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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17066, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490404

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence and clinical importance of soft-tissue disorders, objective methods for evaluation of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues are lacking. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate stiffness, an important biomechanical characteristic of soft tissue, using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography. The shear wave velocity (SWV, m/s) values of soft tissue structures within the carpal tunnel (CT) were measured in various combinations of wrist and finger positions.Twenty-six healthy adults were enrolled in this study. We measured the cross-sectional area of the median nerve (MN) and the SWV values of several structures within the CT at the CT inlet level. Measurement of SWV of the MN, flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and transverse carpal ligament (TCL) were conducted in six wrist/finger motion combinations.When the wrist and fingers were in neutral positions (position A), the mean SWV was lowest for the MN (mean ±â€Šstandard deviation, 2.3 ±â€Š0.5 m/s), followed by the FDS (2.9 ±â€Š0.2), FDP (3.2 ±â€Š0.3), and TCL (3.3 ±â€Š0.4). The SWV was significantly different among the six different wrist/finger positions for all structures (P < .001). However, the MN cross-sectional area was not significantly different (P = .527). The SWV values for the MN, FDS, and FDP increased significantly as the wrist/finger positions the stress on the tendons increased (from position B to F) compared with a neutral position, while the SWV of the TCL was significantly higher for in all positions compared with neutral, except for wrist neutral, finger extension. The SWV values for the MN, FDS, and TCL gradually increased as stress increased.The intra-CT structures are under increased stress during wrist and finger motions than when the hand is in a neutral position. We have used ARFI elastography to gain insight into the pathophysiology of CTS.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Nervo Mediano/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(3): 030702, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379460

RESUMO

Introduction: Measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential in the investigation and management of calcium metabolism disorders. To assess the significance of any assay result when clinical decision making biological variation (BV) of the measurand must be taken into consideration. The aim of the present study is determining the BV parameters for serum PTH. Materials and methods: Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals from 20 healthy subjects for ten weeks in this prospective BV study. Serum "intact PTH" concentrations were measured with electrochemiluminescence method. Biological variation parameters were estimated using the approach proposed by Fraser. Results: The values of within-subject biological variation (CVI), between-subject biological variation (CVG), analytical variation (CVA), reference change value (RCV) and individuality index (II) for serum PTH were 21.1%, 24.9%, 3.8%, 59.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Within-subject biological variation and CVG were also determined according to gender separately; 18.5% and 24.0%; 26.2% and 18.6% for male and female, respectively. Calculated desirable precision and bias goals were < 10.6% and < 6.3%, respectively. Conclusion: This study may contribute to BV data on serum PTH as it includes a sufficient number of volunteers from both genders over an acceptable period of time. We do not recommend the usage of population-based reference intervals for serum PTH concentrations. Reference change value may be helpful for the evaluation of serial serum PTH results. Nonetheless, evaluation of data according to gender is necessary when setting analytical performance specifications.


Assuntos
Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262108

RESUMO

Objective: To introduce the method of galvanic vestibular stimulation-vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (GVS-VEMP) as well as to observe and analyze the parameters and elicited rate of GVS-cVEMP and GVS-oVEMP in healthy young people in China. Methods: Twenty six normal young subjects were recruited for conventional examinations of GVS-VEMP. The subjects were 21-37 years old, average age was (25.8±3.7) years old, including 13 males and 13 females. The galvanic stimulation intensity of 3 mA/1 ms was used to evoke cVEMP and oVEMP on the sternocleidomastoid and inferior extraocular muscles respectively, and the intensity of stimulus was decreased until the response disappeared, the threshold, latency, amplitude, interval phase and interaural amplitude ratio(IAR) were calculated. SPSS18.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: All subjects were elicited normal GVS-cVEMP and GVS-oVEMP under 3 mA/1 ms, the elicited rate was 100%. The threshold of GVS-cVEMP was (1.18±0.47) mA, p1 latency was (10.43±1.54) ms, n1 latency was (17.91±1.20) ms, the amplitude was (102.47±56.77) uV and IAR was (0.26±0.20). The threshold of GVS-oVEMP was (1.12±0.50) mA, n1 latency was (8.46±1.05) ms, p1 latency was (11.83±1.27) ms, the amplitude was (9.12±6.82) uV and IAR was (0.25±0.20). In terms of gender and lateral comparison, only the GVS-oVEMP amplitude was higher for male than for female, which had significant statistical difference (P<0.05), and there was no statistical difference in the other parameters between GVS-cVEMP and GVS-oVEMP. Conclusion: GVS-cVEMP and GVS-oVEMP could be elicited in healthy youth population, and the parameters could provide reference for subsequent vestibular function evaluation.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Miogênicos Vestibulares/fisiologia , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(25): 1981-1984, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269605

