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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7238, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513698

RESUMO

Humans are exposed to extreme environmental stressors during spaceflight and return with alterations in brain structure and shifts in intracranial fluids. To date, no studies have evaluated the effects of spaceflight on perivascular spaces (PVSs) within the brain, which are believed to facilitate fluid drainage and brain homeostasis. Here, we examined how the number and morphology of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible PVSs are affected by spaceflight, including prior spaceflight experience. Fifteen astronauts underwent six T1-weighted 3 T MRI scans, twice prior to launch and four times following their return to Earth after ~ 6-month missions to the International Space Station. White matter MRI-visible PVS number and morphology were calculated using an established, automated segmentation algorithm. We validated our automated segmentation algorithm by comparing algorithm PVS counts with those identified by two trained raters in 50 randomly selected slices from this cohort; the automated algorithm performed similarly to visual ratings (r(48) = 0.77, p < 0.001). In addition, we found high reliability for four of five PVS metrics across the two pre-flight time points and across the four control time points (ICC(3,k) > 0.50). Among the astronaut cohort, we found that novice astronauts showed an increase in total PVS volume from pre- to post-flight, whereas experienced crewmembers did not (p = 0.020), suggesting that experienced astronauts may exhibit holdover effects from prior spaceflight(s). Greater pre-flight PVS load was associated with more prior flight experience (r = 0.60-0.71), though these relationships did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Pre- to post-flight changes in ventricular volume were not significantly associated with changes in PVS characteristics, and the presence of spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) was not associated with PVS number or morphology. Together, these findings demonstrate that PVSs can be consistently identified on T1-weighted MRI scans, and that spaceflight is associated with PVS changes. Specifically, prior spaceflight experience may be an important factor in determining PVS characteristics.


Assuntos
Sistema Glinfático , Voo Espacial , Astronautas , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(17): e2120439119, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412862

RESUMO

Long-duration spaceflight induces changes to the brain and cerebrospinal fluid compartments and visual acuity problems known as spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS). The clinical relevance of these changes and whether they equally affect crews of different space agencies remain unknown. We used MRI to analyze the alterations occurring in the perivascular spaces (PVS) in NASA and European Space Agency astronauts and Roscosmos cosmonauts after a 6-mo spaceflight on the International Space Station (ISS). We found increased volume of basal ganglia PVS and white matter PVS (WM-PVS) after spaceflight, which was more prominent in the NASA crew than the Roscosmos crew. Moreover, both crews demonstrated a similar degree of lateral ventricle enlargement and decreased subarachnoid space at the vertex, which was correlated with WM-PVS enlargement. As all crews experienced the same environment aboard the ISS, the differences in WM-PVS enlargement may have been due to, among other factors, differences in the use of countermeasures and high-resistive exercise regimes, which can influence brain fluid redistribution. Moreover, NASA astronauts who developed SANS had greater pre- and postflight WM-PVS volumes than those unaffected. These results provide evidence for a potential link between WM-PVS fluid and SANS.


Assuntos
Astronautas , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Sistema Glinfático , Voo Espacial , Transtornos da Visão , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Glinfático/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos da Visão/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457139

RESUMO

The biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation show both a qualitative and quantitative difference when compared to low-LET radiation. However, models used to estimate risks ignore qualitative differences and involve extensive use of gamma-ray data, including low-LET radiation epidemiology, quality factors (QF), and dose and dose-rate effectiveness factors (DDREF). We consider a risk prediction that avoids gamma-ray data by formulating a track structure model of excess relative risk (ERR) with parameters estimated from animal studies using high-LET radiation. The ERR model is applied with U.S. population cancer data to predict lifetime risks to astronauts. Results for male liver and female breast cancer risk show that the ERR model agrees fairly well with estimates of a QF model on non-targeted effects (NTE) and is about 2-fold higher than the QF model that ignores NTE. For male or female lung cancer risk, the ERR model predicts about a 3-fold and more than 7-fold lower risk compared to the QF models with or without NTE, respectively. We suggest a relative risk approach coupled with improved models of tissue-specific cancers should be pursued to reduce uncertainties in space radiation risk projections. This approach would avoid low-LET uncertainties, while including qualitive effects specific to high-LET radiation.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Voo Espacial , Animais , Astronautas , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Transferência Linear de Energia , Masculino , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Risco
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457274

RESUMO

This Special Issue (SI), "Microgravity and Space Medicine 2 [...].


