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1.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(6): 559-571, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470732

RESUMO

A small, local-level communication initiative aimed to bring about social change and development in communities affected by sustained conflict in Mindanao, Philippines. A realist evaluation involved a secondary analysis of existing data sets that revealed previously undetected mechanisms and 13 outcomes for improving dialogue, livelihood, and participatory communication. This article describes the method developed for the realist evaluation and constructs Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations from the existing data sets. The realist evaluation represents what took place in a context characterized by conflict, disadvantage and disempowerment through 2 key mechanisms, community-centered radio and community radio volunteers. Both mechanisms became voices for the voiceless. The community-centered radio program supported community volunteers to mobilize communities to participate in radio segments, offering opportunities for their voices to be heard on local issues resulting in discussion, provision of services not previously offered, community leaders more responsive to community needs, and coordinated community action that resolved needs.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Rádio , Planejamento Social , Conflitos Armados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Mudança Social , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1036, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the mechanisms through which neighborhood social reciprocity influences older adults' mental health in China. METHODS: This study used data from the 2011-2015 waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. It estimated the effects of neighborhood social reciprocity on older adults' mental health and tested the mediating effects of the frequencies of physical activity, social interaction with neighbors, and volunteering experience. RESULTS: The results indicated that more neighborhood social reciprocity related to better mental health. The effects of the three mediators were statistically significant and enhanced mental health. In addition, the effects of the mediators were strengthened by neighborhood social reciprocity, and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: In China, neighborhood social reciprocity influenced older adults' mental health directly and through the mechanisms of the frequencies of physical activity, social interaction with neighbors, and volunteering experience.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/psicologia , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Workplace Health Saf ; 67(10): 512-519, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366292

RESUMO

Employer-supported volunteerism has the potential to benefit employees and ultimately have a positive business impact. Volunteerism has been linked to improved quality of life, reduced morbidity, and higher self-rated health. This study was designed to understand what small, rural worksites are doing with regard to volunteerism, and what their barriers are to such activities. An online survey was distributed to worksites using the social network of a Resource, Conservation, and Development Council, a rural nonprofit entity. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and for qualitative data, review and summary of common themes. Thirty-eight worksites responded, representing a wide range of worksite types. Volunteer activities requiring less time and resources to organize were more commonly employed versus group-based activities. Identified barriers included time, costs, small staffing numbers, perceived employee lack of interest, worksite policies, distance to volunteer sites, language barriers, and lack of awareness of opportunities. Despite a variety of challenges, some forms of employer-supported volunteerism seem feasible even in very small rural worksites. Worksite type, culture, and leadership are likely to be determinants of the extent and nature of employer-supported volunteerism. Strategies to encourage greater volunteerism need to be tailored to the interests and resources of each site. Occupational health nurses should consider incorporating some form of employee volunteerism activities within their health promotion programming, as it is consistent with an overall strategy of enhancing employee well-being. This could lead to positive business impacts such as increased employee engagement, improved recruitment and retention, and improved productivity.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Empresa de Pequeno Porte/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Caridade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Iowa , Enfermagem do Trabalho , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is common among older adults and is associated with adverse physical and psychological outcomes. Given the burden of pain and limited healthcare resources, devising innovative and cost-effective ways of managing chronic pain is of high priority. The aim of this paper is to explore the experiences and perceptions of peer volunteers (PVs) in a peer-led pain management program among nursing home residents in Hong Kong. METHODS: Forty-six PVs were recruited and trained to lead a pain management program (PAP). The PAP consisted of one 1 hour session per week for 12 weeks. It included 20 min of physical exercises performed under the supervision of PVs, followed by 30 min of pain management education, including information on pain situations, the impacts of pain, the use of drugs and non-drug strategies for pain management, demonstrations, and return demonstrations of various non-drug pain management techniques. Quantitative data were collected from questionnaires (demographics, pain situation, and pain knowledge) for all PVs. Qualitative data (PVs' experiences in leading the PAP, their perceived benefits, barriers encountered, and recommendations for improving the PAP) were collected at week 12 (upon completion of the PAP). Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and content analysis for qualitative data. RESULTS: A total of 46 PVs were recruited (34 females, 74%), with a mean ± SD age of 61.0 ± 5.1 years. Thirty-one of them reported having chronic pain. Before the training, their self-rated pain knowledge was 40.0 ± 20.5 (maximum 100 points) while their actual pain knowledge score was 86.1 ± 10.6 (maximum 100 points). The PVs reported an improvement in their knowledge and skills after leading PAPs. No PVs reported having received any negative comments about their role in leading the PAP but mentioned that they had received feedback on how to improve the program. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence that peer-led pain management programs are feasible and can lead to positive experiences for the PVs. Peer support models are coming into wide use because they show promise in helping patients to manage chronic conditions. Peer volunteers will become important resources in elderly care. The barriers that were identified may lead to improvements in the design and planning of future PAPs.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia por Exercício/educação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Voluntários/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455027