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate serum status of folate, vitamin B(12), homocysteine (Hcy) and hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and their trends in different gender and age groups. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The enrolled subjects were those received medical examination in Beijing Hospital from September to November 2018 and were identified as appeared healthy persons. 1220 subjects were recruited and were divided into groups of young and middle age group (30-49 years, 50-59 years) and the elderly group (60-69 years, 70-79 years and ≥80 years). We measured folate, vitamin B(12), and 25OHD using electrochemiluminescence by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Hcy was measured by autobiochemical analyzer. Results: Total folate levels in male and female subjects were 7.16 (4.74-10.75) and 9.17 (6.49-13.55) µg/L respectively. Total vitamin B(12) levels in the male and female were 505.60 (386.80-700.90) and 582.60 (430.70-846.98) ng/L respectively. Hcy levels were 14.68 (12.25-18.58) and 11.29 (9.65-13.58) µmol/L. 25OHD levels were 21.60 (16.40-28.70) and 16.80 (12.30-24.15) µg/L respectively. Total folate and vitamin B(12) levels in female were higher than that in male subjects (Z=-7.796, -4.772, P<0.001). However, total Hcy and 25OHD levels in male were higher than that in female subjects (Z=-15.230, -8.447, P<0.001). Comparing with the substances in the above age groups, folate level in the elderly was lower than that in the younger age and middle age groups.However, vitamin B(12), 25OHD and Hcy levels were higher in the elderly groups. Furthermore, the levels of folate, vitamin B(12) and 25OHD were getting higher in the group of ≥80 years female compared with the rest of the age groups, but it turned lower in the male group of ≥80 years. Conclusions: There are some differences in the serum values of folate, vitamin B(12), Hcy and 25OHD among various age groups as well as between males and females. These should be considered in the development of national reference ranges.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Voluntários Saudáveis , Homocisteína , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina B 12 , Vitaminas
8.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(9): 1981-1988, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vision of the elderly may be affected by typical age-related diseases like cataract and macular degeneration. Little is known about the effect of aging on visual difficulties and vision-related quality of life. This study was conducted to compare the ophthalmological health status of younger and older individuals within a large cohort study of residents of a greater metropolitan area (Berlin Aging Study II [BASE-II]). METHODS: A total of 1655 participants (805 men) aged 60 years and older and 494 participants (232 men) aged between 22 and 48 years from the Berlin Aging Study II were included in the analysis. The subjects were examined during a 2-day clinical examination period. History of ocular diseases, vision-related quality of life using the visual function questionnaire (VFQ- 25), refraction, distance and near visual acuity, tonometry, and color vision were provided. RESULTS: Older subjects performed significantly worse concerning distance and near visual acuity, color vision, and vision-related quality of life compared to young subjects. Intraocular pressure showed no significant difference between groups. Individuals are often unaware of existing eye diseases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ocular diseases and the impairment of vision increases with age. Although 98% of elderly subjects have reported to suffer from any ocular disease, subjective quality of life seems to be affected to a lesser extent.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , População Urbana , Acuidade Visual , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Berlim/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 82(2): 285-290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been implicated in the development of infectious complications of acute pancreatitis. Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization DomainContaining Protein 2 (NOD2) plays an important role in the proper functioning of intestinal defense mechanisms. Here, we investigated the frequency of NOD2 variants in patients with mild and severe acute pancreatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Groups 1, 2 and 3 comprised healthy participants and patients with mild and severe pancreatitis, respectively. Four NOD2 variants and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-a (TNF-a) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Three patients (3/32, 9.4%) in the severe pancreatitis group were positive for the p.R702W variant. This variant was negative in other groups. One, three and three patients in the healthy (1/27, 3.7%), mild (3/36, 8.3%) and severe pancreatitis (3/32, 9.4%) groups tested positive for the 1007fs variant, respectively. No significant differences in the frequencies of NOD2 variants were evident among the groups. Serum IL-6, TNF-a and LBP levels were markedly higher in the severe pancreatitis than the healthy and mild pancreatitis groups (all p<0.001). We observed no significant correlation between cytokine levels and NOD2 variants. CONCLUSION: Our results support an association between the presence of the p.R702W variant and severe pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/metabolismo , Pancreatite/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Doença Aguda , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Intestinos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 142, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This comparative study aimed to demonstrate the differences between swept source OCT (SS-OCT) (1310 nm) and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) (840 nm) for the identification and measurement of anterior chamber angle (ACA) structures. METHODS: Sixty seven eyes from 67 healthy subjects underwent ACA imaging at the nasal and temporal sides using SS-OCT and SD-OCT with different wavelength (Tomey, 1310 nm and RTvue, 840 nm). Images were evaluated for the ability to distinguish angle structures including the Schwalbe's line (SL), the Schlemm's canal (SC) and the scleral spur (SS). The length of trabecular meshwork (LTM), the angle-opening distance (AOD500 and AOD750) and the length of Schlemm's canal (LSC) were also measured. RESULTS: The nasal identification rate for SL, SC and SS were 91.04%/89.55%, 50.75%/40.30% and 100.0%/74.63% (SS-OCT/SD-OCT), respectively. The temporal identification rate for SL, SC and SS were 86.57%/91.04%, 68.66%/70.15% and 100.0%/65.67% (SS-OCT/SD-OCT), respectively. Differences between SS-OCT and SD-OCT were found in terms of the visualization of the SS. With respect to the measurements of angle, the evaluation of LTM at the nasal side, LSC at the temporal side and AOD500/750 at both sides showed significant difference between the two devices. However, there existed good correlation between the AOD500/750 measured by SS-OCT and SD-OCT (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient > 0.8, p < 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: SS-OCT displayed a better performance in detecting deeper structures of the angle such as the SS. However, for discriminating structures lying in transparent or semi-transparent tissue such as the SL and the SC, the two devices showed good consistency. Although SS-OCT and SD-OCT demonstrated high correlation for angle measurement (AOD500/750), their agreement was poor.


