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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 339-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893429

RESUMO

We used a miniature broadband NIRS system to monitor concentration changes in brain oxygenation (oxy- and deoxy- haemoglobin [HbO2], [HHb]) and oxidised cytochrome-c-oxidase ([oxCCO]) during a high +Gz acceleration, induced by a human centrifuge, on two healthy experienced volunteers (2 male, 34 and 37 years). We performed a sequence of several +Gz exposures that were terminated at the onset of visual symptoms (loss of peripheral vision). Systemic parameters were recorded (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure and arterial saturation), and brain tissue blood volume changes ([HbT] = [HbO2] + [HHb]) and oxygen delivery ([HbDiff] = [HbO2] - [HHb]) were calculated. Volunteer 1 demonstrated a decrease in [HbT] of -3.49 ± 0.02 µMol and [HbDiff] of -3.23 ± 0.44 µMol, and an increase of [oxCCO] of 0.42 ± 0.01µMol. Volunteer 2 demonstrated a decrease in [HbDiff] of -4.37 ± 0.23 µMol, and no significant change in [HbT] (0.53 ± 0.06 µMol) and [oxCCO] (0.09 ± 0.06 µMol). The variability of the brain metabolic response was related to the level of ischaemia, suggesting that suppression of metabolism was due to lack of glucose substrate delivery rather than oxygen availability.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Hemodinâmica , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Odontology ; 108(1): 43-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309386

RESUMO

To investigate intravital morphological features of the broader area of the lingual mucosa in clinically healthy subjects, and to attempt to evaluate subclinical conditions, we evaluated detailed intravital morphological features of the lingual mucosa using our newly developed oral contact mucoscopy techniques. Clinically healthy subjects (female: 19-22 years, average age: 20.27 years, and n = 28) were enrolled. A position indicator stain was placed on the lingual mucosal surface, and sliding images were captured and then reconstructed. In addition, the lingual mucosa was divided into six areas, and morphometry of the fungiform and filiform papillae was performed. The results were statistically analyzed. There were two morphological features among clinically healthy subjects involving the filiform papillae: the length of the papillae and the degree of biofilm (tongue coat) deposition. We defined a modified tongue coat index (mTCI) with scores ranging from 0 (tongue coating not visible) to 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 (thick tongue coating) for six sections of the tongue dorsum. No subjects received a score of 2. Significant differences were found in the mTCI between the six sections of the tongue dorsum, especially between the posterior areas and the lingual apex. The fungiform papillae of some subjects exhibited elongated morphological changes. Our findings suggest that magnified lingual dorsum examination of a broader area is especially important in accurate screening for subclinical or transient conditions of potential lingual mucosal diseases. For this purpose, our new oral mucoscopy and non-invasive intravital observational techniques were especially effective.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mucosa Bucal , Língua , Adulto Jovem
3.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 223-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621662