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso
5.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458519

RESUMO

Human alpha herpesviruses herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) establish latency in various cranial nerve ganglia and often reactivate in response to stress-associated immune system dysregulation. Reactivation of Epstein Barr virus (EBV), VZV, HSV-1, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) is typically asymptomatic during spaceflight, though live/infectious virus has been recovered and the shedding rate increases with mission duration. The risk of clinical disease, therefore, may increase for astronauts assigned to extended missions (>180 days). Here, we report, for the first time, a case of HSV-1 skin rash (dermatitis) occurring during long-duration spaceflight. The astronaut reported persistent dermatitis during flight, which was treated onboard with oral antihistamines and topical/oral steroids. No HSV-1 DNA was detected in 6-month pre-mission saliva samples, but on flight day 82, a saliva and rash swab both yielded 4.8 copies/ng DNA and 5.3 × 104 copies/ng DNA, respectively. Post-mission saliva samples continued to have a high infectious HSV-1 load (1.67 × 107 copies/ng DNA). HSV-1 from both rash and saliva samples had 99.9% genotype homology. Additional physiological monitoring, including stress biomarkers (cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and salivary amylase), immune markers (adaptive regulatory and inflammatory plasma cytokines), and biochemical profile markers, including vitamin/mineral status and bone metabolism, are also presented for this case. These data highlight an atypical presentation of HSV-1 during spaceflight and underscore the importance of viral screening during clinical evaluations of in-flight dermatitis to determine viral etiology and guide treatment.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Exantema , Herpes Simples , Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Voo Espacial , Vírus não Classificados , Vírus , Biomarcadores , DNA Viral/análise , Herpes Simples/etiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/fisiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Ativação Viral
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328027

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common condition in aging, diabetes, and in long duration spaceflights due to microgravity. This article investigates multi-modal gene disease and disease drug networks via link prediction algorithms to select drugs for repurposing to treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Key target genes that cause muscle atrophy in the left and right extensor digitorum longus muscle tissue, gastrocnemius, quadriceps, and the left and right soleus muscles are detected using graph theoretic network analysis, by mining the transcriptomic datasets collected from mice flown in spaceflight made available by GeneLab. We identified the top muscle atrophy gene regulators by the Pearson correlation and Bayesian Markov blanket method. The gene disease knowledge graph was constructed using the scalable precision medicine knowledge engine. We computed node embeddings, random walk measures from the networks. Graph convolutional networks, graph neural networks, random forest, and gradient boosting methods were trained using the embeddings, network features for predicting links and ranking top gene-disease associations for skeletal muscle atrophy. Drugs were selected and a disease drug knowledge graph was constructed. Link prediction methods were applied to the disease drug networks to identify top ranked drugs for therapeutic treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy. The graph convolution network performs best in link prediction based on receiver operating characteristic curves and prediction accuracies. The key genes involved in skeletal muscle atrophy are associated with metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. The drugs selected for repurposing using the graph convolution network method were nutrients, corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory medications, and others related to insulin.


Assuntos
Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Voo Espacial , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/genética
7.
J Neurophysiol ; 127(5): 1230-1239, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353615

RESUMO

Movements of the human biological system have adapted to the physical environment under the 1-g gravitational force on Earth. However, the effects of microgravity in space on the underlying functional neuromuscular control behaviors remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure to a microgravity environment on the functional coordination of multiple muscle activities. The activities of 16 lower limb muscles of 5 astronauts who stayed in space for at least 3 mo were recorded while they maintained multidirectional postural control during bipedal standing. The coordinated activation patterns of groups of muscles, i.e., muscle synergies, were estimated from the muscle activation datasets using a factorization algorithm. The experiments were repeated a total of five times for each astronaut, once before and four times after spaceflight. The compositions of muscle synergies were altered, with a constant number of synergies, after long-term exposure to microgravity, and the extent of the changes was correlated with the increased velocity of postural sway. Furthermore, the muscle synergies extracted 3 mo after the return were similar in their activation profile but not in their muscle composition compared with those extracted in the preflight condition. These results suggest that the modularity in the neuromuscular system became reorganized to adapt to the microgravity environment and then possibly reoptimized to the new sensorimotor environment after the astronauts were reexposed to a gravitational force. It is expected that muscle synergies can be used as physiological markers of the status of astronauts with gravity-dependent change.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The human neuromuscular system has adapted to the gravitational environment on Earth. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to a microgravity environment in space changes the functional coordination of multiple muscle activities regarding multidirectional standing postural control. Furthermore, the amount of change led to a greater regulatory balancing activity needed for postural control immediately after returning to Earth and differences in muscular coordination before space flight and 3 mo after the return to Earth.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Astronautas , Humanos , Músculos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
8.
J Neurophysiol ; 127(4): 1127-1146, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320031

