Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 540
Filtrar
1.
Perspect Public Health ; 134(5): 276-82, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25169614

RESUMO

This article presents a historical review of national community health worker (CHW) programs in India using a gender- and rights-based lens. The aim is to derive relevant policy implications to stem attrition and enable sustenance of large-scale CHW programs. For the literature review, relevant government policies, minutes of meetings, reports, newspaper articles and statistics were accessed through official websites and a hand search was conducted for studies on the rights-based aspects of large-scale CHW programs. The analysis shows that the CHWs in three successive Indian national CHW programs have consistently asked for reforms in their service conditions, including increased remuneration. Despite an evolution in stakeholder perspectives regarding the rights of CHWs, service reforms are slow. Performance-based payments do not provide the financial security expected by CHWs as demonstrated in the recent Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) program. In most countries, CHWs, who are largely women, have never been integrated into the established, salaried team of health system workers. The two hallmark characteristics of CHWs, namely, their volunteer status and the flexibility of their tasks and timings, impede their rights. The consequences of initiating or neglecting standardization should be considered by all countries with large-scale CHW programs like the ASHA program.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Índia , Voluntários/organização & administração , Direitos da Mulher
5.
Instr Course Lect ; 63: 495-503, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24720334

RESUMO

Orthopaedic surgeons have consistently shown interest in volunteering to aid needy populations throughout the world. Service missions, building surgical capacity, and disaster relief have benefited from the volunteer efforts of orthopaedic surgeons. The burden of musculoskeletal disease is high and will continue to increase as motorization and development reach more people. The increasing burden of musculoskeletal disease requires thoughtful, well-planned, and effectively executed interventions. A framework for action will help orthopaedic surgeons use the many avenues available for involvement in international volunteer work.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Ortopedia , Voluntários/organização & administração , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Missões Médicas/organização & administração , Motivação , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 12: 16, 2014 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24690310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid urban population growth is of global concern as it is accompanied with several new health challenges. The urban poor who reside in informal settlements are more vulnerable to these health challenges. Lack of formal government public health facilities for the provision of health care is also a common phenomenon among communities inhabited by the urban poor. To help ameliorate this situation, an innovative urban primary health system was introduced in urban Ghana, based on the milestones model developed with the rural Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) system. This paper provides an overview of innovative experiences adapted while addressing these urban health issues, including the process of deriving constructive lessons needed to inform discourse on the design and implementation of the sustainable Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model as a response to urban health challenges in Southern Ghana. METHODS: This research was conducted during the six-month pilot of the urban CHPS programme in two selected areas acting as the intervention and control arms of the design. Daily routine data were collected based on milestones initially delineated for the rural CHPS model in the control communities whilst in the intervention communities, some modifications were made to the rural milestones. RESULTS: The findings from the implementation activities revealed that many of the best practices derived from the rural CHPS experiment could not be transplanted to poor urban settlements due to the unique organizational structures and epidemiological characteristics found in the urban context. For example, constructing Community Health Compounds and residential facilities within zones, a central component to the rural CHPS strategy, proved inappropriate for the urban sector. Night and weekend home visit schedules were initiated to better accommodate urban residents and increase coverage. The breadth of the disease burden of the urban residents also requires a broader expertise and training of the CHOs. CONCLUSIONS: Access to improved urban health services remains a challenge. However, current policy guidelines for the implementation of a primary health model based on rural experiences and experimental design requires careful review and modifications to meet the needs of the urban settings.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/provisão & distribução , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Difusão de Inovações , Equipamentos e Provisões/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Gana , Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Planejamento em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pessoal , Projetos Piloto , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Voluntários/educação , Voluntários/organização & administração
8.
Biosecur Bioterror ; 12(2): 85-93, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24697751

RESUMO

The Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) was established in the Office of the Surgeon General in response to the spontaneous but disorganized outpouring of medical volunteers following the terrorist attacks of 2001. The mission of the federal MRC office is to provide organizational structure and guidance to the nearly 1,000 locally organized and funded MRC units that have grown up across the country and the more than 200,000 volunteer health professionals that staff these units. Despite the large size of this program and its numerous activations over the past decade, including in the Boston Marathon bombing and Hurricane Sandy, relatively little is known about the MRC, including the make-up of the units, the ways units have been used, and the challenges faced by MRC units and their volunteers. Here we report the results of a mixed-methods investigation of MRC unit organization, activities, and challenges.


Assuntos
Desastres , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Voluntários/organização & administração , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 61(1): 6-12, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24397300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Occupational therapists involved in volunteer programmes do so as either a volunteer or as a professional working with volunteers. This study outlines two such programmes: one in regional Queensland, with refugees settling into a life in Australia, and one in Bhutan, with an organisation assisting families of children with disabilities. In both instances, the author has been involved as a volunteer, drawing on her occupational therapy skills, the Person-Environment-Occupation Model and self-determination theory as theoretical frameworks. METHOD: This report offers an insight into two geographically and culturally different volunteer programmes, and outlines the potential for occupational therapists to be involved in cross-cultural experiences, within Australia and abroad. In the Australian setting the author is working with newly arrived refugees from Africa, Iran and Iraq in a local community group the Toowoomba Refugee and Migrant Service. Within the Bhutanese setting the author is working with the Ability Bhutan Society, an organisation established by a group of local parents with the initial aim of sharing experiences and information relating to their children with disabilities. RESULTS: The descriptions of each volunteering experience outline the opportunities for facilitating the development of independence, self-determination and acquisition of new roles in two cross-cultural communities by an occupational therapist working as a volunteer. CONCLUSION: An occupational therapist's ability to assess the interaction between a person or organisation's skills, the environment in which that person or organisation is functioning, and the desired occupational outcomes of that person or organisation, enables a unique and valuable contribution as a volunteer.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional/organização & administração , Terapia Ocupacional/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Voluntários/organização & administração , Voluntários/psicologia , Butão/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Queensland/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Justiça Social
12.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 52(1): 31-40, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24305905

