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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 128, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the disease caused by the novel coronavirus has spread globally, there has been significant economic instability in the healthcare systems. This reality was especially accentuated in Ecuador where, the shortage of healthcare workers combined with cultural and macroeconomic factors has led Ecuador to face the most aggressive outbreak in Latin America. In this context, the participation of final-year medical students on the front line is indispensable. Appropriate training on COVID-19 is an urgent requirement that universities and health systems must guarantee. We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Ecuadorian final-year medical students that could potentially guide the design of better medical education curricula regarding COVID-19. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional 33-item online survey conducted between April 6 to April 2020 assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis toward COVID-19 in Ecuadorian final-year medical students. It was sent by email, Facebook, and WhatsApp. RESULTS: A total of 309 students responded to the survey. Out of which 88% of students scored high (≥ 70% correct) for knowledge of the disease. The majority of students were pessimistic about possible government actions, which is reflected in the negative attitude towards the control of COVID-19 and volunteering during the outbreak in Ecuador (77%, and 58% of the students, respectively). Moreover, 91% of students said they did not have adequate protective equipment. The latter finding was significantly associated with negative attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Although a large number of students displayed negative attitudes, the non-depreciable percentage of students who were willing to volunteer and the coexisting high level of knowledge displayed by students, suggests that Ecuador has a capable upcoming workforce that could benefit from an opportunity to strengthen, improve and advance their training in preparation for COVID-19. Not having personal protective equipment was significantly associated to negative attitudes. Providing the necessary tools and creating a national curriculum may be one of the most effective ways to ensure all students are trained, whilst simultaneously focusing on the students' most pressing concerns. With this additional training, negative attitudes will improve and students will be better qualified.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , /terapia , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(2): e116-e123, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dementia is associated with non-participation in cognitive and social activities, this association might merely reflect the consequences of dementia, rather than any direct effect of non-participation on the subsequent incidence of dementia. Because of the slowness with which dementia can develop, unbiased assessment of any such direct effects must relate non-participation in such activities to dementia detection rates many years later. Prospective studies with long-term follow-up can help achieve this by analysing separately the first and second decade of follow-up. We report such analyses of a large, 20-year study. METHODS: The UK Million Women Study is a population-based prospective study of 1·3 million women invited for National Health Service (NHS) breast cancer screening in median year 1998 (IQR 1997-1999). In median year 2001 (IQR 2001-2003), women were asked about participation in adult education, groups for art, craft, or music, and voluntary work, and in median year 2006 (IQR 2006-2006), they were asked about reading. All participants were followed up through electronic linkage to NHS records of hospital admission with mention of dementia, the first mention of which was the main outcome. Comparing non-participation with participation in a particular activity, we used Cox regression to assess fully adjusted dementia risk ratios (RRs) during 0-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years, after information on that activity was obtained. FINDINGS: In 2001, 851 307 women with a mean age of 60 years (SD 5) provided information on participation in adult education, groups for art, craft, or music, and voluntary work. After 10 years, only 9591 (1%) had been lost to follow-up and 789 339 (93%) remained alive with no recorded dementia. Follow-up was for a mean of 16 years (SD 3), during which 31 187 (4%) had at least one hospital admission with mention of dementia, including 25 636 (3%) with a hospital admission with dementia mentioned for the first time 10 years or more after follow-up began. Non-participation in cognitive or social activities was associated with higher relative risks of dementia detection only during the first decade after participation was recorded. During the second decade, there was little association. This was true for non-participation in adult education (RR 1·04, 99% CI 0·98-1·09), in groups for art, craft, or music (RR 1·04, 0·99-1·09), in voluntary work (RR 0·96, 0·92-1·00), or in any of these three (RR 0·99, 0·95-1·03). In 2006, 655 118 women provided information on reading. For non-reading versus any reading, there were similar associations with dementia, again with strong attenuation over time since reading was recorded, but longer follow-up is needed to assess this reliably. INTERPRETATION: Life has to be lived forwards, but can be understood only backwards. Long before dementia is diagnosed, there is a progressive reduction in various mental and physical activities, but this is chiefly because its gradual onset causes inactivity and not because inactivity causes dementia. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência/epidemiologia , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Leitura , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(12): 1468-1474, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between wearing protective gear and eosinophilic folliculitis has not been reported. We aimed to investigate such during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In three outpatient clinics, we hand-reviewed records of all patients having consulted us during a Study Period (90 days) in the early phase of the pandemic. Our inclusion criteria for Study Subjects were: (i) clear clinical diagnosis, (ii) dermoscopic confirmation, (iii) differential diagnoses excluded, (iv) eosinophilia, (v) protective gear worn during sanitation services, (vi) temporal correlation, (vii) distributional correlation, (viii) physician-assessed association, and (ix) patient-assessed association. Control Periods in the same season were elected. RESULTS: Twenty-five study subjects fulfilled all inclusion criteria. The incidence was significantly higher than in the control periods (IR: 3.57, 95% CI: 1.79-7.43). Male predominance was significant (P < 0.001). Such for patients in the control periods were insignificant. Study subjects were 21.2 (95% CI: 11.0-31.4) years younger than patients in the control periods. For the study subjects, the distribution of erythematous or skin-colored folliculocentric dome-shaped papules and pustules were all compatible with body parts covered by the gear. Lesional biopsy performed on two patients revealed eosinophilic dermal infiltrates within and around the pilosebaceous units. Polarized dermoscopy revealed folliculitis with peri-/interfollicular vascular proliferation. Lesion onsets were 6.4 (SD: 2.1) days after wearing gear. Remissions were 16.7 (SD: 7.5) days after ceasing to wear gear and treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing protective gear in volunteered sanitizing works could be associated with eosinophilic folliculitis. Owing to the significant temporal and distributional correlations, the association might be causal.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Foliculite/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/epidemiologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biópsia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Eosinofilia/patologia , Feminino , Foliculite/diagnóstico , Foliculite/etiologia , Foliculite/patologia , Folículo Piloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Folículo Piloso/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Fatores Sexuais , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/etiologia , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 963-967, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907286