RESUMO

Improvement of volunteering rates in the Netherlands is important because increased productivity among older adults would contribute to societal sustainability in the light of population aging. Therefore, a better understanding of volunteer motivations of Dutch older adults is needed. The Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) for assessing volunteer motivations has good psychometric properties and is adapted to several languages, but no validated Dutch translation yet exists. The aim of the current study is to validate the VFI for use in the Dutch older population (60 years and over). The Dutch-translated VFI (6 scales, 30 items) is included in the Lifelines 'Daily Activities and Leisure Activities add-on Study', which was distributed among participants aged 60 to 80. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) are performed to assess the validity of the translated VFI. Internal consistency is assessed by computing Cronbach's α's. Results of the EFA (N = 4208) point towards a six-factor solution with a nearly perfectly clean structure. Deletion of three problematic items results in a clean factor structure. CFA results indicate moderate model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.90, TLI = 0.89). Cronbach's α's (0.78 to 0.85) indicate good internal consistency. Goodness-of-fit indices are sufficient and comparable to those obtained in the validation of the original VFI. The current study provides support for use of the Dutch-translation of the VFI (6 scales, 27 items) to assess volunteer motivations among Dutch volunteers aged 60 years and over.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Motivação , Psicometria/normas , Traduções , Voluntários/classificação , Voluntários/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 478, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to place a high burden on communities due to challenges reaching intervention target levels in Chikwawa District, Malawi. The Hunger Project Malawi is using a health animator approach (HA) to address gaps in malaria control coverage. We explored the influence of community-based volunteers known as health animators (HAs) in malaria control. We assessed the impact of HAs on knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards malaria interventions. METHODS: This paper draws on the qualitative data collected to explore the roles of communities, HAs and formal health workers attending and not attending malaria workshops for malaria control. Purposive sampling was used to select 78 respondents. We conducted 10 separate focus group discussions (FGDs)-(n = 6) with community members and (n = 4) key informants. Nine in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with HAs and Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) in three focal areas near Majete Wildlife Reserve. Nvivo 11 was used for coding and analysis. We employed the framework analysis and social capital theory to determine how the intervention influenced health and social outcomes. RESULTS: Using education, feedback sessions and advocacy in malaria workshop had mixed outcomes. There was a high awareness of community participation and comprehensive knowledge of the HA approach as key to malaria control. HAs were identified as playing a complementary role in malaria intervention. Community members' attitudes towards advocacy for better health services were poor. Attendance in malaria workshops was sporadic towards the final year of the intervention. Respondents mentioned positive attitudes and practices on net usage for prevention and prompt health-seeking behaviours. CONCLUSION: The HA approach is a useful strategy for complementing malaria prevention strategies in rural communities and improving practices for health-seeking behaviour. Various factors influence HAs' motivation, retention, community engagement, and programme sustainability. However, little is known about how these factors interact to influence volunteers' motivation, community participation and sustainability over time. More research is needed to explore the acceptability of an HA approach and the impact on malaria control in other rural communities in Malawi.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Voluntários , Adolescente , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Midwifery ; 77: 117-122, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cesarean birth is common in the United States and associated with increased incidence of medical complications and maternal dissatisfaction. Doula support is associated with improved maternal and newborn outcomes but is often restricted to vaginal birth. The aim of this scoping study was to explore the experiences of volunteer doulas who provide support to women during cesarean birth. METHODS: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with nine doula volunteers from one program to assess their experiences caring for clients in the operating room (OR). RESULTS: Doulas described their experiences supporting cesarean births in relation to four different relationship-level themes, relationships between: doulas and their clients (and clients' support persons); doulas and the physical environment (OR, labor and delivery unit); doulas and the OR interprofessional team; and doulas and the program culture. Doulas described perceived strengths and weaknesses of the OR-based program, and suggested improvements and future development opportunities. CONCLUSION: Doulas volunteering within this program highly valued their perceived role in the care of women experiencing cesarean birth, including reports of increasing evidence-based practices such as SSC and early breastfeeding initiation in the OR. These doulas reported successfully working around the physically challenging OR environment and alongside the cesarean interprofessional team.


