sleep could attenuate sleep-related hypoventilation and also negatively impact sleep and clinical outcomes.Objectives: To assess the persistence of neck-muscle activity during sleep in patients with COPD recovering from severe exacerbations (i.e., requiring hospitalization) and its impact on sleep quality and recurrence of exacerbations.Methods: Video polysomnography with neck-muscle EMG was performed in patients with COPD who were recovering from a severe exacerbation. The follow-up period lasted 6 months to record the next severe exacerbation.Measurements and Main Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study (median [25th-75th percentile] age, 71 [64-72] yr; 55% male; body mass index, 24 [21-29]; FEV1% predicted, 37 [29-45]; and BODE [body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise] index, 6 [5-7]). Twenty-six of these patients exhibited sleep-related neck-muscle activity, which was intermittent (limited to stage 3 sleep) in 17 and permanent throughout sleep in 9. α-Delta EEG activity during stage 3 sleep was observed in 87% of the patients. Compared with patients with no or intermittent neck-muscle activity, those with permanent neck-muscle activity showed more disrupted sleep, had experienced more exacerbations in the previous year, and suffered their next severe exacerbation earlier.Conclusions: Sleep-related neck-muscle activity occurs frequently in patients with COPD who are recovering from a severe exacerbation and seems to negatively affect sleep quality and prognosis; therefore, identification of this activity might improve COPD management after a severe exacerbation.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Inalação/fisiologia , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
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