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1.
PLoS Biol ; 20(7): e3001742, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905075

RESUMO

Categorising voices is crucial for auditory-based social interactions. A recent study by Rupp and colleagues in PLOS Biology capitalises on human intracranial recordings to describe the spatiotemporal pattern of neural activity leading to voice-selective responses in associative auditory cortex.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Voz , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Lobo Temporal , Voz/fisiologia
2.
Neuropsychologia ; 173: 108312, 2022 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781011

RESUMO

The recognition of human speakers by their voices is a remarkable cognitive ability. Previous research has established a voice area in the right temporal cortex involved in the integration of speaker-specific acoustic features. This integration appears to occur rapidly, especially in case of familiar voices. However, the exact time course of this process is less well understood. To this end, we here investigated the automatic change detection response of the human brain while listening to the famous voice of German chancellor Angela Merkel, embedded in the context of acoustically matched voices. A classic passive oddball paradigm contrasted short word stimuli uttered by Merkel with word stimuli uttered by two unfamiliar female speakers. Electrophysiological voice processing indices from 21 participants were quantified as mismatch negativities (MMNs) and P3a differences. Cortical sources were approximated by variable resolution electromagnetic tomography. The results showed amplitude and latency effects for both MMN and P3a: The famous (familiar) voice elicited a smaller but earlier MMN than the unfamiliar voices. The P3a, by contrast, was both larger and later for the familiar than for the unfamiliar voices. Familiar-voice MMNs originated from right-hemispheric regions in temporal cortex, overlapping with the temporal voice area, while unfamiliar-voice MMNs stemmed from left superior temporal gyrus. These results suggest that the processing of a very famous voice relies on pre-attentive right temporal processing within the first 150 ms of the acoustic signal. The findings further our understanding of the neural dynamics underlying familiar voice processing.


Assuntos
Voz , Estimulação Acústica , Atenção , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(6): e1010159, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737706

RESUMO

Many voice disorders are the result of intricate neural and/or biomechanical impairments that are poorly understood. The limited knowledge of their etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms hampers effective clinical management. Behavioral studies have been used concurrently with computational models to better understand typical and pathological laryngeal motor control. Thus far, however, a unified computational framework that quantitatively integrates physiologically relevant models of phonation with the neural control of speech has not been developed. Here, we introduce LaDIVA, a novel neurocomputational model with physiologically based laryngeal motor control. We combined the DIVA model (an established neural network model of speech motor control) with the extended body-cover model (a physics-based vocal fold model). The resulting integrated model, LaDIVA, was validated by comparing its model simulations with behavioral responses to perturbations of auditory vocal fundamental frequency (fo) feedback in adults with typical speech. LaDIVA demonstrated capability to simulate different modes of laryngeal motor control, ranging from short-term (i.e., reflexive) and long-term (i.e., adaptive) auditory feedback paradigms, to generating prosodic contours in speech. Simulations showed that LaDIVA's laryngeal motor control displays properties of motor equivalence, i.e., LaDIVA could robustly generate compensatory responses to reflexive vocal fo perturbations with varying initial laryngeal muscle activation levels leading to the same output. The model can also generate prosodic contours for studying laryngeal motor control in running speech. LaDIVA can expand the understanding of the physiology of human phonation to enable, for the first time, the investigation of causal effects of neural motor control in the fine structure of the vocal signal.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Voz , Adulto , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Humanos , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia
4.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(6): 2160-2186, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our audio-vocal system involves a negative feedback system that functions to correct for fundamental frequency (f 0) errors in production. Therefore, automatic and opposing responses appear when an unexpected change in voice pitch is present in auditory feedback. This study explores following responses to pitch perturbation in auditory feedback in tonal language speakers, which have been commonly overlooked or discarded by past research. We examine whether the number of response types (opposing vs. following) and their dynamic f 0 contours in tone word production vary as a function of instruction (involuntary ["to ignore"] vs. volitional ["to compensate"]). METHOD: Twenty-four native speakers of Taiwanese Southern Min (TSM) produced three disyllabic TSM words while receiving pitch perturbation through headphones. The three disyllabic words were tsau55-im55 ("out of tune"; HH), kau33-uann33 ("exchange"; MM), and pan11-an11 ("handle a case"; LL) that carry an identical high-, mid-, or low-level tone. The participants were instructed either "to ignore" or "to compensate" for the pitch shifts. RESULTS: Results from a Bayesian Poisson regression show that the number of opposing and following responses were split nearly 50-50 for the "ignore" condition and 55%-35% for the "compensate" condition. The simulation results indicate that the speakers were able to switch between the feedback and the feedforward mode during the testing. On the other hand, f 0 contour analyses using generalized additive models show that pitch-increasing responses (i.e., oppose to downshifts or follow upshifts) were significantly larger than pitch-decreasing responses (i.e., oppose to upshifts or follow downshifts) for the MM and LL words, but not for the HH word. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide support for the view that, for tone speakers, following responses are not uncommon. The magnitudes of pitch shift response trajectories have to do with the available pitch range for moving up or down in tone word production.