RESUMO

Context: Pre-eclampsia (PrE), a clinical syndrome characterised by elevated blood pressure arising after 20 weeks of gestation, is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. We evaluated the role of uterine artery Doppler (UtAD) in screening for PrE among unselected, pregnant women. Methodology: This was a prospective cohort study of 170 healthy gravid women between 18 and 26 weeks of gestation recruited consecutively from the Antenatal Clinic of Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria, between July 2016 and June 2017. All had UtAD scans with an abnormal result defined as pulsatility index (PI), resistance index or systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio >95th centile for gestational age or proto-diastolic notching. Outcome was obtained from antenatal records. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20 at statistical significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of PrE was 7.6%. There was significant association between an abnormal PI (χ2 = 16.29, P = 0.00), S/D ratio (χ2 = 8.55, P = 0.00) and the combined result (χ2 = 11.5, P = 0.007) with subsequent PrE. The highest sensitivity (53.8%) was obtained for the combined result with specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value of 86.6%, 95.8% and 25%, respectively, area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.534-0.871). A normal result had a very high NPV for all indices. The accuracy for the prediction of severe PrE was greater for all indices being highest for the combined result AUC of 0.830 (95% CI: 0.624-1.000; P = 0.01). Conclusion: Abnormal UtAD indices were associated with PrE and may be used in PrE screening.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Artéria Uterina/diagnóstico por imagem , Útero/irrigação sanguínea , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Nigéria , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Pulsátil/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscular fatigue is caused by biochemical alterations that modify the mechanics of muscle contraction, resulting in negative changes in the performance of the contraction. Several resources are studied to mitigate this situation among which we can cite low-level laser therapy (LLLT). The effects of LLLT are being studied in healthy subjects with fibromyalgia and who are athletes, and currently the studies are being performed in spastic muscles with poststroke individuals. The aim will be to evaluate the effects of LLLT on the fatigue of the biceps brachii muscle of healthy individuals and individuals with spastic hemiparesis. METHODS: A cross-sectional, comparative, randomized, placebo, double-blind clinical trial will be divided into 2 phases: phase I shall consist of 30 healthy subjects and phase II of 30 poststroke individuals. The study will consist of 3 groups (control group, placebo group, and LLLT group), and all individuals will pass through all groups, following the randomization criteria. The protocol consists of the application of LLLT in the biceps brachii muscle on the dominant side in healthy individuals and in the hemiparetic side of poststroke individuals, and, subsequently, 3 maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVCs) will be performed for 50 seconds in the dynamometer, with an interval of 50 seconds between them. Pain intensity will be evaluated by means of the visual analog scale, and the myoelectric activity by means of surface electromyography associated with the evaluation of muscular strength by means of the dynamometer. The local temperature will be evaluated by infrared thermography and blood lactate concentration through the lactimeter, which will be measured at 4 different times, before the application of the laser (basal), and 3, 15, and 25 minutes after the MIVC.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos da radiação , Espasticidade Muscular/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço/efeitos da radiação , Estudos Transversais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 494-499, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the myocardial texture features of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in healthy adult Han populations. METHODS: 59 healthy Han volunteers were recruited for this study from May 2016 to November 2017. CMR examinations were performed on the participants with a 3.0T scanner (Tim Trio, Siemens Medical Solution) to estimate the functional parameters, Native T1 value and ECV. Texture analysis (TA) was performed on the region of interest (ROI) in the left ventricle myocardium on T1 mapping images, with 40 myocardial texture features being extracted. Differences in the myocardial texture features across gender and age groups were analyzed through Student's t-tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Spearman correlations were analyzed between the myocardial texture features and age, native T1 value and extracellular volume (ECV). RESULTS: Of the 59 participants, 28 were women and 29 were in the younger age group (< 45 years old). The male participants had higher left ventricular mass index (Lvmassi) and lower native T1 than their female counterparts (P < 0.01). No gender differences in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ECV values were found. Ten of the forty myocardial texture features showed gender differences, including two first order features and eight Grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features. Gender differences appeared in five first order features and eight GLCM features in the younger group (< 45 years old), but not in the older group (≥45 years old). Eight myocardial texture features were correlated with age, including five first order features and three GLCM features (all P < 0.01). Six first-order texture features were correlated with Native T1 values of the left ventricle middle myocardium. Three first-order texture features were correlated with ECV. CONCLUSION: Myocardial texture features in T1 mapping images vary by gender and age in healthy Han populations.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17507, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651854

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate measles antibody level and its associated factors in a healthy Chinese population, so as to provide evidence to measles prevention and control measures in the future.We conducted a cross-sectional survey by using probability proportionate to size sampling (PPS) among a healthy population aged 8 months to 45 years. Information on measles vaccination status was obtained from the vaccination certificates. Serum measles IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to analysis the associated factors of measles antibody.Of the 663 study subjects, the positive rate, protective rate, and geometric mean concentration (GMC) of measles antibodies were 92.76%, 77.53%, 1612.55 mIU/ml, respectively. The antibody concentration was higher in Han ethnical majority than in Hui minority. The positive rate, protective rate and concentration of antibodies in different age groups and regions were clearly disparate. Age, area, and measles-containing vaccine (MCV) immunization history were the prominent influencing factors of antibody positive rate and protective rate. Ethnicity, age, area, and MVC immunization history were the influencing factors of antibody concentration.Our major findings suggest that, children in rural China, especially in impoverished mountainous regions, were more likely to suffer from delays in measles vaccination. Various measures in optimizing vaccination practices should be implemented in order to prevent possible measles epidemic, even outbreak in these regions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/imunologia , Morbillivirus/imunologia , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180077, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the elastic therapeutic tape effects on the trapezius muscle in healthy adults, using data from surface electromyography and a self-reported questionnaire. METHODS: A total of 51 across sex healthy adults were enrolled in this study, whose age range was 20 to 35 years.. The individuals were divided into three groups: G1, who wore the elastic therapeutic tape applied with tension; G2, who wore the elastic therapeutic tape applied with no tension; and G3, control group, who did not wear the elastic therapeutic tape. The elastic therapeutic tape was bilaterally applied on the trapezius muscle. For measuring results, surface electromyography signals were collected before, while and after the elastic therapeutic tape was worn, and a qualitative questionnaire was applied. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in either pre- or post-electromyography findings within each group, or when groups were compared. When comparing G1 and G2 moments before and while the elastic therapeutic tape was worn, a statistically significant difference was noted during the maximum voluntary contraction variable on the individuals' left side. When answering the questionnaire, most individuals mentioned a relaxing feeling while wearing the elastic therapeutic tape. CONCLUSION: The individuals wearing the elastic therapeutic tape in this sample did not present any significant differences during the surface electromyography assessment. As for the questionnaire, most of the individuals investigated reported a relaxing feeling after wearing the elastic therapeutic tape.