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate and share the novel method for recruiting participants in clinical trials of vaccines in emergency situations. Methods: To publish recruitment notice in local areas of Wuhan through websites and medium, and guide interested persons to log in to the"Clinical Trials of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Reservation and Health Declaration System"to appoint and register their health information. The "Health Declaration System" provides each volunteer evaluation and risk levels to preliminarily exclude those who do not meet the inclusion criteria. Researchers review the qualified volunteers by telephone, organize them to go to the vaccination site, and finally conduct a strict medical screening to determine the final subjects. Results: A total of 4 819 people and 5 132 people registered in the Phase Ⅰ and Phase Ⅱ recruitment system respectively, with men 2 912 (60.43%) and 2 887 (56.25%) more than women 1 907 (39.57%) and 2 245 (43.75%), mostly in the 20-39 age group, with 3 211 (66.63%) and 3 966 (77.28%). All 13 districts in Wuhan have interested residents to participate clinical research.The initial qualified rate of the Phase Ⅱ recruitment system was higher than that of Phase Ⅰ, with men 2 047 (70.28%) and 2 135(73.95%), higher than women 1 083 (56.80%) and 1 472 (65.57%); 440 and 689 people were reviewed by telephone in Phase Ⅰ and Phase Ⅱ respectively, and the number of verified volunteers was about 440 (35.00%) and 689 (67.20%); Of the 201 603 people who arrived at the vaccination site, 12 and 26 of them were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 antibody with an antibody positive rate of 6.00% and 4.31% respectively. Conclusion: The novel method for recruiting subjects in this clinical study is efficient and reliable, and the recruitment situation of Phase Ⅰ had set a good example for Phase Ⅱ but the medium-and long-term compliance of subjects and the separation of willingness and behaviors still need to be further studied.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Seleção de Pacientes , Vacinas Virais , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(9): e00132120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965375