Assuntos
Percepção da Altura Sonora , Voz , Estimulação Acústica , Teorema de Bayes , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia
5.
J Neurosci ; 42(20): 4164-4173, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483917

RESUMO

The social worlds of young children primarily revolve around parents and caregivers, who play a key role in guiding children's social and cognitive development. However, a hallmark of adolescence is a shift in orientation toward nonfamilial social targets, an adaptive process that prepares adolescents for their independence. Little is known regarding neurobiological signatures underlying changes in adolescents' social orientation. Using functional brain imaging of human voice processing in children and adolescents (ages 7-16), we demonstrate distinct neural signatures for mother's voice and nonfamilial voices across child and adolescent development in reward and social valuation systems, instantiated in nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. While younger children showed greater activity in these brain systems for mother's voice compared with nonfamilial voices, older adolescents showed the opposite effect with increased activity for nonfamilial compared with mother's voice. Findings uncover a critical role for reward and social valuative brain systems in the pronounced changes in adolescents' orientation toward nonfamilial social targets. Our approach provides a template for examining developmental shifts in social reward and motivation in individuals with pronounced social impairments, including adolescents with autism.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Children's social worlds undergo a transformation during adolescence. While socialization in young children revolves around parents and caregivers, adolescence is characterized by a shift in social orientation toward nonfamilial social partners. Here we show that this shift is reflected in neural activity measured from reward processing regions in response to brief vocal samples. When younger children hear their mother's voice, reward processing regions show greater activity compared with when they hear nonfamilial, unfamiliar voices. Strikingly, older adolescents show the opposite effect, with increased activity for nonfamilial compared with mother's voice. Findings identify the brain basis of adolescents' switch in social orientation toward nonfamilial social partners and provides a template for understanding neurodevelopment in clinical populations with social and communication difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Voz , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Recompensa , Voz/fisiologia
6.
Neuroimage Clin ; 34: 102966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182929

RESUMO

Epilepsy has been associated with deficits in the social cognitive ability to decode others' nonverbal cues to infer their emotional intent (emotion recognition). Studies have begun to identify potential neural correlates of these deficits, but have focused primarily on one type of nonverbal cue (facial expressions) to the detriment of other crucial social signals that inform the tenor of social interactions (e.g., tone of voice). Less is known about how individuals with epilepsy process these forms of social stimuli, with a particular gap in knowledge about representation of vocal cues in the developing brain. The current study compared vocal emotion recognition skills and functional patterns of neural activation to emotional voices in youth with and without refractory focal epilepsy. We made novel use of inter-subject pattern analysis to determine brain areas in which activation to emotional voices was predictive of epilepsy status. Results indicated that youth with epilepsy were comparatively less able to infer emotional intent in vocal expressions than their typically developing peers. Activation to vocal emotional expressions in regions of the mentalizing and/or default mode network (e.g., right temporo-parietal junction, right hippocampus, right medial prefrontal cortex, among others) differentiated youth with and without epilepsy. These results are consistent with emerging evidence that pediatric epilepsy is associated with altered function in neural networks subserving social cognitive abilities. Our results contribute to ongoing efforts to understand the neural markers of social cognitive deficits in pediatric epilepsy, in order to better tailor and funnel interventions to this group of youth at risk for poor social outcomes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Voz , Adolescente , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Voz/fisiologia
7.
Neuroscience ; 487: 184-197, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182696

