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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445499

RESUMO

The factors affecting the penetration of certain diseases such as COVID-19 in society are still unknown. Internet of Things (IoT) technologies can play a crucial role during the time of crisis and they can provide a more holistic view of the reasons that govern the outbreak of a contagious disease. The understanding of COVID-19 will be enriched by the analysis of data related to the phenomena, and this data can be collected using IoT sensors. In this paper, we show an integrated solution based on IoT technologies that can serve as opportunistic health data acquisition agents for combating the pandemic of COVID-19, named CIoTVID. The platform is composed of four layers-data acquisition, data aggregation, machine intelligence and services, within the solution. To demonstrate its validity, the solution has been tested with a use case based on creating a classifier of medical conditions using real data of voice, performing successfully. The layer of data aggregation is particularly relevant in this kind of solution as the data coming from medical devices has a very different nature to that coming from electronic sensors. Due to the adaptability of the platform to heterogeneous data and volumes of data; individuals, policymakers, and clinics could benefit from it to fight the propagation of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Inteligência Artificial , /diagnóstico , Humanos , Oximetria , Pandemias , Espectrografia do Som/métodos , Voz/fisiologia
2.
Exp Psychol ; 67(4): 246-254, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111655

RESUMO

Visual input of a face appears to influence the ability to selectively attend to one voice over another simultaneous voice. We examined this crossmodal effect, specifically the role face gender may have on selective attention to male and female gendered simultaneous voices. Using a within-subjects design, participants were presented with a dynamic male face, female face, or fixation cross, with each condition being paired with a dichotomous audio stream of male and female voices reciting different lists of concrete nouns. In Experiment 1a, the female voice was played in the right ear and the male voice in the left ear. In Experiment 1b, both voices were played in both ears with differences in volume mimicking the interaural intensity difference between disparately localized voices in naturalistic situations. Free recall of words spoken by the two voices immediately following stimulus presentation served as a proxy measure of attention. In both sections of the experiment, crossmodal congruity of face gender enhanced same-gender word recall. This effect indicates that crossmodal interaction between voices and faces guides auditory attention. The results contribute to our understanding of how humans navigate the crossmodal relationship between voices and faces to direct attention in social interactions such as those in the cocktail party scenario.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881917

RESUMO

Organizational effectiveness is contingent upon employees' contributions; however, the role of employee voice behavior as a critical component of employees' contribution to the organization has not been sufficiently acknowledged. Based on proactive behavior theory, we present a model to investigate employee voice behavior as an underlying mechanism in the relationship between supervisor delegation and perceived workplace inclusion. Using the SEM (structural equation modeling) method, we test our model's hypotheses with data from 271 employee-supervisor questionnaires administered in state-owned enterprises in the telecommunications industry. The results show that supervisor delegation is positively related to employees' promotive and prohibitive voice behavior. Promotive voice significantly influences perceived workplace inclusion, but prohibitive voice behavior was not found to have any impact on perceived workplace inclusion. Moreover, both dimensions of voice behavior, i.e., promotive and prohibitive voice behavior, significantly mediate the relationship between supervisor delegation and perceived workplace inclusion.


Assuntos
Emprego/organização & administração , Telecomunicações/tendências , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Organizações , Fonação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voz/fisiologia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
4.
Exp Psychol ; 67(1): 48-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520669

RESUMO

Doing two things at once (vs. one in isolation) usually yields performance costs. Such decrements are often distributed asymmetrically between the two actions involved, reflecting different processing priorities. A previous study (Huestegge & Koch, 2013) demonstrated that the particular effector systems associated with the two actions can determine the pattern of processing priorities: Vocal responses were prioritized over manual responses, as indicated by smaller performance costs (associated with dual-action demands) for the former. However, this previous study only involved auditory stimulation (for both actions). Given that previous research on input-output modality compatibility in dual tasks suggested that pairing auditory input with vocal output represents a particularly advantageous mapping, the question arises whether the observed vocal-over-manual prioritization was merely a consequence of auditory stimulation. To resolve this issue, we conducted a manual-vocal dual task study using either only auditory or only visual stimuli for both responses. We observed vocal-over-manual prioritization in both stimulus modality conditions. This suggests that input-output modality mappings can (to some extent) attenuate, but not abolish/reverse effector-based prioritization. Taken together, effector system pairings appear to have a more substantial impact on capacity allocation policies in dual-task control than input-output modality combinations.