Assuntos
Segmento Anterior do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/epidemiologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/fisiopatologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Gonioscopia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Malha Trabecular/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(27): 2119-2123, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315383

RESUMO

Objective: An electrophysiological technique was established to determine Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX), and to investigate the stability of MUNIX. Methods: Fifty healthy subjects (25 males and 25 females) from the Outpatient Service of Peking University Third Hospital between December 2017 and September 2018 were included and divided into 5 groups according to age. The relevant parameters were detected in bilateral deltoid muscle (axillary nerve), double little finger abductor muscle (ulnar nerve), double quadriceps muscle (femoral nerve), double tibialis anterior muscle (peroneal nerve). The same muscle and the same healthy subjects were tested again three months later. Three-step detection were conducted: first, the surface electrode was attached to the muscle belly of each muscle, and the reference electrode was placed 2-3 cm away from the muscle belly. At the same time, the maximum compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of corresponding nerve was obtained, and the negative peak amplitude was measured. The second step was to collect the interference phase of the surface electromyography (SIP). There were 10 levels in total. And the measurement was repeated for three times, and the whole interference phase range was measured in the end. In the third step, the negative peak amplitude and SIP value of CMAP were substituted into the Excel table, and the MUNIX and motor unit number size (MUSIX) values were automatically calculated by the instrument through mathematical functions. Results: The mean MUNIX values of deltoid, extensor little finger, quadriceps femoris and tibial anterior were 193.2, 189.0, 159.7, 147.2, MUSIX were 46.9, 54.3, 49.6, 48.1 µV, respectively. The detection rates of MUNIX and MUSIX in the four muscles were 100%, respectively. With the increase of age, it could be seen that MUNIX declined, with statistically significant difference (P<0.05), but there was no significant change in MUSIX. There was no statistically significant difference in MUNIX and MUSIX between different gender, lateral sides and baseline and 3-month's reexamination results (P>0.05). Conclusions: MUNIX technology can improve the motor unit count of proximal upper limb and lower limb muscles. Its parameters are monitored using a mathematical model based on the composite muscle action potential and the interference phase of surface electromyography. Result is stable and reliable.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores , Músculo Esquelético , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Fibular
12.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(7): 508-513, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269567