Assuntos
Fita Atlética , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1081-1086, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184630

RESUMO

Introduction: Stevia rebaudiana extracts can be used as a sweetener due to their glycoside content: specifically stevioside and rebaudioside. Both compounds have adequate pharmacological characteristics for human consumption. Objective: the aim of this study was to standardize the formulation of marmalades using nopal-pineapple-stevia aqueous extract ratios. Methods: the products were evaluated to determine their physicochemical properties, in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and glycemia in healthy volunteers. Storage study was conducted for 20 days at room temperature 23-30 °C and relative humidity 80-85%. Results: incorporation of stevia significantly modified physicochemical properties like °Brix, color and flow index. After storage, the presence of molds and bacteria were not detected. Sensory evaluation indicated that marmalade with 50% stevia replacement was equally accepted as marmalade with sucrose. Marmalade with 50 and 100% of stevia inhibited 35.89 and 38.50% of the α-amylase activity. After an intake of 30 g, it seems that marmalades with stevia had a significant effect on the glycemia of the volunteers. Conclusions: however, further studies with larger doses of nopal-pineapple-stevia marmalade and consumed for longer in both healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes are needed to achieve results that are more precise


Introducción: los extractos de Stevia rebaudiana pueden ser utilizados como edulcorante debido a su contenido de glucósidos: específicamente esteviósido y rebaudiósido. Ambos compuestos presentan características farmacológicas adecuadas para el consumo humano. Objetivos: el objetivo del presente trabajo fue estandarizar formulaciones de mermeladas con diferentes proporciones de nopal-piña-extracto acuoso de stevia. Métodos: se estudiaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas de las mermeladas, su capacidad de inhibir in vitro a la enzima α-amilasa y la glicemia en voluntarios sanos. Los estudios de vida de anaquel se efectuaron durante 20 días a temperatura ambiente 23-30 °C y humedad relativa 80-85%. Resultados: la incorporación de estevia modificó significativamente los grados Brix, el color y el índice de flujo de las mermeladas. Concluido el estudio de anaquel, no se observó la presencia de hongos o bacterias. La evaluación sensorial indicó que la mermelada con 50% de estevia fue aceptada con el mismo nivel de agrado que la mermelada con sacarosa. Las mermeladas con 50 y 100% de estevia inhibieron la actividad de la α-amilasa con valores de 35.89% y 38.50%, respectivamente. Posterior a una ingesta de 30 g de mermelada se observó un efecto significativo en la glicemia de voluntarios sanos. Conclusiones: deberán efectuarse estudios de consumo prolongado y de mayores cantidades de mermelada tanto en voluntarios sanos como con diabetes para obtener resultados más precisos


Assuntos
Humanos , Geleia de Frutas , Ananas/enzimologia , Química Física/métodos , alfa-Amilases/biossíntese , Stevia/química , Ananas/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Glicemia/análise , Índice Glicêmico
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1133-1138, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184637