Assuntos
Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(21): 11364-11367, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393618

RESUMO

We show that the human voice has complex acoustic qualities that are directly coupled to peripheral musculoskeletal tensioning of the body, such as subtle wrist movements. In this study, human vocalizers produced a steady-state vocalization while rhythmically moving the wrist or the arm at different tempos. Although listeners could only hear and not see the vocalizer, they were able to completely synchronize their own rhythmic wrist or arm movement with the movement of the vocalizer which they perceived in the voice acoustics. This study corroborates recent evidence suggesting that the human voice is constrained by bodily tensioning affecting the respiratory-vocal system. The current results show that the human voice contains a bodily imprint that is directly informative for the interpersonal perception of another's dynamic physical states.


Assuntos
Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Experimentação Humana não Terapêutica , Punho/fisiologia
6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5390, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428067

RESUMO

Objective To describe functional and quality of life results after extended supratracheal laryngectomy. Methods In the period from September 2009 to January 2018, 11 male subjects were submitted to extended supratracheal laryngectomy. Swallowing abilities were assessed through videofluoroscopy and the clinical scale Functional Communication Measures of Swallowing. The voices were classified by means of the perceptual-auditory analysis Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. All subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire for voice and swallowing. Results Aspiration was found in four patients and all presented stasis in different structures. All subjects in this study were exclusively orally fed and hydrated. In the evaluation of quality of life in swallowing, patients had mean >80 in all areas (83.47 mean of scores). The general degree and the presence of roughness were the highest means present in Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (37.81 and 49.36, respectively). The mean of 33.36 (±22.56) had little impact on quality of life under the perspective of vocal aspects. Conclusion After supratracheal laryngectomy, swallowing was sufficiently restored and the quality of life was satisfactory. The voice presents severely impaired quality and preserved oral communication, with low impact on the activities of daily living. All individuals who maintained two cricoarytenoid units presented better functional results in swallowing and voice.


Assuntos
Deglutição/fisiologia , Laringectomia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Voz/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Codas ; 32(2): e20190121, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To create a consensus version of a speech-language pathology (SLP) script to assess the expressiveness of voice professionals. METHODS: The process was divided into three stages: stage 1 included a survey of the literature and classification of the variables found in the instruments used; in steps 2 and 3, through teamwork, expert judges (focus groups I and II) created and adapted, along with the researcher, a consensus version of the expressiveness assessment script. RESULTS: The initial list presented to the judges contained 48 variables found in the literature: 11 related to emotional and interpretation aspects, 20 associated with oral expressiveness, three related to issues of verbal expressiveness, and 14 related to nonverbal expressiveness. In stage 2, the initial version of the script of the focus group I resulted in a document with 28 parameters, distributed in three thematic assessment groups: general aspects of communication, with three parameters; aspects related to oral expressiveness, with 16 parameters; aspects associated with body expressiveness, with nine parameters. In stage 3, after adequacy by focus group II, the consensus version also resulted in 28 parameters, distributed in two thematic groups. CONCLUSION: The consensus version of the SLP expressiveness assessment script for voice professionals was finalized with 28 parameters, distributed in two thematic axes: initial impact of communication, with six parameters; expressiveness, with 22 parameters.