Assuntos
Cesárea/normas , Doulas/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea/métodos , Cesárea/psicologia , Doulas/educação , Doulas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The optic nerve is a component of the central nervous system, and the optic nerve sheath is connected to the subarachnoid space. For this reason, intracranial pressure (ICP) increases are directly transmitted to the optic nerve sheath. Knowing the normal optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) range in a healthy population is necessary to interpret this measurement as a sign of intracranial pressure in clinical practice and research. In this study, we aimed to determine the standard ONSD value in healthy adultsaged65 years of age or older who had not previously been diagnosed with a disease that could increase the ICP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The right and left ONSD values and ONSD differences were compared, according to the gender of the patients. The patients were divided into 3 groups, according to their age. The age groups were assigned as follows: Group 1: 65-74 years of age; Group 2: 75-84 years of age; and Group 3: 85 years of age or older. The ONSDs and the ONSD difference between the left and right eyes of Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were compared. RESULTS: The study included 195 volunteers. The mean ONSD of both eyes was 4.16±0.69 mm, and the difference between the ONSD of the left and right eyes was 0.16±0.18 mm. There was no difference between genders in terms of right ONSD, left ONSD, mean ONSD and ONSD difference between the left and right eyes. There was no correlation between age and ONSD and ONSD difference. When the age groups and ONSD were compared, no difference was found between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the ONSDs of both eyes do not vary with age in healthy adults aged65 years or older. ONSD does not vary between genders. The calculation of ONSD difference can be used to determine ICP increase.


Assuntos
Nervo Óptico/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Pesos e Medidas/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Turquia , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesos e Medidas/normas
9.
Malar J ; 18(1): 255, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission is high in western Kenya and the asymptomatic infected population plays a significant role in driving the transmission. Mathematical modelling and simulation programs suggest that interventions targeting asymptomatic infections through mass testing and treatment (MTaT) or mass drug administration (MDA) have the potential to reduce malaria transmission when combined with existing interventions. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the study site, capacity development efforts required, and lessons learned for implementing a multi-year community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of MTaT for malaria transmission reduction in an area of high transmission in western Kenya. METHODS: The study partnered with Kenya's Ministry of Health (MOH) and other organizations on community sensitization and engagement to mobilize, train and deploy community health volunteers (CHVs) to deliver MTaT in the community. Within the health facilities, the study availed staff, medical and laboratory supplies and strengthened health information management system to monitor progress and evaluate impact of intervention. RESULTS: More than 80 Kenya MOH CHVs, 13 clinical officers, field workers, data and logistical staff were trained to carry out MTaT three times a year for 2 years in a population of approximately 90,000 individuals. A supply chain management was adapted to meet daily demands for large volumes of commodities despite the limitation of few MOH facilities having ideal storage conditions. Modern technology was adapted more to meet the needs of the high daily volume of collected data. CONCLUSIONS: In resource-constrained settings, large interventions require capacity building and logistical planning. This study found that investing in relationships with the communities, local governments, and other partners, and identifying and equipping the appropriate staff with the skills and technology to perform tasks are important factors for success in delivering an intervention like MTaT.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Quênia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 50(3): 331-335, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084835

RESUMO

Despite the growing number of women entering medical school, female representation among orthopedic surgery is the lowest compared with all areas of medicine. In 2014, 47.7% of students entering medical school were women, but only 13.7% of orthopedic residents were women. Pediatric orthopedics have been successful in enrolling women compared with other orthopedic subspecialties. This is an investigation of female representation among the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America membership roster, providing insight into the effect on the increased gender diversity in the membership of an organization and its correlation with leadership positions at different levels within the organization.