RESUMO

Introduction: CD36 is a membrane protein that functions as a lingual receptor for lipids. The soluble CD36 fraction (sCD36) may correlate oral fatty acid fat taste sensitivity to body mass index (BMI) and adiposity. Objectives: to determine if the oral fatty acid taste sensitivity in healthy young individuals of both sexes is related to serum sCD36 levels, adiposity and BMI. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 72 healthy young individuals (18-25 years). Serum sCD36 was quantified for all subjects. Oral fatty acid taste sensitivity was determined using an ascending series of the three-alternate forced choice methodology. Additionally, BMI was calculated using anthropometry, and adiposity was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis. Results: there was a positive correlation between BMI and the oral fatty acid taste sensitivity threshold (r = 0.277, p < 0.05) and a negative correlation between BMI and serum sCD36 levels (r = -0.035, p < 0.01). Adiposity negatively correlated with the sCD36 levels only in women (r = -0.359, p < 0.05). The threshold for oral sensitivity to fatty acids in overweight individuals was 1.0 (IQR 1.16) mM vs 0.2 (IQR 0.29) mM in healthy weight individuals (p < 0.05), while sCD36 levels were 26.1 pg/ml (IQR 32.9) and 77.97 pg/ml (IQR 560.66) in overweight and normal weight individuals, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions: BMI positively correlates with the oral sensitivity threshold of fatty acids and negatively correlates with serum sCD36 levels. The threshold of oral sensitivity to fatty acids was significantly higher in overweight subjects, while sCD36 levels were significantly higher in the group of normal weight individuals


Introducción: CD36 es una proteína de membrana que funciona como receptor lingual para lípidos. La fracción soluble del CD36 (sCD36) podría correlacionar la sensibilidad gustativa a los ácidos grasos orales con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y con la adiposidad. Objetivos: determinar si la sensibilidad gustativa a ácidos grasos orales se relaciona con los niveles séricos de sCD36, la adiposidad y el IMC en jóvenes de ambos sexos. Métodos: estudio transversal en 72 adultos jóvenes (18-25 años). Se cuantificaron los niveles séricos de sCD36 para todos los sujetos. Se determinó la sensibilidad gustativa a los ácidos grasos orales usando la prueba triangular discriminatoria de concentraciones escaladas. Adicionalmente, se calculó el IMC usando antropometría y se determinó la adiposidad por análisis de bioimpedancia. Resultados: se encontró correlación positiva entre el IMC y el umbral de sensibilidad gustativa a los ácidos grasos orales (r = 0,277, p < 0,05) y una correlación negativa entre el IMC y los niveles séricos de sCD36 (r = -0,035, p < 0,01). La adiposidad, solo en mujeres se correlacionó negativamente con los niveles de sCD36 (r = -0,359, p < 0,05). El umbral para la sensibilidad gustativa a ácidos grasos orales en sujetos con sobrepeso fue 1,0 (IQR 1,16) mM vs. 0,2 (IQR 0,29) mM en sujetos con peso normal (p < 0,05), mientras que los niveles séricos de sCD36 fueron de 26,1 pg/ml (IQR 32,9) en sujetos con sobrepeso y 77,97 pg/ml (IQR 560,66) en sujetos con peso normal, respectivamente (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: el IMC se correlaciona positivamente con el umbral para la sensibilidad oral a los ácidos grasos y negativamente se correlaciona con los niveles séricos de sCD36. El umbral de sensibilidad oral a los ácidos grasos fue significativamente mayor en sujetos con sobrepeso, mientras que los niveles de sCD36 fueron significativamente más altos en el grupo de sujetos con peso normal


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ácidos Graxos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antígenos CD36/sangue , Adiposidade , Voluntários Saudáveis , Impedância Elétrica
11.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 57(12): 623-632, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) tablets: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese subjects under fasting and fed states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was conducted in 64 healthy Chinese subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive a single oral dose of FTC 200 mg/TDF 300 mg of test or reference tablets according to an open crossover design under fasting and fed states. Plasma canagliflozin levels of FTC/TDF were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the pharmacokinetic parameters of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) were used to evaluate bioequivalence. RESULTS: The geometric mean ratio 90% confidence intervals for fasting Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 89.03 - 101.98%, 94.90 - 101.36%, and 94.94 - 101.56%, respectively, and fed Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 94.12 - 108.87%, 96.89 - 104.05%, and 96.69 - 104.28%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The two types of FTC/TDF tablets were bioequivalent under both fasting and fed condition, and both were generally well tolerated.