Assuntos
Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/instrumentação , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Consenso , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Voz/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: It is widely believed that 'creaky voice' ('creak', 'vocal fry', 'glottal fry') is increasingly prevalent among some English speakers, particularly among young American women. Motivated by the widespread and cross-disciplinary interest in the phenomenon, this paper offers a systematic review of peer-reviewed research (up to January 2019) on the prevalence of creaky voice in varieties of English. The review aimed to understand whose and what speech has been studied, how creaky voice prevalence has been measured, and what the findings collectively reveal. METHOD: Literature was located by searching four electronic databases (ProQuest, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science) and the proceedings of two recurrent conferences ('ICPhS' and 'SST'). Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of creaky voice in naturalistic samples of English spoken by vocally-healthy speakers. Reference lists of included studies were cross-checked. RESULTS: Only ten studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified. All studies sampled a small number of speakers and/or short durations of speech. Nine were recent studies of American-English speakers, and many of these sampled young, female, college students. Across the ten studies, creaky voice was detected using three types of methods, and prevalence was calculated using five different formulae. The findings show that prevalence varies across groups, individuals, and contexts. However, the precise nature of this variability remains unclear due to the scarcity and methodological heterogeneity of the research. CONCLUSIONS: This paper illustrated the application of systematic literature review methods in sociophonetic research-a field in which such methods are not common. The review found that creaky voice prevalence in English is not well understood, and that widespread claims of its recent increase among young American women have not been empirically confirmed. A number of specific limitations in the existing research are highlighted, which may serve as a guide for future research design.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Idioma , Fonação/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(2): 405-420, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013664

RESUMO

Purpose This study examined vocal hyperfunction (VH) using voice onset time (VOT). We hypothesized that speakers with VH would produce shorter VOTs, indicating increased laryngeal tension, and more variable VOTs, indicating disordered vocal motor control. Method We enrolled 32 adult women with VH (aged 20-74 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched controls. All were speakers of American English. Participants produced vowel-consonant-vowel combinations that varied by vowel (ɑ/u) and plosive (p/b, t/d, k/g). VOT-measured at the release of the plosive to the initiation of voicing-was averaged over three repetitions of each vowel-consonant-vowel combination. The coefficient of variation (CoV), a measure of VOT variability, was also computed for each combination. Results The mean VOTs were not significantly different between the two groups; however, the CoVs were significantly greater in speakers with VH compared to controls. Voiceless CoV values were moderately correlated with clinical ratings of dysphonia (r = .58) in speakers with VH. Conclusion Speakers with VH exhibited greater variability in phonemic voicing targets compared to vocally healthy speakers, supporting the hypothesis for disordered vocal motor control in VH. We suggest future work incorporate VOT measures when assessing auditory discrimination and auditory-motor integration deficits in VH.


Assuntos
Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfonia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the emission of upper high notes by professional sopranos by means of the auditory-perceptual evaluation of the singers' voices and self-reports. METHODS: Five professional sopranos performed an excerpt from a Bellini opera which involved the emission of an upper high note. The auditory-perceptual evaluation was carried out by three speech-language therapists and three singing teachers, who considered brightness, loudness, metal quality, vibrato, breathiness, and resonance on a visual-analytical scale, based on each singer's emission of high notes. After the recording, the singers were asked to answer a proprioceptive questionnaire on the physical sensations that they had as they emitted upper high notes. An inferential analysis of the data from the auditory-perceptual evaluation was conducted, and the singers' self-reports were summarized and then orthographically transcribed. RESULTS: In the auditory-perceptual analysis, the emission of upper high notes was characterized according to the presence of brightness, loudness, metal quality, vibrato, and anterior resonance, as perceived by speech-language therapists and singing teachers. In the proprioceptive report, all singers reported laryngeal elevation and a need to use respiratory support in order to emit upper high notes. CONCLUSION: Upper high notes are characterized by a bright vocal emission, enhanced loudness, with a metallic quality and vibrato, little or no breathiness, accompanied by a sensation of laryngeal elevation and a need for respiratory support.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Canto/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Laringe/fisiologia , Ocupações , Vibração , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia , Qualidade da Voz
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4208189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090091