RESUMO

A growing number of functional neuroimaging studies have identified regions within the temporal lobe, particularly along the planum polare and planum temporale, that respond more strongly to music than other types of acoustic stimuli, including voice. This "music preferred" regions have been reported using a variety of stimulus sets, paradigms and analysis approaches and their consistency across studies confirmed through meta-analyses. However, the critical question of intra-subject reliability of these responses has received less attention. Here, we directly assessed this important issue by contrasting brain responses to musical vs. vocal stimuli in the same subjects across three consecutive fMRI runs, using different types of stimuli. Moreover, we investigated whether these music- and voice-preferred responses were reliably modulated by expertise. Results demonstrated that music-preferred activity previously reported in temporal regions, and its modulation by expertise, exhibits a high intra-subject reliability. However, we also found that activity in some extra-temporal regions, such as the precentral and middle frontal gyri, did depend on the particular stimuli employed, which may explain why these are less consistently reported in the literature. Taken together, our findings confirm and extend the notion that specific regions in the brain consistently respond more strongly to certain socially-relevant stimulus categories, such as faces, voices and music, but that some of these responses appear to depend, at least to some extent, on the specific features of the paradigm employed.


Assuntos
Música , Voz , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Voz/fisiologia
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(1): 17, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105008

RESUMO

Poor laryngeal muscle coordination that results in abnormal glottal posturing is believed to be a primary etiologic factor in common voice disorders such as non-phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction. Abnormal activity of antagonistic laryngeal muscles is hypothesized to play a key role in the alteration of normal vocal fold biomechanics that results in the dysphonia associated with such disorders. Current low-order models of the vocal folds are unsatisfactory to test this hypothesis since they do not capture the co-contraction of antagonist laryngeal muscle pairs. To address this limitation, a self-sustained triangular body-cover model with full intrinsic muscle control is introduced. The proposed scheme shows good agreement with prior studies using finite element models, excised larynges, and clinical studies in sustained and time-varying vocal gestures. Simulations of vocal fold posturing obtained with distinct antagonistic muscle activation yield clear differences in kinematic, aerodynamic, and acoustic measures. The proposed tool is deemed sufficiently accurate and flexible for future comprehensive investigations of non-phonotraumatic vocal hyperfunction and other laryngeal motor control disorders.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Voz , Glote , Humanos , Músculos Laríngeos/fisiologia , Prega Vocal/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261354, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995305

RESUMO

Previous research has shown deficits in vocal emotion recognition in sub-populations of individuals with hearing loss, making this a high priority research topic. However, previous research has only examined vocal emotion recognition using verbal material, in which emotions are expressed through emotional prosody. There is evidence that older individuals with hearing loss suffer from deficits in general prosody recognition, not specific to emotional prosody. No study has examined the recognition of non-verbal vocalization, which constitutes another important source for the vocal communication of emotions. It might be the case that individuals with hearing loss have specific difficulties in recognizing emotions expressed through prosody in speech, but not non-verbal vocalizations. We aim to examine whether vocal emotion recognition difficulties in middle- aged-to older individuals with sensorineural mild-moderate hearing loss are better explained by deficits in vocal emotion recognition specifically, or deficits in prosody recognition generally by including both sentences and non-verbal expressions. Furthermore a, some of the studies which have concluded that individuals with mild-moderate hearing loss have deficits in vocal emotion recognition ability have also found that the use of hearing aids does not improve recognition accuracy in this group. We aim to examine the effects of linear amplification and audibility on the recognition of different emotions expressed both verbally and non-verbally. Besides examining accuracy for different emotions we will also look at patterns of confusion (which specific emotions are mistaken for other specific emotion and at which rates) during both amplified and non-amplified listening, and we will analyze all material acoustically and relate the acoustic content to performance. Together these analyses will provide clues to effects of amplification on the perception of different emotions. For these purposes, a total of 70 middle-aged-older individuals, half with mild-moderate hearing loss and half with normal hearing will perform a computerized forced-choice vocal emotion recognition task with and without amplification.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Surdez , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Social/psicologia , Fala/fisiologia , Suécia , Voz/fisiologia
10.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(2): 959-973, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050724