Assuntos
Emtricitabina/farmacocinética , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/farmacocinética , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Cross-Over , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Comprimidos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Equivalência Terapêutica
12.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 57(12): 612-622, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549624

RESUMO

CONTEXT: A fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet of amlodipine and rosuvastatin was recently developed for the treatment of concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia and is anticipated to improve medication compliance. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare the single-dose pharmacokinetic properties and safety of DP-R212 (FDC of amlodipine and rosuvastatin) to those of each agent co-administered in healthy Korean subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 healthy Korean subjects were enrolled in this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-treatment, two-way crossover study. During each treatment period, subjects received the test drug (FDC tablet containing amlodipine and rosuvastatin) or reference drugs (individual tablets). Plasma samples were collected pre-dose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-dose. Safety was assessed by the evaluation of adverse events (AEs), laboratory assessments, 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs), physical examinations, and vital sign measurements. RESULTS: The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric least-square mean ratios of AUClast and Cmax were 0.9796 - 1.0590 and 1.0135 - 1.0981 for amlodipine, and 0.9156 - 1.0490 and 0.8400 - 1.0306 for rosuvastatin, respectively. All AEs were of mild to moderate intensity, and no significant difference was observed in the incidence of AEs between the treatments. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic properties of the test and reference drugs were bioequivalent to each other, satisfying the regulatory criteria (0.8 - 1.25). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Both drugs were safe and well tolerated, and the pharmacokinetic profiles were comparable between the treatments.


Assuntos
Anlodipino/administração & dosagem , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anlodipino/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , República da Coreia , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacocinética , Comprimidos , Equivalência Terapêutica
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 592-600, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous work on the electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of anaesthetic doses of ketamine has identified a characteristic signature of increased high frequency (beta-gamma) and theta waves alternating with episodic slow waves. It is unclear which EEG parameter is optimal for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the hypnotic actions of ketamine, or which EEG parameter is most closely linked to loss of behavioural responsiveness. METHODS: We re-analysed previously published 128-channel scalp EEG data from 15 subjects who had received a 1.5 mg kg-1 bolus i.v. dose of ketamine. We applied standard sigmoid pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models to the drug-induced changes in slow wave activity, theta, and beta-gamma EEG power; and examined the morphology of the slow waves in the time domain for Fz, F3, T3, P3, and Pz average-referenced channels. RESULTS: Hypnotic doses of ketamine i.v. induced medio-frontal EEG slow waves, and loss of behavioural response when the estimated brain concentration was 1.64 (0.17) µg ml-1. Recovery of responsiveness occurred at 1.06 (0.21) µg.ml-1 after slow wave activity had markedly diminished. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling fitted best to the slow wave activity and theta power (almost half the beta-gamma channels could not be modelled). Slow wave effect-site equilibration half-time (23 [4] s), and offset, was faster than for theta (47 [22] s). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in EEG slow wave activity after a hypnotic dose of ketamine could be fitted by a standard sigmoid dose-response model. Their onset, but not their offset, was consistently associated with loss of behavioural response in our small study group.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17066, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490404

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence and clinical importance of soft-tissue disorders, objective methods for evaluation of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues are lacking. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate stiffness, an important biomechanical characteristic of soft tissue, using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography. The shear wave velocity (SWV, m/s) values of soft tissue structures within the carpal tunnel (CT) were measured in various combinations of wrist and finger positions.Twenty-six healthy adults were enrolled in this study. We measured the cross-sectional area of the median nerve (MN) and the SWV values of several structures within the CT at the CT inlet level. Measurement of SWV of the MN, flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and transverse carpal ligament (TCL) were conducted in six wrist/finger motion combinations.When the wrist and fingers were in neutral positions (position A), the mean SWV was lowest for the MN (mean ±â€Šstandard deviation, 2.3 ±â€Š0.5 m/s), followed by the FDS (2.9 ±â€Š0.2), FDP (3.2 ±â€Š0.3), and TCL (3.3 ±â€Š0.4). The SWV was significantly different among the six different wrist/finger positions for all structures (P < .001). However, the MN cross-sectional area was not significantly different (P = .527). The SWV values for the MN, FDS, and FDP increased significantly as the wrist/finger positions the stress on the tendons increased (from position B to F) compared with a neutral position, while the SWV of the TCL was significantly higher for in all positions compared with neutral, except for wrist neutral, finger extension. The SWV values for the MN, FDS, and TCL gradually increased as stress increased.The intra-CT structures are under increased stress during wrist and finger motions than when the hand is in a neutral position. We have used ARFI elastography to gain insight into the pathophysiology of CTS.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Nervo Mediano/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Punho/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 402-409, ago.-sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182859