RESUMO

Objective: Proteus syndrome is a rare disease. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and gene mutations of Proteus syndrome with a case report and relevant literature review. Methods: Clinical data of the patient with Proteus syndrome were collected in detail and biochemical measurements and radiological examinations were conducted. Tissues from phalanges with lesions were obtained to extract DNA, and Sanger sequencing of AKT1 gene was carried on. The pathogenic mutation was further tested in peripheral blood samples of the patient, his parents and 250 healthy volunteers. Orthopaedic surgery was performed on the affected limbs of the patient. Results: The patient was presented with progressive overgrowth of the right extremity, scoliosis, cerebral connective tissue nevus and lower extremity venous. A heterozygous mutation of AKT1 gene (c. 49G>A) was identified in DNA extracted from the affected bone tissue of the patient, but not be found in genomic DNA of peripheral blood samples from the patient, his parents and 250 healthy volunteers. Movement function of the affected limb improved significantly after the operations. Conclusions: The prominent features of Proteus syndrome are overgrowth of one extremity and cerebral connective tissue nevus. A mosaic somatic mutation of AKT1 gene is one of the pathogenic mutations for Proteus syndrome, and orthopedic surgery may be a good way to improve symptoms of the disease.


Assuntos
Nevo , Síndrome de Proteu/diagnóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Mutação , Síndrome de Proteu/genética , Radiografia
13.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190109, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) make up the largest group of potentially treatable myopathies and require early diagnosis. This study investigates whether the edema of thigh muscles in DM/PM can be quantitatively assessed by a novel accelerated T2 mapping technique-GRAPPATINI. METHODS: Three conventional MR sequences and GRAPPATINI accelerated T2 mapping of bilateral thighs from 20 patients (7 DM and 13 PM) and 10 healthy volunteers were prospectively carried out on a 3 T MR scanner. Afterwards, T2 values of 477 thigh muscles from the patients and the healthy controls were manually measured. In addition, the correlations between T2 values and serum muscle enzymes in patients were also analyzed. RESULTS: The new GRAPPATINI technique made quantitative T2 mapping of bilateral thighs feasible with a scanning time of only 2 min 18 s. Moreover, GRAPPATINI-generated T2 values of muscles from patients were markedly higher than those from healthy subjects (p < 0.001). GRAPPATINI accelerated T2 mapping appeared a more sensitive technique in that some DM/PM muscles appearing normal per conventional MRI had increased T2 relaxation time. Furthermore, GRAPPATINI-generated T2 values of DM/PM thigh muscles positively correlated with serum enzyme levels (p < 0.001), which reflected the severity of myopathy. CONCLUSION: GRAPPATINI can significantly shorten acquisition time of T2 mapping and may potentially be applied clinically in DM and PM. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: GRAPPATINI acceleration makes T2 mapping feasible in clinical practice in providing quantitative information regarding thigh muscle inflammation in DM and PM.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Polimiosite/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) assessment is essential for accurate quantification of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and usually requires the use of a difference image method using duplicate images. We aimed to estimate the SNR of DTI of thigh muscles using a single image set without duplicate images. METHODS: DTI of one thigh were acquired on a 3 T scanner from 15 healthy adults, and scans with number of signal averages (NSA) = 4 and 8 were repeatedly acquired. SNR were evaluated for six thigh muscles. For SNR calculation from a single image set, diffusion-weighted images with similar diffusion encoding directions were grouped into pairs. The difference image of each pair was high-pass filtered in k-space to yield noise images. Noise images were also calculated with a difference method using two image sets as a reference. Subjects were divided into two groups for filter optimization and validation, respectively. The coefficient of repeatability (CR) of the SNR obtained from the two methods was also evaluated separately. RESULTS: Bland-Altman analysis comparing the single image set method and the reference showed 95% limits of agreement of -9.2 to 9.2% for the optimization group and -12.5 to 12.6% for the validation group. The SNR measurement had a CR of 21.1% using the reference method, and 13.8% using the single image set method. CONCLUSION: The single image method can be used for DTI SNR assessment and offers better repeatability. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: SNR of skeletal muscle DTI can be assessed for any data set without duplicate images.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Adulto , Anisotropia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 261: 156-161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156108