RESUMO

Humans have a remarkable capacity to learn new motor skills, a process that requires novel muscle activity patterns. Muscle synergies may simplify the generation of muscle patterns through the selection of a small number of synergy combinations. Learning of new motor skills may then be achieved by acquiring novel muscle synergies. In a previous study, we used myoelectric control to construct virtual surgeries that altered the mapping from muscle activity to cursor movements. After compatible virtual surgeries, which could be compensated by recombining subject-specific muscle synergies, participants adapted quickly. In contrast, after incompatible virtual surgeries, which could not be compensated by recombining existing synergies, participants explored new muscle patterns but failed to adapt. Here, we tested whether task space exploration can promote learning of novel muscle synergies required to overcome an incompatible surgery. Participants performed the same reaching task as in our previous study but with more time to complete each trial, thus allowing for exploration. We found an improvement in trial success after incompatible virtual surgeries. Remarkably, improvements in movement direction accuracy after incompatible surgeries occurred faster for corrective movements than for the initial movement, suggesting that learning of new synergies is more effective when used for feedback control. Moreover, reaction time was significantly higher after incompatible than compatible virtual surgeries, suggesting an increased use of an explicit adaptive strategy to overcome incompatible surgeries. Taken together, these results indicate that exploration is important for skill learning and suggest that human participants, with sufficient time, can learn new muscle synergies.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Motor skill learning requires the acquisition of novel muscle patterns, a slow adaptive process. Here we show that learning to control a cursor after an incompatible virtual surgery, a complex skill requiring new muscle synergies, is possible when enough time for task space exploration is provided. Our results suggest that learning new synergies is related to the exceptional human capacity to acquire a wide variety of novel motor skills with practice.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Voo Espacial , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5022, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322088

RESUMO

The perturbative integral method was applied to quantify the contribution of external forces during a specific interval of time in trajectories of spacecraft around asteroids and under the Luni-solar influence. However, this method has not been used to quantify the contributions of drag in aerocapture and aerobraking. For this reason, the planet Mars is selected to apply this method during an aerogravity-assisted maneuver. Several trajectories are analyzed, making use of a drag device with area to mass ratios varying from 0.0 to 20.0 m2/kg, simulating solar sails or de-orbit devices. The mathematical model is based in the restricted three-body problem. The use of this maneuver makes it possible to obtain the variations of energy in the trajectory, replacing expensive maneuvers based on fuel consumption. To observe the effects of the maneuvers, different values of pericenter velocity and altitude were selected for prograde and retrograde orbits. The innovation of this research is the application of an integral method to quantify the delta-V of the aero gravity maneuver, comparing the cost of the maneuver with the traditional methods of space propulsion. The results allow the identification of orbits with conditions to capture, and the perturbative maps show the velocity variations.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Gravitação , Modelos Teóricos , Astronave
11.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 136: 104617, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283170

RESUMO

We reviewed the responses of the neuromuscular properties of mainly the soleus and possible mechanisms. Sensory nervous activity in response to passive shortening and/or active contraction, associated with plantar-flexion or dorsi-flexion of the ankle joints, may play an essential role in the regulation of muscle properties. Passive shortening of the muscle fibers and sarcomeres inhibits the development of tension, electromyogram (EMG), and afferent neurogram. Remodeling of the sarcomeres, which decreases the total sarcomere number in a single muscle fiber causing recovery of the length in each sarcomere, is induced in the soleus following chronic unloading. Although EMG activity and tension development in each sarcomere are increased, the total tension produced by the whole muscle is still less owing to the lower sarcomere number. Therefore, muscle atrophy continues to progress. Moreover, walking or slow running by rear-foot strike landing with the application of greater ground reaction force, which stimulates soleus mobilization, could be an effective countermeasure. Periodic, but not chronic, passive stretching of the soleus may also be effective.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sarcômeros/fisiologia , Caminhada
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0025422, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254118