RESUMO

Brazil is the country of the world with the second most COVID-19 cases and deaths, and the pandemic's impacts pose multiple challenges for mental health. This paper reports on experience with the emergency organization of the volunteer and collaborative Working Group (GT, in Portuguese) on mental health and psychosocial care aimed at producing rapid responses for health services in the context of COVID-19. The study involved the identification and systematization of current evidence in the scientific literature on mental health and psychosocial care in public health emergencies and pandemics, with the establishment of a network involving 117 researchers and 25 institutions, and the organization of themes for the elaboration of materials, referenced on the response phases in public health emergencies and pandemics. In less than 60 days, 18 technical documents were produced, ranging from services organization and management for different vulnerable groups. The materials became references in health institutions and services. A national course on mental health and psychosocial care in COVID-19 was also organized, with more than 60,000 people registered. The experience provides food for thought and a contribution for future experiences involving knowledge translation in the current pandemic and in future public health emergencies and pandemics, with the following: (1) combination of volunteer and collaborative work involving professionals with experience in the organization of services and care in past events; (2) reliance on institutional support and resources; (3) speed and credibility of work involving the establishment of networks of professionals and institutions; and (4) responses to the urgent needs with the capacity to shape paths for care in mental health and psychosocial care.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that peer support programs may be effective in supporting breastfeeding mothers. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) (the RUBY study) that tested peer support in the Australian context found that infants of first-time mothers who received proactive telephone peer support were more likely to be receiving breastmilk at six months of age. METHODS: This qualitative sub-study of the RUBY RCT explores the experiences and views of peer volunteers who delivered the intervention. Focus groups were conducted with 17 peers from the RUBY RCT between November 2015 and March 2016. All had provided peer support to at least one mother. RESULTS: We found that volunteers identified strongly with the mothers' need for support when establishing breastfeeding. Key components of the support were strengthening the mothers' self-belief through affirmation and sharing experiential knowledge. Volunteers found the role rewarding and personally therapeutic although some women reported challenges initiating and maintaining contact with some mothers. Data were analysed using a hybrid approach to thematic analysis combining inductive and deductive techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding peer support programs are reliant on recruitment of motivated volunteers who can provide empathetic mother-to-mother support. This study provides important information regarding volunteers' experiences that may support the upscaling of breastfeeding peer support for new mothers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12612001024831.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Telefone , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858916

RESUMO

Rescue workers present an elevated risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and recently, research has begun to focus on coping styles and social support as protective factors in this population. Associations in the particular group of search and rescue dog handlers still lack evidence. The aim of the study is to investigate if functional cognitions and social support also decrease the risk for PTSD. Active voluntary rescue dog handlers (n = 116) rated levels of resilience, sense of coherence, and social acknowledgment (SAQ; subscales general disapproval, familial disapproval, recognition), in addition to a trauma checklist and PTSD symptoms. Linear regression analyses and two different graph models were calculated to explore associations, as well as potential pathways. Controlling for trauma exposure, the SAQ general disapproval emerged as the only significant predictor in the regression model. In the graph models, SAQ familial disapproval was linked to SAQ recognition and SAQ general disapproval. The latter, together with a sense of coherence manageability, affected PTSD re-experiencing symptoms through resilience. The findings are in line with earlier work. The study underlines the importance of targeting resilience and manageability, as well as enhancing social support in prevention programs for PTSD in canine search and rescue teams. Future research is warranted to further investigate model stability and replicate findings.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Trabalho de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Senso de Coerência , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle
10.
Transfusion ; 60(5): 965-973, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men in Australia are currently ineligible to donate blood (are "deferred") for 12 months since last oral or anal sexual contact with another man. In Australia and overseas, there has been limited research on attitudes and perceptions related to blood donation in this population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Questions on blood donation histories and attitudes toward the deferral policy were included in the questionnaire of an online prospective cohort of gay and bisexual men (GBM) living in Australia. RESULTS: In 2018, 1595 GBM responded to the survey. In this sample, 28.7% reported previously donating blood. Among the remaining men who had never donated blood, 64.5% expressed an interest in doing so. Nearly all men indicated they were not willing to abstain from sex with another man for 12 months in order to donate, and the vast majority believed the rule was unfair, too strict, and homophobic. Three-quarters (77.7%) said that if the policy changed, they would likely donate blood. Age and openness about one's sexuality were independently associated with one's willingness to donate blood in the absence of the deferral. CONCLUSION: There was a high level of willingness and desire to donate blood among GBM. However, rather than abstaining from sex in order to donate, many men comply with the deferral policy and do not donate. A less conservative deferral policy may increase donations from GBM.