RESUMO

In this work we exploited an algorithm, already present in the literature, and based on the notion of signal permutation entropy, to analyze a very long time series of sleep data from a single subject. The aim of the work is to explore methods for personalizing alerts related to sleep anomalies, and recommendations for improving sleep quality. As a matter of fact, sleep duration and sleep quality may differently affect daily performance of different people, as well as daily activities may differently affect sleeping during the night. Data have been collected from a Fitbit Alta HR activity tracker worn by the subject for about three years. Results show that personalized inferences may be very different from the generic (population-based) ones, and that correlations found may suggest subject-specific life-style modifications useful to improve sleep quality.


Assuntos
Monitores de Aptidão Física , Sono , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Entropia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192767

RESUMO

Food is an important source of human aluminium (Al) exposure and regular consumption of foods containing Al-based food additives may result in high Al intakes above health-based tolerable intakes. However, some additives are Al salts with low solubility, and little is known about bioavailability of Al in these additives. We investigated urine Al concentrations in healthy adult volunteers (N = 18, women/men) before (base-line) and after 7 days of ingestion of pancakes with a low Al content (median: <0.5 mg Al/kg) and high Al content (median: 860 mg/kg). The high-Al pancakes contained the common additive sodium aluminium phosphate (SALP). The participants did not know if the pancakes contained SALP or not during the experiment. After adjusting for creatinine content of the urine samples, median base-line Al concentrations before pancake ingestion were in the range 30-40 µmol Al/mol creatinine. Urine Al concentrations after ingestion of low-Al pancakes (average intake: <0.042 Al mg/day) did not differ significantly from the base-line levels. After ingestion of high-Al pancakes (72 mg Al/day) the median Al concentration in urine was more than 2-fold higher than at the base-line sampling before the high-Al pancake ingestion. At the end of the experiment the volunteers ingested an Al-containing antacid (Al-OH, 1800 mg Al/day) for 7 days as a positive control of Al absorption. This caused a 10-fold increase in median urine Al concentration compared to base-line. Our results strongly suggest that Al in the form of SALP in a pancake mix is bioavailable for absorption in humans, which should be taken into account in risk assessment of Al in food in countries with a high use of SALP as a food additive.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/metabolismo , Alumínio/urina , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio/metabolismo , Adulto , Compostos de Alumínio/urina , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatos/urina , Compostos de Sódio/urina
17.
J Music Ther ; 56(3): 240-264, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175814