RESUMO

The long-term exposure to enclosed environments may lead to chronic stress in crewmembers and affect their physical and mental state. Salivary microbiome and biomarkers of immune function are increasingly used in human health research. The "Lunar Palace 365" project, which was a 370-day, multicrew, enclosed experiment carried out in a ground-based bioregenerative life support system platform named Lunar Palace 1 (LP1). We investigated the temporal dynamics of the salivary microbiota and cytokines in the third phase of the "Lunar Palace 365" experiment, including 1 month before entering LP1 and 1 month after leaving Lp1. Results reveal no regular temporal change pattern in these parameters (highly abundant phyla and genera) during the experiment. Although the crewmembers' oral microbiota temporally changed, it recovered quickly after the study subjects left the enclosed environment. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in crewmembers' saliva decreased after leaving the normal environment for the enclosed environment, indicating that their oral inflammatory response level was reduced. There were significant individual differences in crewmembers' salivary microbiota, however, the shared living space reduced these differences. Moreover, air microbiota might have also played a significant role in reducing the individual differences. In summary, the enclosed environment did not result in persistent changes in human salivary microbiota and oral immunity. This study provides some insights for studying the effect of enclosed controlled environments on human immunity and microbiome. IMPORTANCE Long-term exposure to space environments may influence the human microbiome, the human immune system, and the intricate balance between the two, causing impaired immunity and increased disease susceptibility. It was previously believed that the main potential factors of long-term spaceflight on human health were microgravity and radiation. However, the effects of long-term enclosed environments on human health were unclear. Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is a good experimental model for studying the effects of enclosed environments on human systemic microbiota and immune disorders. We monitored the microbiota and cytokines in the saliva of crewmembers before they entered BLSS, during their stay in BLSS, and after leaving BLSS. The results indicated long-term closed environment will not cause persistent changes in human salivary microbiota and immunity.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Voo Espacial , Citocinas , Humanos , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Saliva
13.
Health Phys ; 122(4): 508-512, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244616

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Terrestrial experiments involving acute exposures of low-LET radiation on inbred lab animals are quick, simple, and inexpensive but are relatively uninformative about the real radiobiological hazards of planned manned space missions. A more predictive model could involve human beings chronically exposed to "space-like" high-LET radiation. Such radiation exposure has been ongoing for thousands of years in Ramsar, Iran, and some other high-LET high background radiation regions on Earth. Examining the health of Ramsar residents can be illuminating and potentially relevant to space missions.


Assuntos
Marte , Exposição à Radiação , Voo Espacial , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Radiobiologia
14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 271: 210-213, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228092

RESUMO

Space travel has different effects on the reproductive capacity of women compared to men. The radiation exposure intrinsic to deep space travel causes destruction of some of a woman's primordial follicles. Data suggests that a typical Mars mission may reduce a women's ovarian reserve by about 50%. This has consequences to a woman's reproductive capacity and, more significantly, decreases the time interval to her menopause. A reduced time interval to menopause is associated with earlier mortality. Estrogen replacement therapy and cryopreservation of a female astronaut's oocytes may be used to address these issues. However, cortical tissue freezing provides advantages to more directly compensate for these workplace complications. Cortical tissue freezing especially provides advantages if there are plans to reproduce in an extraterrestrial location.


Assuntos
Reserva Ovariana , Voo Espacial , Astronautas , Criopreservação , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Folículo Ovariano
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328810

RESUMO

The stress response of plants to spaceflight has been confirmed in contemporary plants, and plants retained the memory of spaceflight through methylation reaction. However, how the progeny plants adapt to this cross-generational stress memory was rarely reported. Here, we used the ShiJian-10 retractable satellite carrying Dongnong416 rice seeds for a 12.5-day on-orbit flight and planted the F2 generation after returning to the ground. We evaluated the agronomic traits of the F2 generation plants and found that the F2 generation plants had no significant differences in plant height and number of tillers. Next, the redox state in F2 plants was evaluated, and it was found that the spaceflight broke the redox state of the F2 generation rice. In order to further illustrate the stress response caused by this redox state imbalance, we conducted proteomics and metabolomics analysis. Proteomics results showed that the redox process in F2 rice interacts with signal transduction, stress response, and other pathways, causing genome instability in the plant, leading to transcription, post-transcriptional modification, protein synthesis, protein modification, and degradation processes were suppressed. The metabolomics results showed that the metabolism of the F2 generation plants was reshaped. These metabolic pathways mainly included amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, cofactor and vitamin metabolism, purine metabolism, phenylpropane biosynthesis, and flavonoid metabolism. These metabolic pathways constituted a new metabolic network. This study confirmed that spaceflight affected the metabolic changes in offspring rice, which would help better understand the adaptation mechanism of plants to the space environment.