Assuntos
Atitude , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Seleção do Doador/legislação & jurisprudência , Seleção do Doador/normas , Seleção do Doador/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Política de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Volição , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2377, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398652

RESUMO

Understanding how conditions experienced during development affect reproductive timing is of considerable cross-disciplinary interest. Life-history theory predicts that organisms will accelerate reproduction when future survival is unsure. In humans, this can be triggered by early exposure to mortality. Previous studies, however, have been inconclusive due to several confounds that are also likely to affect reproduction. Here we take advantage of a natural experiment in which a population is temporarily divided by war to analyze how exposure to mortality affects reproduction. Using records of Finnish women in World War II, we find that young girls serving in a paramilitary organization wait less time to reproduce, have shorter inter-birth intervals, and have more children than their non-serving peers or sisters. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to elevated mortality rates during development can result in accelerated reproductive schedules and adds to our understanding of how participation in warfare affects women.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Exposição à Guerra , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Irmãos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , II Guerra Mundial , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 635, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Civic engagement, including voting, volunteering, and participating in civic organizations, is associated with better psychological, physical and behavioral health and well-being. In addition, civic engagement is increasingly viewed (e.g., in Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health action framework) as a potentially important driver for raising awareness of and addressing unhealthy conditions in communities. As such, it is important to understand the factors that may promote civic engagement, with a particular focus on the less-understood, health civic engagement, or civic engagement in health-related and health-specific activities. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States (U.S.), we examined whether the extent to which individuals feel they belong in their community (i.e., perceived sense of community) and the value they placed on investing in community health were associated with individuals' health civic engagement. METHODS: Using data collected on 7187 nationally representative respondents from the 2018 National Survey of Health Attitudes, we examined associations between sense of community, valued investment in community health, and perceived barriers to taking action to invest in community health, with health civic engagement. We constructed continuous scales for each of these constructs and employed multiple linear regressions adjusting for multiple covariates including U.S. region and city size of residence, educational attainment, family income, race/ethnicity, household size, employment status, and years living in the community. RESULTS: Participants who endorsed (i.e., responded with mostly or completely) all 16 sense of community scale items endorsed an average of 22.8% (95%CI: 19.8-25.7%) more of the health civic engagement scale items compared with respondents who did not endorse any of the sense of community items. Those who endorsed (responded that it was an important or top priority) all items capturing valued investment in community health endorsed 14.0% (95%CI: 11.2-16.8%) more of the health civic engagement items than those who did not endorse any valued investment in community health items. CONCLUSIONS: Health civic engagement, including voting and volunteering to ultimately guide government decisions about health issues, may help improve conditions that influence health and well-being for all. Focusing on individuals' sense of community and highlighting investments in community health may concurrently be associated with increased health civic engagement and improved community and population health.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Ajuda , Responsabilidade Social , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Instituições de Caridade/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Política , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Voluntários/psicologia
13.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 63(4): 335-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364438

RESUMO

Aging baby boomers are expected to provide a large reservoir for the nonprofit sector. We find evidence which while broadly supportive of this idea also suggest limitations as to what can realistically be expected. Using data from the third (2017) wave of the Norwegian life-course, aging, and generation study (n = 2,993, age 53-71), we find that a sizable proportion is already engaged (65-68% in the past year) and around half of non-volunteers (from 58% among the youngest to 43% among the oldest) express interest in volunteering. However, most volunteering is sporadic and less than half of volunteers participate on a weekly basis. Furthermore, most of the non-volunteers who express interest seem unlikely to realize their interest as they simultaneously report important motivational and ability-related barriers to volunteering. A further challenge is that few boomers are willing to make a major commitment to volunteering. Findings suggest that to mobilize boomers, nonprofit organizations need to accommodate more self-interested and flexible forms of involvement.