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Music therapy (MT) has been shown to modulate heart-rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress markers, physiological markers of the ANS and HPA axes, respectively. Given the prominent role of arousal and stress physiology in many psychiatric disorders, MT has the potential to provide therapeutic benefits in psychiatry. Active MT requires patients to engage rhythmically with music; in contrast, passive MT requires patients to listen to music, eliminating the rhythmic movement seen in active MT. Yet, it remains unknown whether active or passive MT differentially modulates arousal and stress physiology. We contrasted the effects of active and passive MT experiences to examine the differential impact of rhythmic movement on the ANS and HPA axes in healthy participants. Individuals (N = 16) participated in a crossover study of 40 min of an active MT and a passive MT intervention. HRV recordings and saliva samples were collected both before and after each intervention. The high-frequency component (HF) and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency components (LF/HF) were calculated as cardiac markers of parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS activation, respectively. Saliva samples were analyzed for alpha-amylase and cortisol, markers of the sympathetic ANS and HPA axes, respectively. Active MT and passive MT interventions differentially modulated LF/HF, where active MT decreased LF/HF and passive MT increased LF/HF. These results indicate that MT affects the ANS and suggests that differences in engagement between active MT and passive MT lead to a differential modulation of the sympathetic ANS.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Musicoterapia , Saliva/química , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , alfa-Amilases/análise , Estimulação Acústica , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Adulto Jovem
18.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(8): 1765-1770, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our aim is to develop a new generation of suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS) retinal prosthesis using a dual-stimulating electrode array to enlarge the visual field. In the present study, we aimed to examine how position and size of the visual field-created by a retinal prosthesis simulator-influenced mobility. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects wore retinal prosthesis simulators. Images captured by a web camera attached to a head-mounted display (HMD) were processed by a computer and displayed on the HMD. Three types of artificial visual fields-designed to imitate phosphenes-obtained by a single (5 × 5 electrodes; visual angle, 15°) or dual (5 × 5 electrodes ×2; visual angle, 30°) electrode array were created. Visual field (VF)1 is an inferior visual field, which corresponds to a dual-electrode array implanted in the superior hemisphere. VF2 is a superior visual field, which corresponds to a single-electrode array implanted in the inferior hemisphere. VF3 is a superior visual field, which corresponds to a dual-electrode array implanted in the inferior hemisphere. In each type of artificial visual field, a natural circular visual field (visual angle, 5°) which imitated the vision of patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa existed at the center. Subjects were instructed to walk along a black carpet (6 m long × 2.2 m wide) without stepping on attached white circular obstacles. Each obstacle was 20 cm in diameter, and obstacles were installed at 40-cm intervals. We measured the number of footsteps on the obstacles, the time taken to complete the obstacle course, and the extent of head movement to scan the area (head-scanning). We then compared the results recorded from these 3 types of artificial visual field. RESULTS: The number of footsteps on obstacles was lowest in VF3 (One-way ANOVA; P = 0.028, Fisher's LSD; VF 1 versus 3 P = 0.039, 2 versus 3 P = 0.012). No significant difference was observed for the time to complete the obstacle course or the extent of head movement between the 3 visual fields. CONCLUSION: The superior and wide visual field (VF3) obtained by the retinal prosthesis simulator resulted in better mobility performance than the other visual fields.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Próteses Visuais , Adulto , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Microeletrodos , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/terapia , Acuidade Visual
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(2): 206-218, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burst suppression occurs in the EEG during coma and under general anaesthesia. It has been assumed that burst suppression represents a deeper state of anaesthesia from which it is more difficult to recover. This has not been directly demonstrated, however. Here, we test this hypothesis directly by assessing relationships between EEG suppression in human volunteers and recovery of consciousness. METHODS: We recorded the EEG of 27 healthy humans (nine women/18 men) anaesthetised with isoflurane 1.3 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for 3 h. Periods of EEG suppression and non-suppression were separated using principal component analysis of the spectrogram. After emergence, participants completed the digit symbol substitution test and the psychomotor vigilance test. RESULTS: Volunteers demonstrated marked variability in multiple features of the suppressed EEG. In order to test the hypothesis that, for an individual subject, inclusion of features of suppression would improve accuracy of a model built to predict time of emergence, two types of models were constructed: one with a suppression-related feature included and one without. Contrary to our hypothesis, Akaike information criterion demonstrated that the addition of a suppression-related feature did not improve the ability of the model to predict time to emergence. Furthermore, the amounts of EEG suppression and decrements in cognitive task performance relative to pre-anaesthesia baseline were not significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that, in contrast to current assumptions, EEG suppression in and of itself is not an important determinant of recovery time or the degree of cognitive impairment upon emergence from anaesthesia in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 547, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide investigation on the carriage proportion of H. influenzae among healthy populations is lacking in China. The purpose of the study was to review the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae among healthy populations in China, and explore its influencing factors. The serotypes distribution of H. influenzae was also analyzed. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted with key words "Haemophilus influenzae", "Carriage", and "China" or "Chinese" from inception to March 2018. After careful screening, the data of included articles were extracted with a pre-designed excel form. Then, the pooled carriage proportion of H. influenzae was calculated using the random effect model. RESULTS: A total of 42 studies with 17,388 participants were included. The overall pooled carriage proportion of H. influenzae was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.13-0.21), and the carriage proportion largely varied by province. Subgroup analysis indicated that the pooled carriage proportion was 0.17 (0.13-0.21) for children, and 0.14 (0.7-0.23) for adults. There were no statistically significant heterogeneity between subgroups by age (p = 0.65), sex (p = 0.88), and season (p = 0.10). The pooled carriage proportion of Hib was 0.01 (0-0.02), while the carriage proportion of NTHi was 0.22 (0.13-0.31). CONCLUSION: In China, the carriage proportion of H. influenzae among healthy population was low, but it largely varied by provinces.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Faringe/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
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