Assuntos
Liderança , Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Psychol Health ; 34(11): 1358-1377, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132015

RESUMO

Objective: Pre-treatment side effect expectancies often influence subsequent experiences; however, expectancy-based reduction strategies are lacking. We explored whether framing information about adverse responses (in positive or negative formats) altered expectancies and experiences of a cold pressor task. We further investigated associations between expectancies and experiences, to inform potential interventions. Design: Healthy volunteers (N = 134), randomised to receive positively- or negatively-framed pre-cold pressor task information, self-rated 12 expectancies for cold pressor experiences, emotional state and coping style. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reports of the same 12-experiences (recorded during and after the experiment) were assessed. Results: Framing had minimal impact on expectancies and experiences; however, discomfort threshold (p = .08, d = 0.22) showed a trend in the expected direction. Hierarchical regressions revealed expectancies uniquely, significantly predicted 6-23% of the variance for 11 subsequent experiences. Following a popular charity event (Ice Bucket Challenge), all participants showed higher 'discomfort thresholds' (p = .001, d = 0.59), and those in the negative frame reported more overall 'discomfort' (p = .01, d = 0.60) than participants in the positive condition. Conclusion: Expectancies uniquely influenced subsequent cold pressor experiences. Framing had minimal impact in this 'analogue' medical setting, only influencing 'discomfort threshold'. 'Discomfort threshold' and overall 'discomfort' were also impacted by a social media challenge, highlighting a potential area for intervention.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Limiar da Dor/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/etiologia , Autorrelato , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Nurs ; 119(6): 20-22, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135422

RESUMO

: Editor&s note: Patricia J. Kelly is a retired professor of nursing at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. In this report, she writes about her work and observations while volunteering at and visiting migrant shelters in Tucson, Arizona, where she lives, and San Diego, where she often travels to visit family.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Arizona , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(7): 673-678, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993862