RESUMO

Instrument-assisted measuring procedures expand the options within phoniatric diagnostics by quantifying the condition of the voice. The aim of this study was to examine objective treatment-associated changes of the recently developed vocal extent measure (VEM) and the established dysphonia severity index (DSI) in relation to subjective tools, i.e., self-evaluation via voice handicap index (VHI-12) and external evaluation via auditory-perceptual assessment of hoarseness (H). The findings for H (3 raters' group assessment), VHI-12, DSI, and VEM in 152 patients of both sexes (age range 16-75 years), taken before and 3 months after phonosurgery or vocal exercises, were compared and correlated. Posttherapeutically, all of the recorded parameters improved (p < 0.001). The degree of H reduced on average by 0.5, the VHI-12 score sank by 5 points, while DSI and VEM rose by 1.5 and 19, respectively. The correlations of these changes were significant but showed gradual differences between H and VHI-12 (r = 0.3), H and DSI (r = -0.3), and H and VEM (r = -0.4). We conclude that all investigated parameters are adequate to verify therapeutic outcomes but represent different dimensions of the voice. However, changes in the degree of H as gold standard were best recognized with the new VEM.


Assuntos
Acústica , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Prega Vocal/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laringe/fisiopatologia , Laringe/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4994-5005, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060124

RESUMO

In the primate brain, a set of areas in the ventrolateral frontal (VLF) cortex and the dorsomedial frontal (DMF) cortex appear to control vocalizations. The basic role of this network in the human brain and how it may have evolved to enable complex speech remain unknown. In the present functional neuroimaging study of the human brain, a multidomain protocol was utilized to investigate the roles of the various areas that comprise the VLF-DMF network in learning rule-based cognitive selections between different types of motor actions: manual, orofacial, nonspeech vocal, and speech vocal actions. Ventrolateral area 44 (a key component of the Broca's language production region in the human brain) is involved in the cognitive selection of orofacial, as well as, speech and nonspeech vocal responses; and the midcingulate cortex is involved in the analysis of speech and nonspeech vocal feedback driving adaptation of these responses. By contrast, the cognitive selection of speech vocal information requires this former network and the additional recruitment of area 45 and the presupplementary motor area. We propose that the basic function expressed by the VLF-DMF network is to exert cognitive control of orofacial and vocal acts and, in the language dominant hemisphere of the human brain, has been adapted to serve higher speech function. These results pave the way to understand the potential changes that could have occurred in this network across primate evolution to enable speech production.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Área de Broca , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Rede Nervosa , Primatas , Fala/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915828

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Voice break, as a landmark of advanced male puberty in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), has revealed that pubertal timing is a highly polygenic trait. Although voice break is easily recorded in large cohorts, it holds quite low precision as a marker of puberty. In contrast, gonadarche and pubarche are early and clinically well-defined measures of puberty onset. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) of alleles that confer risk for voice break associates with age at gonadarche (AAG) and age at pubarche (AAP) in Chilean boys. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 401 boys from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study (n = 1194; 49.2% boys). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Biannual clinical pubertal staging including orchidometry. AAG and AAP were estimated by censoring methods. Genotyping was performed using the Multi-Ethnic Global Array (Illumina). Using GWAS summary statistics from the UK-Biobank, 29 significant and independent single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at voice break were extracted. Individual PRS were computed as the sum of risk alleles weighted by the effect size. RESULTS: The PRS was associated with AAG (ß=0.01, P = 0.04) and AAP (ß=0.185, P = 0.0004). In addition, boys within the 20% highest PRS experienced gonadarche and pubarche 0.55 and 0.67 years later than those in the lowest 20%, respectively (P = 0.013 and P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants identified in large GWAS on age at VB significantly associate with age at testicular growth and pubic hair development, suggesting that these events share a genetic architecture across ethnically distinct populations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Puberdade/genética , Voz/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Puberdade/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Sexuais , Voz/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986165