Assuntos
Motivação , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373260
15.
BMC Palliat Care ; 19(1): 48, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volunteers play a significant role in supporting hospice and palliative care in Africa, but little is known about the types of volunteers, their motivations and roles in service delivery. METHODS: Palliative care experts from 30 African countries were invited to participate in an online survey, conducted in English and French, that consisted of 58 questions on: socio-demographics, the activities, motivation and coordination of volunteers, and an appraisal of recent developments in volunteering. The questionnaire was pre-tested in Uganda. Quantitative data was analysed descriptively with SPSS v22; answers on open-ended questions were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-five respondents from 21 countries replied to the questionnaire. The typical volunteer was reported to be a female aged between 30 and 50 years. Volunteer roles included, among others: direct patient assistance, providing psychosocial / spiritual support, and assisting patients' families. Respondents considered altruism, civic engagement and personal gain (for a professional career) as volunteers' most significant motivational drivers. One in two respondents noted that recruiting volunteers is easy, and cooperation with the communities was often mentioned as helpful. Trainings mostly occurred before the first assignment, with topics covering the palliative care concept, care, psychosocial support and team work. Half of respondents described recent overall volunteering developments as positive, while the other half described problems primarily with financing and motivation. Most volunteers received transportation allowances or bicycles; some received monetary compensation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show a wide range of volunteering in palliative care. We identified volunteers as typically 30-50 years old, non-professional females, motivated by altruism, a sense of civic engagement and personal gain. Palliative care services benefit from volunteers who take on high workloads and are close to the patients. The main challenges for volunteer programmes are funding and the long-term motivation of volunteers.


Assuntos
Motivação , Cuidados Paliativos/tendências , Voluntários/psicologia , Adulto , África , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 30(1): 13-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116428

RESUMO

Background: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma screening has been controversial, and much of the controversy has centered on the value of mass or community screening. Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of glaucoma among volunteer adults who were screened in Jimma University Department of Ophthalmology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 459 volunteer residents of Jimma town and surrounding areas. The study subjects were aged 40 years and above, who came for community screening program after media announcement during the four consecutive weekends of November 2014. Comprehensive eye examination was done including best corrected visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure measurement, stereoscopic optic nerve evaluation, angle structure evaluation and visual field testing. Three diagnostic criteria for glaucoma were employed for all cases. Results: Of all adults who came for screening, 47(10.24%) were diagnosed to have glaucoma, 59(12.85%) were glaucoma suspects, and 8(1.74%) had ocular hypertension. The proportion of glaucoma increased with increasing age, (P value= 0.001 (99%CI)). Primary open angle glaucoma was the most common form (42.55%) of all new cases while 4.4% of all screened adults were followed by normal tension glaucoma (29.79%), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (19.15%), and primary angle closure glaucoma (6.38%) Around 5.7% of all glaucoma cases were found to be blind. Conclusion: The proportion of glaucoma in this community screening program in Southwest Ethiopia was 10.24% with primary open angle glaucoma being the commonest subtype. Glaucoma community screening should be promoted for early diagnosis and intervention to prevent irreversible blindness.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmologia , Distribuição por Sexo
17.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 63(3): 189-208, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191615

RESUMO

Guided by Jahoda's Latent Deprivation Theory, this study examined whether engaging in formal volunteering could moderate the negative impact of unemployment on older workers' mental health. This study also explored the optimal intensity/hours of volunteering required to have a positive effect. This study analyzed six waves (12 years) of longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study using fixed effects modeling. The outcome variable was depressive symptoms, and the independent variables were labor force status and volunteering status. Observed time-varying confounders were controlled. There was a significant interaction between engaging in formal volunteering and unemployment status. Unemployed older workers who participated in volunteering fared better than those unemployed workers who did not volunteer. Further, those unemployed older workers who volunteered over 100 hours/year did not benefit from volunteering. Results from this study have important implications for future intervention development targeting the mental health of unemployed older workers.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028664