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency response of a selection of low-cost headset microphones that could be given to subjects for remote voice recordings and to examine the effect of microphone type and frequency response on key acoustic measures related to voice quality obtained from speech and vowel samples. METHOD: The frequency responses of three low-cost headset microphones were evaluated using pink noise generated via a head-and-torso model. Each of the headset microphones was then used to record a series of speech and vowel samples prerecorded from 24 speakers who represented a diversity of sex, age, fundamental frequency (F o), and voice quality types. Recordings were later analyzed for the following measures: smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPP; dB), low versus high spectral ratio (L/H ratio; dB), CPP F o (Hz), and cepstral spectral index of dysphonia (CSID). RESULTS: The frequency response of the microphones under test was observed to have nonsignificant effects on measures of the CPP and CPP F o, significant effects on the CSID in speech contexts, and strong and significant effects on the measure of spectral tilt (L/H ratio). However, the correlations between the various headset microphones and a reference precision microphone were excellent (rs > .90). CONCLUSIONS: The headset microphones under test all showed the capability to track a wide range of diversity in the voice signal. Though the use of higher quality microphones that have demonstrated specifications is recommended for typical research and clinical purposes, low-cost electret microphones may be used to provide valid measures of voice, specifically when the same microphone and signal chain is used for the evaluation of pre- versus posttreatment change or intergroup comparisons.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Voz , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Voz/fisiologia , Qualidade da Voz
12.
Psychol Res ; 86(2): 597-616, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718984

RESUMO

Cross-cultural studies of emotion recognition in nonverbal vocalizations not only support the universality hypothesis for its innate features, but also an in-group advantage for culture-dependent features. Nevertheless, in such studies, differences in socio-economic-educational status have not always been accounted for, with idiomatic translation of emotional concepts being a limitation, and the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms still un-researched. We set out to investigate whether native residents from Guinea-Bissau (West African culture) and Portugal (Western European culture)-matched for socio-economic-educational status, sex and language-varied in behavioural and autonomic system response during emotion recognition of nonverbal vocalizations from Portuguese individuals. Overall, Guinea-Bissauans (as out-group) responded significantly less accurately (corrected p < .05), slower, and showed a trend for higher concomitant skin conductance, compared to Portuguese (as in-group)-findings which may indicate a higher cognitive effort stemming from higher difficulty in discerning emotions from another culture. Specifically, accuracy differences were particularly found for pleasure, amusement, and anger, rather than for sadness, relief or fear. Nevertheless, both cultures recognized all emotions above-chance level. The perceived authenticity, measured for the first time in nonverbal cross-cultural research, in the same vocalizations, retrieved no difference between cultures in accuracy, but still a slower response from the out-group. Lastly, we provide-to our knowledge-a first account of how skin conductance response varies between nonverbally vocalized emotions, with significant differences (p < .05). In sum, we provide behavioural and psychophysiological data, demographically and language-matched, that supports cultural and emotion effects on vocal emotion recognition and perceived authenticity, as well as the universality hypothesis.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Psicológico , Voz , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Guiné-Bissau , Humanos , Portugal , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia
13.
Ann Surg ; 275(1): e52-e66, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform the first systematic review of all available gender-affirming surgery (GAS) publications across all procedures to assess both outcomes reported in the literature and the methods used for outcome assessment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Rapidly increasing clinical volumes of gender-affirming surgeries have stimulated a growing need for high-quality clinical research. Although some procedures have been performed for decades, each individual procedure has limited data, necessitating synthesis of the entire literature to understand current knowledge and guide future research. METHODS: A systematic review was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify all outcomes measures in GAS cohorts, including PCOs, complications, and functional outcomes. Outcome data were pooled to assess currently reported complication, satisfaction, and other outcome rates. RESULTS: Overall, 15,186 references were identified, 4162 papers advanced to abstract review, and 1826 underwent full-text review. After review, there were 406 GAS cohort publications. Of non-genitoplasty titles, 35 were mastectomy, 6 mammoplasty, 21 facial feminization, and 31 voice/cartilage. Although 59.1% of non-genitoplasty papers addressed PCOs in some form, only 4.3% used instruments partially-validated in transgender patients. Overall, data were reported heterogeneously and were biased towards high-volume centers. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the most comprehensive review of GAS literature. By aggregating all previously utilized measurement instruments, this study offers a foundation for discussions about current methodologic limitations and what dimensions must be included in assessing surgical success. We have assembled a comprehensive list of outcome instruments; this offers an ideal starting basis for emerging discussions between patients and providers about deficiencies which new, better instruments and metrics must address. The lack of consistent use of the same outcome measures and validated GAS-specific instruments represent the 2 primary barriers to high-quality research where improvement efforts should be focused.