RESUMO

Previously, we demonstrated a strong correlation between the amplitude of human speech and the emission rate of micron-scale expiratory aerosol particles, which are believed to play a role in respiratory disease transmission. To further those findings, here we systematically investigate the effect of different 'phones' (the basic sound units of speech) on the emission of particles from the human respiratory tract during speech. We measured the respiratory particle emission rates of 56 healthy human volunteers voicing specific phones, both in isolation and in the context of a standard spoken text. We found that certain phones are associated with significantly higher particle production; for example, the vowel /i/ ("need," "sea") produces more particles than /ɑ/ ("saw," "hot") or /u/ ("blue," "mood"), while disyllabic words including voiced plosive consonants (e.g., /d/, /b/, /g/) yield more particles than words with voiceless fricatives (e.g., /s/, /h/, /f/). These trends for discrete phones and words were corroborated by the time-resolved particle emission rates as volunteers read aloud from a standard text passage that incorporates a broad range of the phones present in spoken English. Our measurements showed that particle emission rates were positively correlated with the vowel content of a phrase; conversely, particle emission decreased during phrases with a high fraction of voiceless fricatives. Our particle emission data is broadly consistent with prior measurements of the egressive airflow rate associated with the vocalization of various phones that differ in voicing and articulation. These results suggest that airborne transmission of respiratory pathogens via speech aerosol particles could be modulated by specific phonetic characteristics of the language spoken by a given human population, along with other, more frequently considered epidemiological variables.


Assuntos
Expiração/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Tosse/microbiologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Acústica da Fala , Testes de Articulação da Fala , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(4): 1835-1846, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898070

RESUMO

We studied negative priming (NP) in auditory attention switching. In a cued variant of dichotic listening, two spoken number words were presented, one to each ear, one spoken by a female, and one spoken by a male voice. A visual cue indicated whether the male or female voice was the target. A numerical magnitude judgement of the target number was required. The selection criterion could either switch or repeat across trials, so there were attention switch and repetition trials. Two experiments examined NP (distractor becomes target) and also included a "competitor priming" (CP) condition (target becomes distractor), relative to a "no priming" condition (target and distractor not related to previous trial). In Experiment 1, we investigated the basic priming effects. In Experiment 2, we additionally varied the response-cue interval (RCI; 100 ms vs. 1,900 ms) to examine time-related changes in priming. We found longer response times (RT) for switch trials compared with repetition trials (attention switch costs)-that is, when the internal processing context changed. In addition, we found longer RT for NP trials as well as reduced switch costs in long RCI, suggesting that previously relevant attentional settings dissipate over longer time. However, NP was not influenced by attention switches, and it was also not affected by RCI. Hence, NP in auditory attention switching does not seem strongly context or time sensitive.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Intenção , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(2): 237-265, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898261

RESUMO

Researchers examining nonverbal communication of emotions are becoming increasingly interested in differentiations between different positive emotional states like interest, relief, and pride. But despite the importance of the voice in communicating emotion in general and positive emotion in particular, there is to date no systematic review of what characterizes vocal expressions of different positive emotions. Furthermore, integration and synthesis of current findings are lacking. In this review, we comprehensively review studies (N = 108) investigating acoustic features relating to specific positive emotions in speech prosody and nonverbal vocalizations. We find that happy voices are generally loud with considerable variability in loudness, have high and variable pitch, and are high in the first two formant frequencies. When specific positive emotions are directly compared with each other, pitch mean, loudness mean, and speech rate differ across positive emotions, with patterns mapping onto clusters of emotions, so-called emotion families. For instance, pitch is higher for epistemological emotions (amusement, interest, relief), moderate for savouring emotions (contentment and pleasure), and lower for a prosocial emotion (admiration). Some, but not all, of the differences in acoustic patterns also map on to differences in arousal levels. We end by pointing to limitations in extant work and making concrete proposals for future research on positive emotions in the voice.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Humanos
17.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(6): 1071-1077, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621355

RESUMO

Children maintain fluent speech despite dramatic changes to their articulators during development. Auditory feedback aids in the acquisition and maintenance of the sensorimotor mechanisms that underlie vocal motor control. MacDonald, Johnson, Forsythe, Plante, and Munhall (2012) reported that toddlers' speech motor control systems may "suppress" the influence of auditory feedback, since exposure to altered auditory feedback regarding their formant frequencies did not lead to modifications of their speech. This finding is not parsimonious with most theories of motor control. Here, we exposed toddlers to perturbations to the pitch of their auditory feedback as they vocalized. Toddlers compensated for the manipulations, producing significantly different responses to upward and downward perturbations. These data represent the first empirical demonstration that toddlers use auditory feedback for vocal motor control. Furthermore, our findings suggest toddlers are more sensitive to changes to the postural properties of their auditory feedback, such as fundamental frequency, relative to the phonemic properties, such as formant frequencies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Pré-Escolar , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
18.
Horm Behav ; 117: 104616, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644889