RESUMO

Background: This study was designed to detect the potential association of a nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI) with insulin resistance and associated metabolic disturbances, with a subsequent increase in cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Eighty-three NFAI patients and 56 volunteers (controls) without any adrenal abnormalities on computed tomography (CT) were included. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, lipid profiles, uric acid, homocysteine, fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and adiponectin levels were measured in both groups. Blood pressure (BP), waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) were evaluated in both the patients and volunteers. Results: There were no significant difference between the NFAI and control groups with respect to age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic BP, smoking, concomitant disease, and medications. Fasting insulin and glucose levels and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were significantly higher in the NFAI group as compared with those in the control group (p<0.01). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the NFAI group was higher than that in the control group (p<0.01). All the lipid fractions, except triglyceride (TG), (p<0.05), homocysteine (p=0.01), and fibrinogen levels (p<0.001), were significantly higher in the NFAI group as compared with the levels in the control group. There were no significant differences between the NFAI and control groups in terms of uric acid, hs-CRP, and adiponectin levels. The CIMT values in the NFAI group were significantly higher than those in the control group (0.74±0.14 vs. 0.53±0.09, p<0.001). The mean CIMT value showed a statistically positive correlation with age (r=0.245, p=0.004); the HOMA-IR score (r=0.490, p<0.001); and FBG (r=0.521, p<0.001), fasting insulin (r=0.432, p<0.001), total cholesterol (TC) (r=0.267, p=0.002), and fibrinogen (r=0.398, p<0.001) levels in the NFAI group. Conclusions: The results indicated that the NFAI patients had an elevated risk of insulin resistance, with metabolic syndrome and increased CIMT values. Long-term follow-up studies should be designed to evaluate postsurgical alterations in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors in NFAI patients


Antecedentes: Este estudio se diseñó para detectar la posible asociación del incidentaloma suprarrenal no funcionante (ISNF) con resistencia a la insulina y trastornos metabólicos asociados, con un incremento subsecuente en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: Se incluyó a 83 pacientes con ISNF y a 56 voluntarios (controles) sin anomalías suprarrenales en la tomografía computarizada (TC). Se determinaron en ambos grupos los valores de glucemia en ayunas (GA), insulina en ayunas, perfiles lipídicos, ácido úrico, homocisteína, fibrinógeno, proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (PCRas) y adiponectina. Se evaluaron la presión arterial (PA), el perímetro de la cintura, el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y el grosor íntima-media carotídea (GIMC) tanto en los pacientes como en los voluntarios. Resultados: No había una diferencia significativa entre los grupos con ISNF y de control en cuanto a edad, sexo, IMC, perímetro de la cintura, PA sistólica y diastólica, tabaquismo, enfermedades concomitantes y medicamentos. Las concentraciones de insulina y glucosa en ayunas y las puntuaciones del modelo homeostático de evaluación de la resistencia a la insulina (HOMA-IR) fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo con ISNF que en el de control (p<0,01). La frecuencia de síndrome metabólico fue mayor en el grupo con ISNF que en el de control (p<0,01). Los valores de todas las fracciones lipídicas, excepto los de triglicéridos (TG) (p<0,05), homocisteína (p=0,01) y fibrinógeno (p<0,001), fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo con ISNF que en el de control. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos con ISNF y de control en las concentraciones de ácido úrico, PCRas y adiponectina. Los valores del GIMC en el grupo con ISNF fueron significativamente mayores que los del grupo de control (0,74±0,14 frente a 0,53±0,09; p<0,001). El valor medio del GIMC mostró una correlación estadísticamente positiva con la edad (r=0,245; p=0,004); la puntuación del HOMA-IR (r=0,490; p<0,001), y la GA (r=0,521; p<0,001), la insulina en ayunas (r=0,432; p<0,001), el colesterol total (CT) (r=0,267; p=0,002) y el fibrinógeno (r=0,398; p<0,001) en el grupo con ISNF. Conclusión: Los resultados indicaban que los pacientes con ISNF tenían un riesgo elevado de resistencia a la insulina, con síndrome metabólico y aumento de los valores del GIMC. Deben diseñarse estudios de seguimiento a largo plazo para evaluar los cambios posquirúrgicos de los parámetros metabólicos y los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con ISFN