Assuntos
Face/cirurgia , Disforia de Gênero/cirurgia , Mastectomia/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Revisão por Pares/métodos , Voz/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas Transgênero
14.
J Voice ; 36(3): 361-382, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of altering speech breathing patterns and dysphonia severity through training increased levels of lung volume use during speech. It was hypothesized that respiratory-based training would increase lung volume levels during speech as well as improve acoustic voice measures, and that the addition of laryngeal-based treatment would further improve voice acoustics by treatment completion. METHOD: A multiple baseline, single subject design was replicated over six participants with primary muscle tension dysphonia as a preliminary investigation of novel respiratory treatment methods. Following four baseline probes (1-4), two phases of treatment were implemented over 6 weeks. Respiratory lung volume-based training (RLVT) and subsequent performance was probed at sessions 5 to 7 and laryngeal-based training was added to the RLVT and probed at sessions 8 to 10. Visual biofeedback was used during RLVT to assist the motor learning process. Respiratory outcome measures of lung volume initiation, termination and excursion were objectively measured using respiratory plethysmography (InductoTrace), and cepstral and spectral-based acoustic measures were also determined at each time point. RESULTS: All participants showed improvement in one or more respiratory measures as well as reduced acoustic dysphonia severity following phase 1 of RLVT alone. Two participants achieved further marked improvement in acoustic voice measures after laryngeal-based training was added in phase 2 of treatment, but this was generally also accompanied by further improvement or stabilization of respiratory measures. CONCLUSION: Results from this preliminary study support the feasibility of RLVT for improving speech breathing behavior, and suggest that RLVT alone can improve objectively measured dysphonia severity.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Transtornos Respiratórios , Voz , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Disfonia/terapia , Rouquidão , Humanos , Tono Muscular , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Voz/fisiologia
15.
J Voice ; 36(4): 583.e1-583.e16, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Controlled and randomized study to analyze longitudinal voice data of boys and girls aged 8-12.5, to describe their physiological development and to evaluate the influence of a one-year music pedagogical interventional program focused on the singing voice. METHODS: Singing voice profiles of 116 children (52 boys, 64 girls) aged 8-12.5 years were collected longitudinally at the beginning and the end of the third school year and the end of the fourth school year. 64 of the 116 children received a music pedagogical program during their third school year (interventional group). Maximum and minimum voice intensity, highest and lowest frequency, maximum phonation time (MPT) and Jitter were investigated. RESULTS: In two years' time highest frequency increased on average by 100.23 Hz from G1 up to A1 for boys and for girls. Lowest frequency decreased by 18.36Hz from Gis-1 to G-1 (boys: Gis-1-Fis-1; girls: A-1-G-1). There was no clinically relevant development of the intensity parameters for both sexes. However, after the interventional year, minimum voice intensity significantly decreased in the interventional group compared to the control group. The MPT increased by 2.41 seconds from 10.67 seconds up to 13.09 seconds in two years. Here the increase was higher for boys (+3.2 seconds) than for girls (+1.77 seconds). Jitter was found to be 0.84%-1.11%, showing no clinically relevant changes in two years. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, for the first time this study presents longitudinal data on singing voice parameters of the voice range profile of boys and girls aged 8-12.5 years. While frequency and intensity parameters develop equally for boys and girls, the MPT is found to develop more distinctly within boys. A music pedagogical intervention of a small extent has a positive effect on the ability to sing as soft as possible.