RESUMO

Low frequency components (i.e. a low pitch (F0) and low formant spacing (ΔF)) signal high salivary testosterone and height in adult male voices and are associated with high masculinity attributions by unfamiliar listeners (in both men and women). However, the relation between the physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions of speakers' masculinity prior to puberty remains unknown. In this study, 110 pre-pubertal children (58 girls), aged 3 to 10, were recorded as they described a cartoon picture. 315 adults (182 women) rated children's perceived masculinity from the voice only after listening to the speakers' audio recordings. On the basis of their voices alone, boys who had higher salivary testosterone levels were rated as more masculine and the relation between testosterone and perceived masculinity was partially mediated by F0. The voices of taller boys were also rated as more masculine, but the relation between height and perceived masculinity was not mediated by the considered acoustic parameters, indicating that acoustic cues other than F0 and ΔF may signal stature. Both boys and girls who had lower F0, were also rated as more masculine, while ΔF did not affect ratings. These findings highlight the interdependence of physiological, acoustic and perceptual dimensions, and suggest that inter-individual variation in male voices, particularly F0, may advertise hormonal masculinity from a very early age.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Masculinidade , Percepção Social , Acústica da Fala , Voz/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 375(1789): 20180386, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735143

RESUMO

One can consider human language to be the Swiss army knife of the vast domain of animal communication. There is now growing evidence suggesting that this technology may have emerged from already operational material instead of being a sudden innovation. Sharing ideas and thoughts with conspecifics via language constitutes an amazing ability, but what value would it hold if our conspecifics were not first detected and recognized? Conspecific voice (CV) perception is fundamental to communication and widely shared across the animal kingdom. Two questions that arise then are: is this apparently shared ability reflected in common cerebral substrate? And, how has this substrate evolved? The paper addresses these questions by examining studies on the cerebral basis of CV perception in humans' closest relatives, non-human primates. Neuroimaging studies, in particular, suggest the existence of a 'voice patch system', a network of interconnected cortical areas that can provide a common template for the cerebral processing of CV in primates. This article is part of the theme issue 'What can animal communication teach us about human language?'


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Comunicação , Humanos , Idioma , Neuroimagem , Primatas , Percepção da Fala , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia
20.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(6): 1097-1115, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714095

RESUMO

Typically developing (TD) individuals rapidly integrate information about a speaker and their intended meaning while processing sentences online. We examined whether the same processes are activated in autistic adults and tested their timecourse in 2 preregistered experiments. Experiment 1 employed the visual world paradigm. Participants listened to sentences where the speaker's voice and message were either consistent or inconsistent (e.g., "When we go shopping, I usually look for my favorite wine," spoken by an adult or a child), and concurrently viewed visual scenes including consistent and inconsistent objects (e.g., wine and sweets). All participants were slower to select the mentioned object in the inconsistent condition. Importantly, eye movements showed a visual bias toward the voice-consistent object, well before hearing the disambiguating word, showing that autistic adults rapidly use the speaker's voice to anticipate the intended meaning. However, this target bias emerged earlier in the TD group compared to the autism group (2240 ms vs. 1800 ms before disambiguation). Experiment 2 recorded ERPs to explore speaker-meaning integration processes. Participants listened to sentences as described above, and ERPs were time-locked to the onset of the target word. A control condition included a semantic anomaly. Results revealed an enhanced N400 for inconsistent speaker-meaning sentences that was comparable to that elicited by anomalous sentences, in both groups. Overall, contrary to research that has characterized autism in terms of a local processing bias and pragmatic dysfunction, autistic people were unimpaired at integrating multiple modalities of linguistic information and were comparably sensitive to speaker-meaning inconsistency effects. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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