Assuntos
Oryza , Voo Espacial , Metabolômica , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes
16.
Circ Res ; 130(6): 942-957, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298305

RESUMO

The direct (eg, radiation, microgravity) and indirect (eg, lifestyle perturbations) effects of spaceflight extend across multiple systems resulting in whole-organism cardiovascular deconditioning. For over 50 years, National Aeronautics and Space Administration has continually enhanced a countermeasures program designed to characterize and offset the adverse cardiovascular consequences of spaceflight. In this review, we provide a historical overview of research evaluating the effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health in astronauts and outline mechanisms underpinning spaceflight-related cardiovascular alterations. We also discuss how spaceflight could be leveraged for aging, industry, and model systems such as human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, organoid, and organ-on-a-chip technologies. Finally, we outline the increasing opportunities for scientists and clinicians to engage in cardiovascular research in space and on Earth.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Astronautas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos
17.
Front Neural Circuits ; 16: 815838, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250494

RESUMO

Humans undergo extreme physiological changes when subjected to long periods of weightlessness, and as we continue to become a space-faring species, it is imperative that we fully understand the physiological changes that occur in the human body, including the brain. In this study, we present findings of brain structural changes associated with long-duration spaceflight based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data. Twelve cosmonauts who spent an average of six months aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were scanned in an MRI scanner pre-flight, ten days after flight, and at a follow-up time point seven months after flight. We performed differential tractography, a technique that confines white matter fiber tracking to voxels showing microstructural changes. We found significant microstructural changes in several large white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum, arcuate fasciculus, corticospinal, corticostriatal, and cerebellar tracts. This is the first paper to use fiber tractography to investigate which specific tracts exhibit structural changes after long-duration spaceflight and may direct future research to investigate brain functional and behavioral changes associated with these white matter pathways.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Substância Branca , Astronautas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
18.
Front Neural Circuits ; 16: 784280, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310547

RESUMO

The altered vestibular signaling and somatosensory unloading of microgravity result in sensory reweighting and adaptation to conflicting sensory inputs. Aftereffects of these adaptive changes are evident postflight as impairments in behaviors such as balance and gait. Microgravity also induces fluid shifts toward the head and an upward shift of the brain within the skull; these changes are well-replicated in strict head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR), a spaceflight analog environment. Artificial gravity (AG) is a potential countermeasure to mitigate these effects of microgravity. A previous study demonstrated that intermittent (six, 5-mins bouts per day) daily AG sessions were more efficacious at counteracting orthostatic intolerance in a 5 day HDBR study than continuous daily AG. Here we examined whether intermittent daily AG was also more effective than continuous dosing for mitigating brain and behavioral changes in response to 60 days of HDBR. Participants (n = 24) were split evenly between three groups. The first received 30 mins of continuous AG daily (cAG). The second received 30 mins of intermittent AG daily (6 bouts of 5 mins; iAG). The third received no AG (Ctrl). We collected a broad range of sensorimotor, cognitive, and brain structural and functional assessments before, during, and after the 60 days of HDBR. We observed no significant differences between the three groups in terms of HDBR-associated changes in cognition, balance, and functional mobility. Interestingly, the intermittent AG group reported less severe motion sickness symptoms than the continuous group during centrifugation; iAG motion sickness levels were not elevated above those of controls who did not undergo AG. They also had a shorter duration of post-AG illusory motion than cAG. Moreover, the two AG groups performed the paced auditory serial addition test weekly while undergoing AG; their performance was more accurate than that of controls, who performed the test while in HDBR. Although AG did not counteract HDBR-induced gait and balance declines, iAG did not cause motion sickness and was associated with better self-motion perception during AG ramp-down. Additionally, both AG groups had superior cognitive performance while undergoing AG relative to controls; this may reflect attention or motivation differences between the groups.


Assuntos
Gravidade Alterada , Voo Espacial , Repouso em Cama , Cognição , Decúbito Inclinado com Rebaixamento da Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos
19.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(4): 396-398, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Optic disc edema has been well documented in astronauts both during and after long-duration spaceflight and is hypothesized to largely result from increased pressure within the orbital subarachnoid space brought about by a generalized rise in intracranial pressure or from sequestration of cerebrospinal fluid within the orbital subarachnoid space with locally elevated optic nerve sheath pressure. In addition, a recent prospective study documented substantial spaceflight-associated peripapillary choroidal thickening, which may be a contributing factor in spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome. In the present article, based on the above, we offer a new perspective on the pathogenesis of microgravity-induced optic disc edema from a choroidal point of view. We propose that prolonged microgravity exposure may result in the transudation of fluid from the choroidal vasculature, which, in turn, may reach the optic nerve head, and ultimately may lead to fluid stasis within the prelaminar region secondary to impaired ocular glymphatic outflow. If confirmed, this viewpoint would shed new light on the development of optic disc edema in astronauts.Wostyn P, Gibson CR, Mader TH. Optic disc edema in astronauts from a choroidal point of view. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(4):396-398.


Assuntos
Papiledema , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Astronautas , Humanos , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Papiledema/etiologia , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos
20.
Nat Med ; 28(2): 216-218, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140407

Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial
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