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Achados Incidentais , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Pressão Arterial , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril
17.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 57(11): 552-560, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the difference in acid inhibition function among lansoprazole (LPZ), pantoprazole (PPZ), and their respective stereoisomers following single and multiple intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dosage groups were set as follows: 30 mg single and multiple intravenous administrations of LPZ or R-LPZ, 40 mg single and multiple intravenous administrations of PPZ or S-PPZ. Subjects received an intravenous infusion of LPZ, R-LPZ, PPZ, or S-PPZ injection in sterile saline solution (100 mL/h, 60 minutes), respectively. The intragastric pH was sampled every second for 24 hours at baseline and for 24 hours after drug administration. The baseline-adjusted pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters include ΔMean (pH), ΔMedian (pH), ΔTpH≥3 (%), ΔTpH≥4 (%), ΔTpH≥6 (%), and ΔAUECph-tτ1-τ2. The PD parameters were evaluated in different time intervals (0 - 24 hours, 0 - 4 hours and 14 - 24 hours). RESULTS: After a single dose, the ΔTpH≥4 (%) of R-LPZ, LPZ, S-PPZ and PPZ was 56.6 ± 19.6, 53.1 ± 23.3, 35.6 ± 24.9 and 26.8 ± 30.2, respectively. The ΔTpH≥6 (%) was 50.7 ± 26.1, 41.4 ± 26.2, 25.4 ± 24.9 and 22.1 ± 27.6, respectively. The ΔAUECph-τ1-τ was 45,564 ± 16,107, 41,798 ± 16,153, 31,914 ± 17,304 and 20,744 ± 21,500, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found with R-LPZ vs. S-PPZ, R-LPZ vs. PPZ, LPZ vs. S-PPZ and LPZ vs. PPZ. The average TpH≥4 of R-LPZ, LPZ, S-PPZ, and PPZ was (47.2 ± 26.1) minutes, (49.6 ± 19.3) minutes, (56.1 ± 23.7) minutes, and (72.1 ± 27.3) minutes, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found with R-LPZ vs. PPZ (p = 0.009) and LPZ vs. PPZ (p = 0.019). After multiple doses, the ΔTpH≥4 (%) of R-LPZ, LPZ, S-PPZ, and PPZ was 71.7 ± 20.2, 63.5 ± 19.4, 59.5 ± 17.8 and 64.0 ± 22.4, respectively. The ΔTpH≥6 (%) was 64.0 ± 22.2, 52.0 ± 19.2, 49.6 ± 20.4 and 50.9 ± 23.8, respectively. The ΔAUECph-τ1-τ was 326,149 ± 94,839, 288,565 ± 93,279, 296,189 ± 83,412 and 300,960 ± 108,057, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in baseline-adjusted PD parameters during all time periods after multiple doses. CONCLUSION: After a single dose, the mean gastric pH inhibition value of R-LPZ was the highest, followed by LPZ, then S-PPZ and PPZ. R-LPZ and LPZ provided significantly better pH control compared with PPZ and S-PPZ in healthy subjects. The onset time of R-LPZ was the fastest and R-LPZ can provide better acid inhibition during sleeping time. After multiple doses, the mean values in all PD parameters of R-LPZ were the highest, the values of LPZ, S-PPZ, and PPZ were similar. However, no significant difference was found in acid inhibition among these four drugs after multiple doses.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica , Lansoprazol/farmacologia , Pantoprazol/farmacologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estereoisomerismo
20.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(3): 030702, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379460

RESUMO

Introduction: Measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential in the investigation and management of calcium metabolism disorders. To assess the significance of any assay result when clinical decision making biological variation (BV) of the measurand must be taken into consideration. The aim of the present study is determining the BV parameters for serum PTH. Materials and methods: Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals from 20 healthy subjects for ten weeks in this prospective BV study. Serum "intact PTH" concentrations were measured with electrochemiluminescence method. Biological variation parameters were estimated using the approach proposed by Fraser. Results: The values of within-subject biological variation (CVI), between-subject biological variation (CVG), analytical variation (CVA), reference change value (RCV) and individuality index (II) for serum PTH were 21.1%, 24.9%, 3.8%, 59.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Within-subject biological variation and CVG were also determined according to gender separately; 18.5% and 24.0%; 26.2% and 18.6% for male and female, respectively. Calculated desirable precision and bias goals were < 10.6% and < 6.3%, respectively. Conclusion: This study may contribute to BV data on serum PTH as it includes a sufficient number of volunteers from both genders over an acceptable period of time. We do not recommend the usage of population-based reference intervals for serum PTH concentrations. Reference change value may be helpful for the evaluation of serial serum PTH results. Nonetheless, evaluation of data according to gender is necessary when setting analytical performance specifications.


Assuntos
Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência
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