Assuntos
Música , Canto , Voz , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fonação/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Treinamento da Voz
16.
J Voice ; 36(4): 464-478, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Past literature indicates that vibrato measurements of singers objectively changed (i.e., vibrato rate decreased and vibrato extent increased) from 1900 to the present day; however, historical audio recording technology may distort acoustic measurements of the voice output signal, including vibrato. As such, the listener's perception of historical singing may be influenced by the limitations of historical technology. This study attempts to show how the wax cylinder phonograph system-the oldest form of mass-produced audio recording technology-alters the recorded voice output signal of modern-day singers and, thus, provides an objective lens through which to study the effect(s) of historical audio recording technology on vibrato measurements. METHODS: Twenty professional Western opera singers sang a messa di voce on the vowel [a] and on the pitch C4 for male singers and C5 for female singers, three times into a flat-response omnidirectional microphone and onto an Edison Home Phonograph simultaneously. The middle 1-3 seconds (6-10 vibrato cycles) of each sample was analyzed for vibrato rate, vibrato extent, jitter (ddp), shimmer (dda), and fundamental frequency for each recording condition (wax cylinder phonograph or microphone). Steady-state and frequency-modulating sinewave test signals were also recorded under the multiple recording conditions. RESULTS: Results indicated no significant effect of recording condition on vibrato rate (mean [standard deviation], cylinder: 5.3 Hz [0.5], microphone: 5.3 Hz [0.5]) and no significant difference was found for mean fundamental frequency (cylinder: 389 Hz [137], microphone: 390 Hz [137]). A significant main effect of recording condition was found for vibrato extent (cylinder: ±103 cents [30], microphone: ±100 cents [31]). Additionally, mean jitter (ddp) (cylinder: 1.22% [1.09], microphone: 0.24% [0.12]) and mean shimmer (dda) (cylinder: 9.40% [4.90], microphone: 1.92% [0.94]) were significantly higher for the cylinder recording condition, indicating more cycle-to-cycle variability in the wax cylinder recorded signal. Analysis of test signals revealed similar patterns based on recording condition. DISCUSSION: This study validates past scholarly inquiry about vibrato measurements as extracted from digitized wax cylinder phonograph recordings by demonstrating that measured vibrato rate remains constant during both recording conditions. In other words, vibrato rate as measured from historical recordings can be viewed as an accurate representation of the historical singer being studied. Furthermore, it suggests that the value of prior vibrato extent measurements from these acoustic recordings may be slightly overestimated from the original voice output signals produced by singers near the beginning of the 20th century (i.e., a narrow vibrato extent might have been numerically smaller on average). Increased jitter and shimmer in the wax cylinder recording conditions may be indicative of nonlinearities in the phonograph recording or playback systems.


Assuntos
Canto , Voz , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocupações , Tecnologia , Voz/fisiologia , Qualidade da Voz
17.
J Voice ; 36(4): 507-514, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the difference between vocal beauty and vocal attractiveness by determining whether perceptual ratings of vocal beauty and vocal attractiveness could be dissociated in a cohort of normal raters without a diagnosed sexual desire disorder. METHODS: Twenty five gay male participants were presented with randomly-chosen samples from the Geneva Voices and Faces Database, and were asked to rate each sample in terms of beauty, attractiveness for a relationship of short duration, and attractiveness for a relationship of long duration. Responses were recorded on a visual analog scale (0-100) using a touch-screen interface. The number of stimulus repetitions and the participant response times were also recorded. Statistical analyses were done using two-way Analysis of Variance tests and independent student's t tests. P values were considered statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. RESULTS: Participants rated male voices significantly higher in terms of beauty, attractiveness for a relationship of long duration, and attractiveness for a relationship of short duration (P < 0.001). Participants rated female voices significantly higher for beauty than for attractiveness for relationship of long or short duration (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in response time between male and female voices when rating vocal beauty (P = 0.5608). Response time was significantly longer for male voices than for female voices when assessing attractiveness for a relationship of short duration (P < 0.002) but not for long duration (P < 0.3496). Attractive voices (male and female) were repeated more often, and male voices were repeated more often than female voices for both long-term and short-term attractiveness. There was no difference in stimulus replay behavior as a function of the beauty ratings. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of gay male raters without a diagnosed sexual desire disorder, vocal beauty and vocal attractiveness ratings of male and female voices are two related but distinct perceptual constructs that can, under certain circumstances, be dissociated. In general, gay men rated male voices equivalently for beauty, short-term, and long-term attractiveness, while the same ratings for female voices showed a significant difference between ratings of beauty and ratings of short-term and long-term attractiveness.