RESUMO

AIM: The present study explored the interactive effects of willingness to volunteer and actual volunteer engagement on the maintenance of functional health among older Japanese adults, using data from a 3-year longitudinal study. METHODS: We used data from the 3-year longitudinal Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging (1997). We examined 676 older adults aged >65 years from the rural Nangai District who were independent in their basic activities of daily living (BADL). A follow-up study was carried out in 2000. We categorized participants into four groups: "willing volunteers," "unwilling volunteers," "willing non-volunteers" and "unwilling non-volunteers." Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the interactive effects of willingness to volunteer and actual engagement in volunteering at baseline on BADL decline over a 3-year period. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 6.6% of willing volunteers, 17.4% of unwilling volunteers, 16.3% of willing non-volunteers and 21.0% of unwilling non-volunteers experienced a decline in BADL. Unwilling volunteers (odds ratio [OR] 2.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-6.43) and both non-volunteer groups (willing: OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.28-5.72; unwilling: OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.32-4.64) had significantly higher odds of BADL decline than did willing volunteers. When unwilling non-volunteer was set as the reference, the OR of unwilling volunteers became 1.16 (95% CI 0.55-2.49), suggesting that unwilling volunteers had a similar odds of BADL decline as non-volunteers. CONCLUSION: Volunteer activity is effective for preventing BADL decline only for those who willingly engage. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 673-678.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Participação Social/psicologia , Voluntários , Idoso , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Vida Independente/psicologia , Japão , Masculino , Voluntários/classificação , Voluntários/psicologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Engajamento no Trabalho
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 143, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People from refugee backgrounds face various challenges after moving to a new country. Successfully securing employment has been linked to positive health outcomes in refugee populations; there is less research into the impact of volunteering on health outcomes in refugees, or the role of employment and volunteering in regional or rural communities. This study aims to explore how employment and volunteering influences the health and wellbeing of refugees settled in regional Australia, and identify areas for appropriate service provision. METHODS: Nine adults of refugee background in regional Australia were purposively sampled through community organisations using word-of-mouth referrals for semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to uncover emergent themes and identify relationships between themes. A strengths-based theoretical framework was adopted to inform further analysis. RESULTS: Paid work and volunteering engenders a sense of self-fulfillment and sense of belonging, facilitating successful integration into a new community. Employment further allows maintenance of an adequate standard of living, thus improving healthcare access and promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours. Adverse effects from employment include difficulties managing work-life balance, disconnect with family and loss of traditional heritage, but these were significantly outweighed by the positive effects. Volunteering provides no financial incentive, but similarly promotes community connections and positive self-worth, preparing refugees for the workforce. Both employment and volunteering held direct positive benefits for their physical and mental health, improved healthcare access and promoted cultural and social integration. These factors enabled successful settlement and subsequently improved overall wellbeing of participants. A strengths-based approach demonstrated how participants used employment as a tool for seeking purpose and ongoing self-development. CONCLUSION: Unique experiences with employment and volunteering in a regional area amongst a refugee community were explored. Our results describe various ways in which meaningful employment and volunteering can facilitate positive health and wellbeing outcomes of refugees, and thus reinforces the importance of providing such opportunities to ensure successful settlement. The benefits of volunteering in this community have not been previously explored. Additionally, concerns expressed and recommendations suggested by participants could be used to inform future research, policy, interventions and health and employment service provision for refugee populations.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Adulto , África/etnologia , Austrália , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 13(2): 287-294, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid response to a trauma incident is vital for saving lives. However, in a mass casualty incident (MCI), there may not be enough resources (first responders and equipment) to adequately triage, prepare, and evacuate every injured person. To address this deficit, a Volunteer First Responder (VFR) program was established. METHODS: This paper describes the organizational structure and roles of the VFR program, outlines the geographical distribution of volunteers, and evaluates response times to 3 MCIs for both ambulance services and VFRs in 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: When mapped, the spatial distribution of VFRs and ambulance stations closely and deliberately reflects the population distribution of Israel. We found that VFRs were consistently first to arrive at the scene of an MCI and greatly increased the number of personnel available to assist with MCI management in urban, suburban, and rural settings. CONCLUSIONS: The VFR program provides an important and effective life-saving resource to supplement emergency first response. Given the known importance of rapid response to trauma, VFRs likely contribute to reduced trauma mortality, although further research is needed in order to examine this question specifically. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:287-294).


Assuntos
Socorristas/educação , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/psicologia , Voluntários/educação , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Socorristas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Israel , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Psychogeriatrics ; 19(2): 117-125, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259591

RESUMO

AIM: Studies have indicated that altruistic behaviour may be associated with better health. Nevertheless, it has not been determined if volunteering acts as a protective factor against cognitive decline or if a person's altruistic character does so. This study aims to evaluate whether altruistic behaviour and volunteering are associated with better cognitive function in active community-dwelling older persons. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in healthy older persons. Sociodemographics, altruistic behaviour (self-report altruism scale), volunteering (days volunteered), cognitive state (cognitive assessment battery), and factors associated with cognition (e.g. depression, social support, functional status, and religiosity) were evaluated. Adjusted and non-adjusted models were created in order to understand the relationship of altruistic behaviour and volunteering with cognitive performance. RESULTS: A total of 312 older adults were evaluated; 89.4% were women, and the mean age was 69.6 years. In the linear regression models, greater altruistic behaviour was associated with higher scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (ß = 0.148, P < 0.05) and the verbal fluency test (ß = 0.219, P < 0.001), even after adjustments. In contrast, volunteering was not associated with any of the cognitive tests used. CONCLUSION: Altruistic behaviour seems to have a role in older persons' cognition, with more altruistic people tending to have greater cognitive performance. These findings can assist in developing mechanisms that can help keep older people more cognitively active and serve as the foundation for future interventions and studies in this area.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Vida Independente , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Voluntários/psicologia
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