RESUMO

This study assesses the levels of and relationships between the Motivation to donate, Job crafting propensity, and the Organizational citizenship behavior of blood collection volunteers in a non-profit association. An Italian sample of AVIS (the Italian Association of Voluntary Blood donors) blood donors (N = 1215) actively involved in organizing blood collection, were asked to complete the Italian version of the Volunteer Function Index, the Job crafting scale, and the Organizational citizenship behavior scale. The tools were verified by Confirmatory factor analysis and their relationships were explored using Structural equation modeling for hidden variables. The three constructs have overall high scores. Motivation to donate and Job crafting show a clear correlation, with the latter influencing volunteer Organizational citizenship behavior. The study highlights the need to take into consideration the Motivation to donate, Job crafting and Organizational citizenship behavior of volunteers, particularly in countries such as Italy, where blood collection is almost exclusively carried out thanks to spontaneous, altruistic, and disinterested commitment.


Assuntos
Motivação , Cultura Organizacional , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Voluntários , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 48, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many community-based intervention models for mental health and wellbeing have undergone robust experimental evaluation; however, there are limited accounts of the implementation of these evidence-based interventions in practice. Atmiyata piloted the implementation of a community-led intervention to identify and understand the challenges of delivering such an intervention. The goal of the pilot evaluation is to identify factors important for larger-scale implementation across an entire district in India. This paper presents the results of a feasibility and acceptability study of the Atmiyata intervention piloted in Nashik district, Maharashtra, India between 2013 and 2015. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used to evaluate the Atmiyata intervention. First, a pre-post survey conducted with 215 cases identified with a GHQ cut-off 6 using a 3-month interval. Cases enrolled into the study in one randomly selected month (May-June 2015). Secondly, a quasi-experimental, pre-post design was used to conduct a population-based survey in the intervention and control areas. A randomly selected sample (panel) of 827 women and 843 men age between 18 to 65 years were interviewed to assess the impact of the Atmiyata intervention on common mental disorders. Finally, using qualitative methods, 16 Champions interviewed to understand an implementation processes, barriers and facilitators. RESULTS: Of the 215 participants identified by the Champions as being distressed or having a common mental disorder (CMD), n = 202 (94.4%) had a GHQ score at either sub-threshold level for CMD or above at baseline. Champions accurately identified people with emotional distress and in need of psychological support. After a 6-session counselling provided by the Champions, the percentage of participants with a case-level GHQ score dropped from 63.8 to 36.8%. The second sub-intervention consisted of showing films on Champions' mobile phones to raise community awareness regarding mental health. Films consisted of short scenario-based depictions of problems commonly experienced in villages (alcohol use and domestic violence). Champions facilitated access to social benefits for people with disability. Retention of Atmiyata Champions was high; 90.7% of the initial selected champions continued to work till the end of the project. Champions stated that they enjoyed their work and found it fulfilling to help others. This made them willing to work voluntarily, without pay. The semi-structured interviews with champions indicated that persons in the community experienced reduced symptoms and improved social, occupational and family functioning for problems such as depression, domestic violence, alcohol use, and severe mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that community-led interventions using volunteers from rural neighbourhoods can serve as a locally feasible and acceptable approach to facilitating access social welfare benefits, as well as reducing distress and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a low and middle-income country context. The intervention draws upon social capital in a community to engage and empower community members to address mental health problems. A robust evaluation methodology is needed to test the efficacy of such a model when it is implemented at scale.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental/tendências , Voluntários , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/tendências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 111, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze a training program in accident prevention and care and Pediatric Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation taught by medical students. RESULTS: Medical students were trained as instructors. Four courses of were launched in Honduras, and the results were analyzed through a theoretical and practical evaluation and an anonymous survey. The volunteer experience for the students and the benefits to the population were positively valued. 37 students received the training. The score in the initial theoretical evaluation was 5.9 of 17 and in the final 10.5, p < 0.001. 89.1% and 91.9% of the students achieved adequate practical learning in basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for children and infants respectively. The course was rated excellently by the students. We conclude that a training program in accident prevention and care and Pediatric Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation taught by medical students could be useful in a cooperation health program.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Educação/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Honduras , Humanos , Lactente , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Capacitação de Professores/normas , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos
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