Assuntos
Face , Voz , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Voz/fisiologia
18.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103207, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate the long-term voice outcomes in pa-tients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis treated with injection laryngoplasty using either cal-cium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). METHODS: A single-centre retrospective study was performed. There were 75 patients with dysphonia due to unilateral vocal fold paralysis: injected with CaHA or injected with HA. We analysed Voice Handicap Index-30 (VHI), videostroboscopic images, auditory-perceptual (GRBAS), and acoustic measures (MDVP) in 6, 12, and 24 months after augmentation. RESULTS: The mean change in VHI 24 months after augmentation was 29.14 in the CaHA group, and 22.88 in the HA group. There was an improvement of glottal gap 6, 12, and 24 months after augmentation in both groups. The GRBAS parameters were similar in both groups throughout the whole period. The MDVP pa-rameters decreased 6 and 12 months after augmentation and were similar in both groups. There were 4 patients augmented with CaHA (12.5%) who needed reintervention within 2 years of surgery and another 4 (9.3%) augmented with HA. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that there are no long-term differences in voice outcomes or number of reaugmentations for injection laryn-goplasty with CaHA compared to HA.


Assuntos
Durapatita/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Laringoplastia/métodos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9217236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957308

RESUMO

Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS Model 6600) is an evaluation instrument that assesses the effectiveness of surgical interventions, treatments, and therapy for voice disorders. It can be used for the assessment of voice disorders by supporting other perceptual and instrumental methods. It is important to establish normative data, because the use of appropriate norms is necessary for diagnostic and descriptive accuracy. Therefore, this study is aimed primarily at establishing adult normative databases for phonatory aerodynamic measures obtained with the KayPENTAX PAS Model 6600 among healthy adult Turkish speakers and then examining the effect of age, gender, and age-gender interaction variables on these measures. The contribution of the study is considered so important since it will generate normative data for all measurements-except the mean pitch-by the five protocols of PAS for the first time. Two hundred and six healthy Turkish speakers with normal voice (106 women and 100 men) were included in the study and stratified into three age groups. Forty-five phonatory aerodynamic measures across five PAS protocols (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, variation in sound pressure level, and voicing efficiency) were collected. Age, gender, and age-gender interaction variables were analyzed for 45 PAS parameters. Significant gender and age effect was found for 30 and 19 variables, respectively. Gender-age interaction together was observed for only 6 parameters. Significant differences were not found for the remaining 10 parameters. Significant age and gender effects were observed for 35 phonatory and aerodynamic measures which are essential part of the objective clinical assessment of voice. Consequently, normative data used as reference in voice assessment should be generated according to age and gender differences.


Assuntos
Fonação/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Laringe/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Acústica da Fala , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972115

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of a theatre-based vocal empowerment program on the vocal and language characteristics and the self-perceptions of young bilingual Egyptian women. The program used applied theatre, a dramatic practice that promotes civic action by utilizing improvisational techniques to engage participants in exploring solutions to self-identified community concerns. These techniques supported participants' pursuit of vocal empowerment: the ability to comfortably express their intended content with a clear audible voice, accompanied by the belief that what they had to say was worthwhile. The program was implemented in Alexandria and Aswan, two Egyptian cities in different regions of the country, with distinct socio-economic profiles. Thirty-six young women from Aswan and nineteen from Alexandria participated. The program was facilitated in Arabic, for 90 minutes per day over twelve consecutive days in 2018. Participants in both groups spoke Arabic as a home language and studied English in school settings but differed in their educational experiences and English proficiency. The vocal and language characteristics of each participant were tested in Arabic and English pre- and post- program using a spontaneous speech task and a reading aloud task. Their self-perceptions were evaluated through a vocal self-perception survey. Results indicated that participants responded differently in each city. In Alexandria, participants showed significant improvement in language skills (e.g., mean length of utterance). In contrast, participants in Aswan showed a significant change in fundamental frequency. Overall, the self-surveys indicated that all participants experienced an increased sense of confidence, a stronger belief in self-authorship, and an increased desire to voice their opinions clearly in public; however, there were subtle differences between the groups. In analyzing these results, we conclude that to design effective vocal empowerment outreach programs internationally, it is necessary to consider participants' cultural backgrounds, language diversity, and socio-economic status.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Idioma , Voz/fisiologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Leitura , Autoimagem , Fala/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
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