RESUMO

This article describes the preparation, selection, training, and support of a group of people with lived experience of mental distress/illness and mental health service use to work as peer support workers (PSWs). The PSWs were recruited to provide support alongside conventional aftercare to service users discharged from acute psychiatric units in London, England. Training was delivered over 12 weekly, 1-day sessions from April to July 2010. Supervision and support were provided by a peer support coordinator and a training facilitator. The overall view of the training by those who went on to work as PSWs was that it was a valuable, challenging, yet positive experience that provided them with a good preparation for the role. A key area for improvement concerned the strength of emotional involvement and feelings PSWs had for their peers, especially in regard to ending the support relationship. Skilled, sensitive supervision and support is essential for the success of such roles.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Grupo Associado , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Apoio Social , Reino Unido , Voluntários/organização & administração
13.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 52(1): 22-30, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24305906

RESUMO

SUGAR (Service User and Carer Group Advising on Research) is an initiative established to develop collaborative working in mental health nursing research between mental health service users, carers, researchers, and practitioners at City University London, United Kingdom. This article will describe the background of SUGAR; how the group operates; some of the achievements to date, including researcher reflections; and case studies of how this collaboration influences our research. Written reflective narratives of service user and carer experiences of SUGAR were analyzed using constant comparative methods by the members. Common themes are presented with illustrative quotes. The article highlights the benefits and possible limitations identified to date by members of SUGAR, outlines future plans, and considers the findings in relation to literature on involvement and empowerment. This article, written by staff and members of SUGAR, is the first venture into collaborative writing of the group and reflects the shared ethos of collaborative working.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Comportamento Cooperativo , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Participação do Paciente , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Objetivos Organizacionais , Grupo Associado , Poder Psicológico , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reino Unido , Voluntários/organização & administração
14.
Soc Work Health Care ; 52(10): 913-29, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24255975

RESUMO

Gynecologic cancer has significant emotional and psychosocial implications for patients and their families. This article describes the origin and implementation of a peer to peer support program providing emotional support and information to women in treatment for gynecologic cancer and their families, in collaboration with medical and social work staff in a large, urban medical center. A formative evaluation of the program is included which suggests program participants view the program as a helpful source of support throughout treatment.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/psicologia , Apoio Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Grupo Associado , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Voluntários/organização & administração , Voluntários/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 13: 422, 2013 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24139174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Difficulties with recruitment pose a major, increasingly recognised challenge to the viability of research. We sought to explore whether a register of volunteers interested in research participation, with data linkage to electronic health records to identify suitable research participants, would prove acceptable to healthcare staff, patients and researchers. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative study in which a maximum variation sampling approach was adopted. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with patients, general practitioners (GP), practice managers and health service researchers in two Scottish health boards. Analysis was primarily thematic to identify a range of issues and concerns for all stakeholder groups. RESULTS: The concept of a national research register was, in general, acceptable to all stakeholder groups and was widely regarded as beneficial for research and for society. Patients, however, highlighted a number of conditions which should be met in the design of a register to expedite confidence and facilitate recruitment. They also gave their perceptions on how a register should operate and be promoted, favouring a range of media. GPs and practice managers were primarily concerned with the security and confidentiality of patient data and the impact a register may have on their workload. Researchers were supportive of the initiative seeing advantages in more rapid access to a wider pool of patients. They did raise concerns that GPs may be able to block access to personal patient data held in general practice clinical systems and that the register may not be representative of the whole population. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that patients, healthcare staff and researchers have a favourable view of the potential benefits of a national register to identify people who are potentially eligible and willing to participate in health related research. It has highlighted a number of issues for the developers to incorporate in the design of research registers.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pacientes , Sistema de Registros , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Escócia , Voluntários/organização & administração
19.
Biosecur Bioterror ; 11(3): 217-25, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24041195

RESUMO

The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) provides a mechanism for states to assist each other during natural disasters and other emergencies. Congress ratified EMAC in 1996, and all 50 states and 3 territories have adopted it. EMAC allows a state affected by a disaster to request personnel and materiel from another state. For personnel requests, EMAC provides that the requesting state cover the tort liability and the responding state cover the workers' compensation liability. This article discusses the limitations of EMAC in deploying volunteers and how the Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act and other provisions address those limitations.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/legislação & jurisprudência , Responsabilidade Legal , Voluntários/legislação & jurisprudência , Voluntários/organização & administração , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/legislação & jurisprudência , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
20.
Omega (Westport) ; 67(1-2): 87-95, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23977783

RESUMO

This project offers encouraging evidence of the impact of providing companionship and compassionate care to actively dying Veterans. Veteran-centered care serves as a guide for volunteer program objectives including goals based on measuring outcomes of volunteer visits offered to Veterans, frequency of visits to those desiring volunteer involvement and documentation of goals on the resident plan of care. Forty-eight Veterans were admitted to the Palliative Integrated Care (PIC) Unit during the project review period with a median length of stay (LOS) of 7 days, ranging 1-50 days. Goals were met for Veterans with LOS > 3 days; however, it was more challenging to meet the needs of Veterans with shorter stays. Data for this project were collected over a 6-month period. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is responding to the needs of end-of-life Veterans who do not have family or friends readily available through the No Veteran Dies Alone initiative.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/organização & administração , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Espiritualidade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Voluntários/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA